February 15, 2019

Apolinario Mabini’s Letters to the Philippine Commission Seeking an Armistice Early in the Fil-Am War
Captured Filipino "insurgents" with American soldiers during the Philippine-American War. Image extracted from the public domain book "Souvenir of the 8th Army Corps Philippine Expedition:  a Pictorial History." Colorized courtesy of Algorithmia.
Captured Filipino "insurgents" with American soldiers during the Philippine-American War. Image extracted from the public domain book "Souvenir of the 8th Army Corps Philippine Expedition:  a Pictorial History." Colorized courtesy of Algorithmia.
The December 1898 Treaty of Paris formally ended the Spanish-American War; and as the defeated nation, Spain officially “relinquished all claims of sovereignty” to several of its territories, including the Philippines1. The Philippine government under Emilio Aguinaldo, which had been led to believe that the United States had fought Spain with the intent of assisting the Filipinos attain independence, was not even represented in the negotiations leading to this treaty, although it had sent Don Felipe Agoncillo to try and get representation.

February 13, 2019

Fernando Air Base and the 1989 Coup Attempt vs Cory Aquino’s Government
A T-28 Trojan aircraft at the gate of Fernando Air Base.
A T-28 Trojan aircraft at the gate of Fernando Air Base.
Although Corazon Aquino was swept to power by the hugely popular “People Power Revolution” in 1986, her presidency – which lasted until 1992 – was not without dissent, especially from certain sectors within the armed forces. These sectors ultimately boiled down to two: supporters of the deposed former President Ferdinand E. Marcos and – ironically because they were instrumental in the ascension of Aquino to the Presidency – the Reform the Armed Forces Movement (RAM)1.

February 7, 2019

The Legend of the Gabi (Taro) as Told in Malvar Batangas
Image source: Thierry Caro assumed (based on copyright claims).  No machine-readable source provided. Own work assumed (based on copyright claims)., CC BY-SA 2.5, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=353479.
Image source: Thierry Caro assumed (based on copyright claims).  No machine-readable source provided. Own work assumed (based on copyright claims)., CC BY-SA 2.5, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=353479.
From the 1950s document “History and Cultural Life of the People of Malvar, Batangas1,” we get this obscure little legend about the origin of the gabi, or taro as it is called in English, a crop known for its edible starchy root and edible leaves. It also goes by the scientific name colocasia esculenta2.

January 29, 2019

A Folkloric Tale of a Marian Apparition that Led to the Building of the Lipa Cathedral
The Lipa Cathedral right after World War II.  Image source:  United States National Archives.  Colorized courtesy of Algorithmia.
The Lipa Cathedral right after World War II.  Image source:  United States National Archives.  Colorized courtesy of Algorithmia.
From an ethnographic paper1 written by one Amparo Reyes, presumably from the then-town of Lipa in Batangas, we get this folkloric story about why the church in the town was built. The paper is part of a collection of similar papers archived at the National Library of the Philippines, amassed by the American anthropologist Henry Otley-Beyer, who was the sole Anthropology professor at the University of the Philippines early during the American colonial era2.

January 25, 2019

Concluding Part:  US Military Operations in Batangas from 1901-02 during the Fil-American War
Filipino revolutionaries in |formation.  Image extracted from the book "History and Description of Picturesque Philippines.  Colorized courtesy of Algorithmia.
Filipino revolutionaries in |formation.  Image extracted from the book "History and Description of Picturesque Philippines.  Colorized courtesy of Algorithmia.
This article concludes the series we have been running on Batangas History regarding how the United States Army and Volunteers operated in the province during the Philippine-American War. The details are taken from a 1902 annual report of the United States War Department1. All the previous installments are archived at the Fil-American War section of the main menu at the top of this page.

Nasugbu in World War II:  A Historical Narrative
Filipino guerrillas in Nasugbu, February 1945.  Image source:  United States National Archives.
Filipino guerrillas in Nasugbu, February 1945.  Image source:  United States National Archives.
From the 1953 document entitled “Historical Data of the Municipality of Nasugbu1,” Batangas History presents this historical narrative on the town’s experiences during World War II. The narrative was well-written and will be provided in its entirety below, albeit some paragraphs have been broken up by Batangas History for the reader’s convenience, minor grammatical corrections made and annotations provided in brackets [ x ] to help the reader better understand the story.

