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January 2, 2018

Colvo, Bauan, Batangas: Historical Data

Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the barrio of Colvo, Bauan, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.

[p. 1]

HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF COLVO

1. Present official name of this barrio – “Colvo”

2. Popular name of the barrio, present and past, derivation and meanings of this name – “Colvo”

This barrio was named Colvo due to its location. It was derived from the word “Olbo” meaning a place where the inhabitants were well-kept, peaceful, and fairly treated by other people as what had been noticed by those Spaniards who once visited this place.

Names of sitios included within the territorial jurisdiction of the barrio – Ilayang Pook, Look and Colvo Beach. These sitios are thickly populated especially at present, and are contributing much for the success of the barrio.

3. Date of establishment – No record could be traced.

4. Original families – Cannot be traced nowadays because of lack of reliable information. However, few families lived here according to a bit of information during the Spanish regime.

5. List of tenientes from the earliest time to date (from 1897 to date). Tenientes earlier than these dates could not be traced any more.
1.  Mr. Anselmo Magboo 5.  Mr. Lucas Masongsong
2.  Mr. Graciano Bacsa 6.  Mr. Matias Cabral
3.  Mr. Candido Dalawampu 7.  Mr. Leoncio Cabral
4.  Mr. Maximo Bacay 8.  Mr. Nicanor Cabral
6. Story of old barrios or sitios within the jurisdiction that are now depopulated or extinct – None

7. Data on historical sites, structures, buildings, old ruins, etc.

In 1938, the school building in this barrio was established with the required school site which was donated by the barrio people of Magalang-galang and Colvo through the leadership of Mr. Matias Cabral. This school building is situated in the very heart of the barrio of Colvo.

On December 26, 1947, a very destructive typhoon

[p. 2]

named “Jean” totally damaged the Colvo School Building. A pork barrel in the sum of TWO THOUSAND FIVE HUNDRED (₱2500.00) PESOS was released for the reconstruction of the said school building. The sum of ONE HUNDRED (₱100.00) PESOS from the PNC was also released for this school as an aid. Then, in 1949, the barrio lieutenant, Mr. Leoncio H. Cabral, called the cooperation of the barrio people and so hand in hand, the barrio folks together with two hired master carpenters from Anilao, Mr. Antonino Marasigan and Mr. Mauricio Alcayde, sacrificed their efforts until the building was finally reconstructed despite their low wages through the management of one Mr. Leoncio H. Cabral, the civic spirited barrio lieutenant of Colvo that time. In was also in 1949 when he called a meeting of the barrio people of Colvo and Magalang-galang in order to raise funds for the construction of the Home Economics Building and the Industrial Arts Building and for the purchase of a Singer sewing machine and other equipment and tools. He was able to raise enough sum and, hence, the two buildings were constructed although still incomplete. A sewing machine was purchased. H.E. equipment and other tools were also purchased out of the money raised, plus the sum raised by teachers and pupils during three years begging alms during Halloween nights. But only last October 22, 1952 and October 27, 1952 another twin typhoon badly damaged the H. Economics Building, totally damaged the Industrial Arts Building and partly damaged the main building. Then, Mr. Angel B. Alcayde, the head teacher, at once called the attention and cooperation of the barrio people through the barrio lieutenant at present, Mr. Nicanor Cabral. For a period of not more than a week after the typhoon, the main building was partly reconstructed by some helpful parents under the leadership of Mr. N. Cabral. Due to lack of funds, the Industrial Arts Building and the H.E. Building cannot be reconstructed immediately.

8. Important facts, incidents, or events that took place.

a. During the Spanish Occupation

From 1895 to 1896, many people from this place suffered very much from starvation on account of the long dry season. The people raised less food crops and animals. Most of the people depended only on wild root crops and underground crops as cassava, camotes, ubi, tugi, gabi, pakit, etc. Because of such calamity, many people died of starvation during these two years.

In June 1937, a public school was opened in this barrio of Colvo which was first housed in a private house owned by one Mr. Lucas Masongsong located in the very central part of this barrio with Mr. Hilarion Panopio as its first teacher.

[p. 3]

The twin barrios of Colvo and Magalang-galang were proud of having their first graduation exercise last April 1951 which was attended by some prominent town officials, school personnel and parents and children of Colvo and Magalang-galang. Among those worthy to be mentioned as A-1 visitors in this school were Dr. Jose C. Date, our municipal Mayor, and Mr. Padro A. Madlangbayan, our District Supervisor.

