January 3, 2018

Nasugbu (Poblacion), Batangas: Historical Data

Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the Municipality of Nasugbu, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.

[Cover page.]



HISTORICAL DATA

OF THE

MUNICIPALITY OF NASUGBU








NASUGBU ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

NASUGBU, BATANGAS


[Cover page 2.]

-o0o- H I S T O R I C A L D A T A –o0o-



OF THE



MUNICIPALITY OF



-o0- N A S U G B U -0o-








NASUGBU ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

NASUGBU, BATANGAS

[Cover page 3.]















: * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * :
:              NASUGBU ELEM. SCHOOL              :
:                            1952 – 1953                             :
: * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * :














[Foreword.]

-o0o- FOREWORD -o0o-

Events which were brought about by the recent war have made it necessary to reconstruct data and record new information relative to this municipality. In compliance with Memorandum No. 34, s. 1952, we take pleasure in presenting this little book.

The materials included herein have been carefully gathered by all teachers of this municipality who worked hand-in-hand to make the writing of this book possible. We have tried to place emphasis on substance over form and content over literary wordiness. The subject matter covered and the information given therein are sufficiently extensive, fully adequate to impart to the readers a comprehensive knowledge of Nasugbu. This book will feed the children and adults with information not to be found elsewhere.

Thanks are due to the government agencies that have cooperated with us by supplying information and checking data. Acknowledgments are equally due to the public spirited citizens who have patiently and helpfully answered to the request for information.

Acknowledgments are also due to the following teachers:

1. To Mrs. Cresencia L. Bautista, a teacher-adviser of Purok No. 4, who gathered information about Bucana, a barrio without a school.

2. To Mr. Gerardo Tolentino, Principal of Lumbañgan Elem. School, who submitted the report for Lumbañgan and its sitios in its final form.

3. To all the teachers of the municipality who cooperatively worked to gather all the desired information.

[Foreword 2.]

4. To Mr. Modesto S. Alix, Miss Apolonia Villafranca, and Miss Rufina de Guzman, who gathered the data for the poblacion and who edited all the reports.

5. To Miss Santa Garcia, who painstakingly checked, arranged, and typed all the materials. Grateful acknowledgment is due her for she labored with the greatest devotion to bring this book to completion.

6. To Mr. Francisco R. Perez, District Supervisor of Nasugbu and Tuy, for laying out the general plan of work and for valuable suggestions.

I reiterate, we take pride in presenting this book – a product of an ambitious attempt of the teachers of this locality – a book wherein the traditions and culture of the people of Nasugbu are recorded for posterity.

APRONIANO BOONGALING
CHAIRMAN

[Credits.]

H I S T O R I C A L D A T A O F T H E

M U N I C I P A L I T Y O F

N A S U G B U

Prepared by the Teaching Force

of the

Municipality

Committee In Charge:
1. Mr. Aproniano Boongaling, Chairman
2. Mr. Modesto S. Alix, Member
3. Miss Apolonia Villafranca, Member
4. Miss Rufina de Guzman, Member
5. Miss Santa Garcia, Member
6. Mr. Canuto Ruedas, Member

Sub Committees:

1. Bucana
Mrs. Cresencia L. Bautista

2. Banilad
Mr. Francisco Urrutia
Mrs. Paula C. Urrutia

3. Bilaran
Miss Benita Crisostomo

4. Bunducan
Mrs. Maria S. Lloria

5. Calayo
Mrs. Anita M. Barcelon

6. Catandaan
Miss Evangelina Aguado

7. Dayap
Miss Angelina Samaniego

8. Looc
Mr. Balbino Ruedas
Mrs. Mercedes O. Ilog

9. Latag
Miss Emerenciana Salanio

[Credits 2.]

Subcommittee Cont’d

10. Lumbangan
Mr. Gerardo Tolentino, Chairman
Members
Mr. Nicolas Oriendo Miss Josefa Bayaborda
Miss Osmunda Villaluna Miss Sofronia Cueto
Mrs. Juliana V. Venson Ms. Ma. Soledad Roxas
Miss Felicitas S. Oliva Miss Miguela S. Andine
Miss Purificacion Vasquez Miss Soccorro Samaniego

11. Maugat
Mr. Felipe Barcelon

12. Malapad na Bato
Miss Constancia Dacillo

13. Munting Indang
Mr. Casimiro Oriendo, Chairman
Members
Mr. Peio Hernandez Miss Lourdes Santos
Miss Lilia Villacrusis Miss Amelita Santos