January 20, 2019

The Inauguration of the Caltex Oil Refinery in Bauan, Batangas by President Ramon Magsaysay in 1954
Photo of the Caltex Refinery in San Pascual/Bauan.  Image source:  Caltex.com.
[In this article: Caltex refinery, Chevron Philippines, Batangas Province, Bauan Batangas, San Pascual Batangas, President Ramon Magsaysay, Speaker Jose B. Laurel Jr., Governor Feliciano Leviste, Congressman Apolinario Apacible, Malacañang, Bishop Alejandro Olalia]
On 6 December 1954, then-President Ramon Magsaysay, who had overwhelmingly won the presidential elections over incumbent Elpidio Quirino the previous year, sat down for a breakfast meeting – presumably at Malacañang Palace – with executives of Caltex Philippines1. These were W. S. Bramstedt, the company’s visiting President; J. P. Roxas, Manager of the Sales Promotion; and C. Roesholm, President of the company’s Philippine Branch.

January 19, 2019

The Magic Book of a 19th Century Jesuit Priest in Alitagtag, Batangas
Image source:  The Children's Book Review.
[In this article: Batangas Province, Bauan Batangas, historical data, Batangas history and folklore, Alitagtag Batangas, magic book, Jesuit convent, Jesuit missionaries]
From the “Historical Data of the Municipality of Bauan1,” we get this short story about how a supposed magic book kept by a Jesuit priest in 19th century Alitagtag, then still a barrio of Bauan. These so-called “historical data” were compilations of local histories required by the administration of then-President Elpidio Quirino in 1951 of all Department of Education districts around the country to compensate for the loss of documents due to the Second World War.

January 18, 2019

A Chronology of US Army Aerial Attacks on Batangas in 1945
Actual P-38 Lightning attack on Japanese positions in Batangas in WWII.  Image source:  United States National Archives.  Colorized courtesy of Algorithmia.
Actual P-38 Lightning attack on Japanese positions in Batangas in WWII.  Image source:  United States National Archives.  Colorized courtesy of Algorithmia.
[In this article: Batangas Province, United States Army Air Force, Far East Air Force, Batangas Airfield, Lipa Airfield, Calingatan Airfield, P-38 aircraft, A-20 aircraft, B-24 aircraft, B-25 aircraft, P-47 aircraft]
The United States’ Army’s liberation of Batangas began in earnest with the landing of forces on the shores of Nasugbu on the 31st of January 1931, although the initial objective of the landing was to block off the retreat of Japanese forces south to escape the advance from the north of the US 6th Army.

January 17, 2019

The Immediate Economic Benefits of Batangas Train Service in 1910

Image credit:  Batangas Railways.  Posted by user Pinai on the Indonesia v the Philippines discussion board on www.city-data.com.
Image credit:  Batangas Railways.  Posted by user Pinai on the Indonesia v the Philippines discussion board on www.city-data.com.
[In this article: Batangas Province, Lipa Batangas, Batangas City Batangas, Manila Railroad Company, Calamba to Laguna line, Luta to Lucena line, Batangas orange capital of the Philippines, dalandan, dalanghita, sinturis, Philippine Commission, William Cameron Forbes]
In the year 1902, the United States Senate wanted to know the state of Philippine Railroads from Elihu Root, then Secretary of War. Root’s short reply said that it was practically non-existent1. The previous Spanish colonial government had not taken the opportunity to build better modes of transportation when it could, railroads having been built in the West since the 19th century.

January 15, 2019

Mataasnakahoy:  the Celso Landicho Mayoralty
Poblacion Mataasnakahaoy.
Poblacion Mataasnakahaoy.
[In this article: Batangas Province, Mataasnakahoy Batangas, History of Mataasnakahoy, Ceferino Capuchino, Isagani Laluna, Mayor Celso Landicho, Nangkaan, Lally Laurel Trinidad, Jose B. Laurel]
This installment continues the ongoing series on Batangas History based on the 1998 narrative written by Ceferino Capuchino1. Readers who might have missed the six previous installments may find these archived under the Community History section of the main menu at the top of this page.

Part VII: US Military Operations in Batangas from 1901-02 during the Fil-American War
Image source:  the Greely Collection, United States National Archives.
Image source:  the Greely Collection, United States National Archives.
[In this article: Batangas Province, Philippine American War, United States Army in the Philippines, Lipa City Batangas, Lobo Batangas, Mount Gonzales, Mount Matado, Mount Sungay, San Juan de Bocboc, San Juan Batangas, Batangas City Batangas]
This is the seventh installment of the series in Batangas History that outlines the military operations during the Philippine-American War, particularly from the American point of view. This is because the source document1 was the Annual Report of the United States War Department.