Below are names of teachers who taught and others who are still teaching in this school although they are not properly arranged according to the dates of their services they have rendered in this school.

Mr. Hilarion Panopio followed by Mr. Pedro Encarnacion, Mrs. Asuncion Encarnacion, Mr. Angel B. Alcayde, Mr. Restituto Dimayacyac, Mrs. Paula Dimayacyac, Mrs. Fortunata Reyes, Miss Juanita Alvarez, Miss Librada Alvarez, Mr. Lucas Adap, Mr. Camilo Arano, Miss Josefa Buenviaje, Mr. Inocencio Manalo, Mr. Francisco Farol, Miss Gliceria Dimaapi, Mr. Ruperto Cordova, Mr. Isabelo Conti, Mr. Santiago Balitaan, Miss Paz Ilagan, Miss Irenea Matira, Miss Cleope Contreras, Miss Gliceria Escalona, Miss Leonila Agbay, Miss Lucia Marquez, Mr. Alfredo Aguila, Miss Guadalupe Reyes, Mr. Alfonso Buenviaje and Mr. Andres Villanueva.

The last two teachers mentioned above and Miss Lucia C. Marquez are still teaching in Colvo at present (1952-1953) with Mr. Angel B. Alcayde as the head teacher.

C. During and After World War II

From December 12, 1941 to February 10, 1944 of the people of barrio Colvo stayed in their homes with some evacuees from nearby places. They had been doing their usual work, but they were always on the lookout because the Japanese soldiers and guerrillas often came to this place. But when Japanese soldiers came and asked for food, they were given with or without payment. Most of the inhabitants naturally did not have enough food to eat during that time.

In 1897, another great calamity broke out in this locality which was a cholera epidemic that lasted for almost a month. About 35 inhabitants died of the epidemic during this short period.

It was also during the ‘Spanish occupation when male inhabitants from 20 to 25 years old from this barrio were forced to join Filipino armed forces to fight against the Spaniards.

Education in this place was in our native dialect which is Tagalog and elders who were literate were chosen as “Maestro,” or “Maestra” to teach the Cartilla, Tagalog, and [a] little alphabet, etc.

[p. 4]

In 1928, a boy by the name of Leoncio Cabral entered his first grade in Anilao Barrio School in the town of Mabini, province of Batangas. He finished his fourth grade in the same school in 1932 under Mr. Tomas Ramirez who was also the head teacher of the same school that time. His parents did not like anymore that he should continue his studies for they believed their child could already get along with his education although Leoncio was forced to stop studying. He engaged in peddling cloths to Tarlac, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Balayan, Isabela and Tayabas. He was at that time 17 years old. He became a successful merchant and was even able to buy hectares of land in Tiaong, Tayabas. Then, in 1938, he once more entered the public school in Bauan, Batangas. He graduated his intermediate grade in the same school as an honor pupil. He was the first one and the only one who studied in the public school in English among the barrio people of Colvo up to 1928. Despite his meager education, he is very much honored by the barrio people. He succeeded his father as barrio lieutenant. He was even elected as one of the Municipal Councilors of Bauan.

The undersigned considers Mr. Cabral as one of the most civic-spirited individuals of our country at present.

No other children followed the footsteps of Mr. Leoncio Cabral until after a public school was opened in this mountainous barrio in 1937.

[The] Roman Catholic faith was introduced and 99% of the people are Catholics.

b. During the American Occupation to World War II

According to reliable information secured by me, the American soldiers accompanied by some captured Macabebes came here and ordered the inhabitants to go to the town of Bauan for confinement for almost a month. That was in 1901. The Americans aimed to capture some more Filipino rebels hiding in the barrio. The Americans then ordered the Macabebes to burn some suspicious houses and kill those who could not be forced to surrender to them. As a result, [a] few houses were burned but none was killed. But those Macabebes took advantage by taking everything they could find as money, jewelry, clothing, food, etc. for their own benefit. Worst of all was that they punished very much the male inhabitants and did some acts of immorality toward the females in order to satisfy their animal desires.

In 1904, another cholera epidemic broke out which lasted for about two months. It was in August and September. Many people died of cholera in this barrio.

9. a. Destruction of lives, properties, and institutions during wars, especially in 1896-1900 and 1941-1945.