14. Pantalan
Mr. Ramon Alvarez Miss Virginia Rustia

15. Reparo
Miss Marcelina de las Alas

16. Tumalim
Miss Celerina Castillo

17. Utod
Miss Victoria Destreza

18. Wawa
Mr. Brigido Ulalim, Chairman
Miss Virginia Barcelon, Member
Miss Virginia Enriquez, Member
Miss Marcelina Villacrusis, Member
Mrs. Anisia F. Gomez, Member
Mrs. Primitiva C. Adre, Member
Miss Nazaria Samaniego, Member
Mr. Vivencio Sapice, Member
Miss Soledad Salanguit, Balaytigue School
Miss Geneveva Villacrusis, Natipuan School

19. Bulihan
Mr. Loreto Rojales

[Table of contents.]

Table of Contents
Topics Pages
    I.  Poblacion  
        A.  History and Cultural Life of the Poblacion – Part I – History 1
             a.  Present Name of the Town 1
             b.  Former Name 1-2
             c.  Derivation 1-2
             d.  Date of Establishment 3
             e.  Names and Social Statuses of Founders 3
             f.  Original Families 3
             g.  Names of Persons who Held Leading Official Positions in the Community 3-6
             h.  Important Facts, Incidents or Events that Took Place 7-12
             i.  World War II 13-15
             j.  After World War II (Liberation) 16-19
             k.  Destruction of Lives, Properties and Institutions 1896-1900 20
        B.  Part II – Folkways
             a.  Traditions, Customs and Practices in Domestic and Social Life; Birth, Baptism, Courtship, etc. 21-28
             b.  Popular Songs, Games and Amusements 29-32
             c.  Proverbs and Sayings 33-34
             d.  Resource Persons 35
  II.  Barrios
        1.  History and Cultural Life of Banilad 36
             a.  Important Facts, Incidents or Events that Took Place 36-37
             b.  Folkways 37-39
             c.  Tagalog Proverbs 39-40
             d.  Methods of Measuring Time 40
         2.  Bilaran
             a.  History 41
             b.  Stories of Sitios 41-42
             c.  Important Facts and Incidents that Took Place 42
             d.  Destruction of Lives and Properties – 1896-1900 42
             e.  Superstitions and Proverbs 42-43
         3.  Bucana
             a.  History 45
             b.  Stories of Sitios 44-45
             c.  Important Facts and Incidents that Took Place 45-54
             d.  Proverbs and Sayings 54-56
[Table of contents 2.]
Topics Pages
        4.  Bunducan
             a. History 57
             b.  Stories of Sitios 57-58
             c.  Data on Historical Sites, Structures, Buildings, Old Ruins, etc. 61-62
             d.  Folkways 62-66
             e.  Tagalog Proverbs 67-68
             f.  Ways of Telling Time 68
             g.  Special Calendars 69
        5.  Bulihan
             a.  History and Cultural Life 70
             b.  Stories of Sitios 70-71
             c.  Proverbs and Sayings 72
             d.  Superstitious Beliefs 72-76
             e.  Ways of Telling Time 76
             f.  Popular Songs and Games 76
        6.  Calayo
             a.  History 77-78
             b.  Important Facts, Incidents or Events that Took Place 78
             c.  Folkways 78-80
             d.  Riddles 80
             e.  Proverbs and Sayings 81-83b
             f.  Special Calendars 83b
        7.  Catandaan
             a.  History and Cultural Life 83d-83e
             b.  Customs and Traditions 83f-83g
             c.  Proverbs and Sayings 83g-83h
        8.  Caylaway
             a.  History and Cultural Life 84-87
             b.  Folkways 87-88
        9.  Dayap
             a.  History 89-91
             b.  Legend of Manggahan 91-92
             c.  Folkways 92-94
             d.  Tagalog Proverbs 94
        10. Latag
             a.  History and Cultural Life 95-95a
             b.  Folkways 95-97
             c.  Riddles 97-97b
             d.  Ways of Telling Time 97-b
             e.  Tagalog Proverbs 98
        11.  Looc
             a.  History and Cultural Life 99
             b.  Stories of Sitios 100-101
             c.  Customs and Traditions 101-103
             d.  Popular Songs and Games 103
             e.  Ways of Telling Time 103
             f.  Riddles 103
        12.  Lumbañgan
             a.  History and Cultural Life 106-108
             b.  Important Facts, Incidents or Events that Took Place 108-115
[Table of contents 3]
Topics Pages
             c.  The Central Azucarera Don Pedro 116-125
             d.  Folkways 126-130
             e.  Popular Songs, Games and Amusements 130
             f.  Puzzles and Riddles 130-131
             g.  English Proverbs 131-132
             h.  Tagalog Proverbs 132-134
             i.  Other Folktales 134-135
             j.  Other Information 136
        13.  Malapad na Bato
             a. History and Cultural Life 137-138
             b.  Folkways 138-139
             c.  Riddles 140
             d.  Superstitious Beliefs 140
        14.  Maugat
             a.  History 141-143
             b.  Traditions and Customs 143-145
             c.  Folktales 145-147
             d.  Tagalog Proverbs 147-148
             e.  Riddles 149-150
        15.  Munting Indang
             a.  History 151-155
             b.  Important Events, Facts, that Took Place 155-157
             c.  Customs and Traditions 157-161
             d.  Folktales 161-163
             e.  Ways of Telling Time (Tagalog) 163
             f.  Riddles 164-165
             g.  Mga Kawikan 166
             h.  Proverbs and Sayings 166-167
             i.  Tagalog Proverbs 168
             j.  Popular Songs 159-171
        16.  Pantalan
             a.  History 172-174
             b.  Folkways 174-177
             c.  Riddles 177-178
             d.  Tagalog Proverbs 178-179
        17.  Reparo
             a.  History and Cultural Life 180-182
             b.  Important Facts, Incidents that took Place 182-183
             c.  Folkways 183-189
             d.  Punishments 190
             e.  Origin of Songs 190
             f.  Beliefs and Superstitions 190-194
             g.  Puzzles and Riddles 194-196
        18.  Tumalim
             a.  History and Cultural Life 197-200
             b.  Important Facts, Incidents or Events that Took Place 200-201
             c.  Customs and Traditions 201-205
             d.  Popular Songs 205-207
[Table of contents 4.]
Topics Pages
             d.  Puzzles and Riddles 208-209
             e.  Proverbs and Sayings 210-211
             f.  Ways of Telling Time 211-212
        19.  Utod
             a.  History 213-215
             b.  Stories of Sitios 216-219
             c.  Folkways 219-222
             d.  Popular Songs 222
             e.  Riddles 222-223
             f.  Proverbs and Sayings 224
             g.  Methods of Measuring Time 224
             h.  Linear Measurements 224-225
        20.  Wawa
             a.  History and Cultural Life 226-227
             b.  Important Facts, Incidents or Events that Took Place 227-228
             c.  Folkways, Customs and Traditions 228-233
             d.  Popular Songs 234-235
             e.  Proverbs and Sayings 235-237
[p. 1]

