The President Quezon’s Own Guerrillas or PQOG was one of the large guerrilla organizations that operated in Southern Luzon during the Japanese occupation and into the liberation of Batangas. It had many affiliated outfits in Batangas, many of which filed for official recognition by the United States Army that they were elements of the Philippine Army in the service of the U.S. Armed forces during the liberation. Among these were Companies A, B, C and D of the 38th Regiment, 35th Division, I Corps of the PQOG. In this page is a transcription1 the letter sent by Lt. Col. W. P. Moore of the United States Army informing Aludio Reyes, Commanding Officer of the aforementioned companies, of a non-favorable decision on his request for official recognition.
UNITED STATES ARMY FORCES WESTERN PACIFIC
OFFICE OF THE COMMANDING GENERAL
GSCPU 91 PI
27 AUG 46
Mr. Alodio Reyes
Dear Mr. Reyes:
The “A,” “B,” “C,” and “D” Companies, 38th Regiment, 35th Division, PQOG, purporting to be a guerrilla organization under your nominal control, is not favorably considered for recognition as an element of the Philippine Army.
A set of general requirements for guerrilla recognition, established by General MacArthur during the liberation of the Philippines, has been used as a guide in considering the record of this unit. After careful investigation and full consideration of all substantiating records and testimony of witnesses having pertinent knowledge, recognition of this guerrilla unit is not deemed to be warranted because of reasons mentioned below:
a. The unit was not maintained satisfactorily in the field in opposition to the enemy.
b. Unit did not show satisfactory continuity of activity and organization.
c. Members of the unit did not devote their entire effort to military activities in the field to the exclusion of normal civilian occupation and family obligations.
d. Record of service was not substantiated by sufficient acceptable evidence.
e. The unit had very few weapons and little ammunition in proportion to the number of members.
f. The unit never functioned as a fighting combat unit before or after the arrival of the Americans.
g. The unit followed the “lay-low” policy, and was not effective.
It is requested that you comply with the provisions of Executive Order No. 68, by the President of the Philippines, dated 26 September 1945, copy attached.
W. P. MOORE
Lt. Col., AGD
Ass’t Adj Gen
1 Incl: Ex O #68
Lt. Col. Hugh L. Carnahan:
1. “A,” “B,” “C,” AND “D” Companies, 38th Regt., 35th Div., PQOG, consisting of 591 men under the command of Alodio Reyes, has not been favorably considered for recognition. Approximately two companies of the Division have previously been recognized.
2. Basis for non-recognition:
a. The number of members worthy of recognition has previously been recognized. Approximately two companies of the men of the Division under the command of Esteban Mayo have been recognized.
b. The unit followed the “lay-low” policy, and was not effective. An order was given by Mayo to all his units of the 35th Div., on 2 November 1944, to “lay low” until the arrival of the Americans.
c. Record of service was not substantiated by sufficient acceptable evidence. There were no papers presented concerning the activities of the unit before the arrival of the Americans. The unit claims to have had an attachment paper but it was given to Mayo and it can no longer be found.
d. The unit did not show satisfactory continuity of activity and organization. Members of the unit did not devote their entire effort to military activities in the field to the exclusion of normal civilian occupation and family obligations. During the period from 2 November 1944 until the arrival of the Americans, the unit devoted most of their time to the activities of being “home guards” for the people of Lipa, Batangas.
e. The unit had very few weapons and little ammunition in proportion to the number of members. The unit had 16 rifles, some pistols, and some homemade guns.
f. The unit was not maintained satisfactorily in the field in opposition to the enemy even though the size of the unit increased from 150 men in 1944 to 700 upon the arrival of the liberating forces.
3. Vicente Umali, overall commanding officer of PQOG, was contacted and he stated that the strength of the 38th Regt was approximately two companies. He also said that the activities of the units in Lipa before the arrival of the Americans were very few and that all of the men worthy of recognition were recognized with the two companies that were recognized with Mayo, and that very few men, if any, were left off of this roster.
Lt. Victor Smolen
1. Concurred in by Chief of Investigation Section (Capt. D. C. Murray)
Notes and references:
2. Concurred in by Chief of Branch (Lt. Col. Hugh L. Carnahan)
“Co’s A, B, C, D, 38th
Inf Regt, 35th
Div, I Corps, PQOG,” File No. 271-14, online at the United States National Archives.