[p. 5]

During this length of time, no destruction of lives and institution could be traced, but with regards to properties, much and valuable amounts were taken by the Macabebes and Japanese soldiers.

b. Measures and accomplishments toward rehabilitation and reconstruction following World War II.

1. Many people worked as laborers in the different outfits with good compensation and good rations.
2. Some men worked as guards in the Ammo Depot and in the OGSD in Batangas.
3. Few of the families here received their corresponding payment for war damages because few filed their claims.
4. Colvo school was opened as soon as possible.
5. The rationing of food, clothing and other important commodities to those who suffered most.
6. Bonus to teachers and other public officials and public servants.
7. Reconstruction of roads, walls and public school buildings.
8. A good road was built leading to the barrio and remotest sitios of Colvo under the leadership of the Municipal Councilor, Mr. Leoncio Cabral.

Prepared by:

ANDRES VILLANUEVA

10. Common traditions, customs, and practices in domestic and social life.

The people of Colvo have many forms of practices in domestic and social life. They observe unique customs and traditions which they still practice at the present time.

BIRTH AND BAPTISM

(1) When a child is born, the father or some relatives of the child will fire a gun as a sign of salvation from the labor pains of the mother.

(2) When a child is to be baptized, the parents prepare a grand or small party as the case may be for the child.

(3) The godparents buy the clothes of the child to be worn at the time of the baptism.

[p. 6]

(4) The godparents and parents of the child call each other comadre and compadre as a sign of intimacy and esteem.



Courtship and Marriage

(1) A young man who wants to marry a woman serves her family for a certain length of time before they are married.

(2) Before marriage, the young man repairs the house.

(3) The young lady to be married should not try on her wedding gown before [the] marriage.

(4) When the wedding day is approaching, the bride and the bridegroom must take care of themselves for accidents are more likely to come.

(5) Throwing grains of rice to the newlyweds means good grace for them.

Death and Burial

(1) A dead person uses a pillow of camias leaves.

(2) They never notice or make remarks on the extraordinary appearance of the dead.

(3) The whole night after a person dies, the people read the “pasiyon,” even if it is not Lenten season.

(4) Anything that is new is not worn when going to the cemetery.

(5) After the dead person in a coffin has been brought down from the house for burial, the windows of the house are closed immediately.

(6) All the relatives of the dead wear black clothing as a sign of mourning.

VISIT

(1) When a woman gives birth to a child, people pay a visit with some sort of remembrance for her.

(2) If someone dies, the people who visit the dead person give some money to the relatives of the dead.

11. Beliefs and interpretations

Plants, trees, animals

(1) When planting bananas, the planter never looks upward.
(2) In planting corn, the planters never look backward.
(3) When dogs howl at night, someone in the neighborhood

[p. 7]

will die or is dying.

(4) When you meet a snake on the way, it means you will have good luck.

(5) When a snake enters the house, it means good luck for the family.

(6) When two families live in a house, each family should not take care [of] a pig of its own, because either one of the two pigs will die.

Moon, stars, eclipses, earthquake, lightning and thunder, clouds, rain, storm.

(1) When a star shines near the moon, someone will elope.
(2) When there is an eclipse expected, mothers take [a] hard time to deliver their children.
(3) When there is an earthquake, people should sit down because it is not good to stumble down by the great shake of the house or ground.
(4) When there is lightning, people cover the mirrors for they reflect light.
(5) Mushrooms will be found somewhere after lightning has occurred.
(6) When birds and fowls are playing and are having a great joy, it will rain.
(7) Clouds going southward means there is an approaching storm.
(8) Strong winds will come when the western skies burn red.
(9) When the leaves of trees turn upside down, there is an approaching storm.

BIRTH AND TWINS

A married woman never eats twin bananas for one might have twin babies.

SICKNESS

(1) People believe in the knowledge of the “quack doctor.”
(2) When they were bitten by a snake, they tread [thread?] the bite with “tawak.”
(3) People believe in “paraya.”