[Page 1 is missing.]

[p. 2]

The Spanish conquistadores spotted him [and] watched him carefully. When they looked around, there was no other person in sight so one of the white man asked this brown man what this place was in his own language which was “all Greek” to the latter. This native seemed to be so engrossed in what he was doing and without hesitation, he answered, “Nasugbu po sa tubig.” He showed no signs that he was alarmed by the presence of the foreigners so he resumed his activity with the idea in mind that he gave a very satisfactory reply. The Spanish conquistadores presumed that the response given was just right so they repeated the word – “Nasugbu” – and thereafter, this very progressive town was called “Nasugbu.”

- - - - -

There is, however, another legend which is very popular among the masses. This has been transmitted verbally from generation to generation because no money script had been written about it ever since.

During the early times, when the Spaniards first came to this place, there were but a few houses that could be found in the heart of the town, so much so in the suburbs. They did not know what town this was and no wonder their first concern was to find out the name of this place.

While while they were strolling, they came to a hut. There, they found an old woman who was cooking rice. One of the Spaniards pondered and asked her the name of this place in Spanish. The old woman could not understand him. However, she showed them but she was meticulous by trying and the best way she could what they wanted to know. They made signs to hurt and she interpreted their query in this way – they were asking what she was doing.

It so happened that the rice was boiling. The old woman called to her daughter and ask her to see the rice, saying, “nasubo, nasubo,” so she could attend to the white men. The Spaniards thought that what the woman had uttered was the response to their question. Since then, this place was called “Nasugbu.”

[p. 3]

Date of Establishment

There are two dates of establishment as the former site of the old town was moved to its present place. The old town was established during pre-Spanish times.

The new town was moved to its present site due to healthful and sentimental reasons. The former town was located at a very low place which was always flooded during [the] rainy season that they had to ride in bancas in going to market or elsewhere. Another thing was that the people's houses were burned and they would not return to their former place due to the many people who were killed by the Spaniards. The new site of the town was then established in 1899.