SUPERSTITIONS

(1) Never cut the nails on days that have r’s like “Biyernes,” “Martes” and “Miyerkules.”
(2) They do not comb their hair at night.
(3) They never cook malunggay when a relative dies.
(4) Never sing in front of the fire.
(5) In making stairs of the house, the steps should

[p. 8]

12. Songs, Games and Amusements

(1) Planting Rice
(2) Tinikling
(3) Salokot
(4) Don’t You Go
(5) Pilipinas
(6) Paru-parong Bukid
(7) Leron-Leron Sinta
(8) Christmas Carol
(9) Halloween Songs

Games and Amusements
 1.  Serenades  7.  Fencing
 2.  Parties  8.  Pandango
 3.  Sabalan  9.  Wrestling
 4.  Subli 10. Blackjack
 5.  Kurido 11. Sungka
 6.  Dama 12. Swimming
13. Puzzles and Riddles

(1) Run there, run here
Could not leave the place where it stands. - Cradle

(2) There it is, there it is. You can’t see it. – Wind

(3) The captain took a bath without wetting his stomach. – Boat

(4) My cow’s mooing in Manila can be heard here. – Thunder

(5) There is a trunk but no branches. – Ladle

(6) Open in the afternoon
Rolled up in the morning. – Mat

(7) My pig at Sorsogon will not eat without riding on it. – Coconut grater.

(8) It has four feet, but cannot walk. – Table

(9) Already a fruit, still bears another fruit. – Betel nut

(10) The blessed water cannot be taken except by a child. – Mother’s milk

(11) Which bird cannot perch on a tree? – Quail

(12) One plate is seen throughout the country. – Moon

(13) Tall when sitting down. Small when standing. – Dog

(14) Walking [probably standing] without feet. Crying without eyes. [probably Candle. Word not scanned.]

[p. 9]

(15) When I killed it, life became longer. - - - Candle
(16) Two friends always running after the other. – Two feet
(17) I am [a] coward against one and brave against two. – Bridge
(18) Bones and skin that fly. – Kit
(19) Gold wrapped with silver, silver wrapped with skin. – Eggs
(20) Heart shaped, gold in color. – Mango
(21) I have a slave that follows me always. – Shadow
(22) My elder brother’s house cannot be look up at. – Forehead
(23) Two balls of thread reached the sky. – Two eyes
(24) You carry [it] but it carries you. – Wooden shoes
(25) A grain of rice overcrowds the house. – Lamp
(26) In leaves grow foot, and in fruit grows fruit. – Pineapple
(27) When he is young, he has a tail and when it grows up, it disappears. – Frog

14. Proverbs and Sayings

1. He who does not know how to save money throws money thoughtlessly.
2. A rolling stone gathers no moss.
3. One who plants early, reaps early.
4. Money earned from bubbles disappears like bubbles.
5. What use is the grass when the horse is dead?
6. Don’t be overconfident, storms come even during Lent.
7. No debt will ever remain unpaid.
8. What one usually says is what he feels.
9. He who will not sacrifice will not succeed.
10. Without patient effort, nobody can accomplish work.
11. Though firewood is fresh and wet never near the flame should it be placed. Sooner, it will burn into a big bright fire.
12. You can judge a person who is well-bred by his words and deeds.
13. Spare the rod and you spoil the child.
14. He who looks not from where he starts wouldn’t arrive at the desired spot.
15. Bend the tree while it is young, long afterwards it cannot be done.
16. Wipe off your own blemishes before you point to the mote in the eyes of others.
17. Do not put off till tomorrow what you can do for today.
18. Iron is destroyed by its own rust.
19. A shallow river makes much noise.

15. Methods of measuring time

1. People measure the time through the shadows of trees and roof of houses.
2. Through the crows of the rooster, people can detect the approximate time of the night.

[p. 10]

3. When the patola flowers begin to bloom, it is already late in the afternoon.

Special Calendars

1. From [the] first 24 days of January, the people can tell what month of the year will have much rain.

2. When Christmas day falls on Friday, there will be plenty of mice the following harvest season.

3. When a horse neighs at New Year’s Eve, there is a plentiful harvest for the year.

4. The name of the day of every first of the month is also the day in the fifteenth.

5. The wedding day should always fall on the full moon or when nearly full moon.

16. Other folktales. No more folktales here in Colvo aside from the one stated by Mr. Buenviaje in his report.

Part Three – Other Information

17. Information on books and documents treating of the Philippines and the names of their owners. – None

18. The names of Filipino authors born or residing in the community, the titles and subjects of their works, whether printed or in manuscript form, and the names of persons possessing these. – None

Prepared by:

(MISS) LUCIA C. MARQUEZ

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Notes and references:
Transcribed from “History and Cultural Life of Colvo” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.

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