Names and Social Statuses of the Founders

The first owner of Nasugbu was the Isaac family. They sold the land to Don Pascual Jugo for ₱20,000. After a few years, Don Pascual Jugo sold the land to Don Pedro Roxas for ₱60,000.



Original Families of this Town
 1.  Ruffy  9.  Orberanes
 2.  Ureta 10. Tiangco
 3.  Salanguit 11. Samaniego
 4.  Jugo 12. Urge
 5.  Isaac 13. Bercelen
 6.  Villadolid 14. Oriondo
 7.  Villaviray 15. Alix
 8.  Villafranca 16. Villaneria
17. Bayani
Names of Persons who Held
Official Positions in the Community

The dates of their tenure could not be ascertained, but the following list was made according to their order of succession –

Capitan Municipal (Spanish Time)
 1.  Justo Ruffy  7.  Dionisio Salanguit
 2.  Bernardo Ruffy  8.  Mariano Oberanes
 3.  Cayetano Ruffy  9.  Tereso Barcelon
 4.  Timoteo Samaniego 10. Benedicto Salanguit
 5.  Pedro Ruffy 11. Mariano Oriende
 6.  Francisco Ureta 12. Marcelo Tiangco
[p. 4]
13. Isaac Ureta 18. Teodoro Villafania
14. Mariano Villadolid 19. Segundo Sobreviñas
15. Ignacio Villadolid 20. Juan Bautista
16. Marianito Isaac 21. Agripino Barcelon
17. Francisco Villadelrey 22. Florencio Oliva Sr.
Cabezas de Barangay
 1.  Narciso Urge  9.  Cayetano Bayani
 2.  Francisco Urge 10. Olivo Bayani
 3.  Pedro Salanguit 11. Damaso Villadolid
 4.  Gil Villaviray 12. Modesto Villadolid
 5.  Aurelio Villanaria 13. Ciriaco Barcelon
 6.  Paulino Samaniego 14. Felix Barcelon
 7.  Tomas Villadelrey 15. Teodoro Banawa
 8.  Mariano Saraza 16. Manuel Barcelon
Teniente Mayor Maestro Municipal
 1.  Catalino Villadolid  1.  Santiago Cargado
 2.  Rufino Villaviray  2.  Marianito Alix
 3.  Moises Ureta  3.  Maestra Crispina
 4.  Martin Samson
Jepe de Sumaton* [?]
1. Felix Barcelon
2. Simplicio Samaniego

Jues de Cenitua* [?]
1. Ramon Villaviray

(A person in charge of all the barrios and construction of roads.)

Jues de Granados

1. Catalino Riñoza

(A persons in charge of [the] registration of animals.)

Jues de Policia

1. Rufino Villaviray

Cura Paroco (Old Church)
 1.  Padre Masangkay  5.  Padre Policarpio Villafranca
 2.  Padre Melicio Zalvedea  6.  Padre Aniceto Salazar
 3.  Padre Marcelo Villafranca  7.  Padre Mariano
 4.  Padre Cenon Villafranca  8.  Padre Cecilio Punzalan
  9.  Padre Leocadio Dimanlig – He was the parish priest when the old church was burned in 1896.  He founded a new church in the new town.
[* word unsure, blurred.]
[p. 5]

CURA PARROCO (NEW CHURCH)

1. Rev. Mariano Ilagan – 1901-1903
2. Rev. Apolonio Bihis – 1903-1904
3. Rev. Casimiro Ilagan – 1904-1941
4. Rev. Rafael Macatañgay – 1942 to date

American Military Government

1. Major Langhorne

Adjutants:

1. Lt. Ben
2. Lt. Endicarr
3. Lt. Courtney
4. Lt. Cooke
Municipal Mayors and Vice-Mayors
Mayor Vice-Mayor
1901-103
Mariano San Agustin Juan Salanguit
1904-1905
Damaso Villadolid Domingo Ruffy
1906
Mariano San Agustin (resigned) Catalino Villadolid
1906-1907
Catalino Villadolid Panfilo Jugo
1907-1908
Panfilo Jugo Petronilo Ureta
1909-1910
Petronilo Ureta Santiago Villajin
1911-1912
Aurelio Oriendo Narciso Lejano
1913-1916
Petronilo Ureta Santiago Villajin
1917-1919
Pedro Esteva Mariano Martinez
1920-1922
Florencio E. Oliva Victoriano Salanguit
1922-1928
Crisanto Villaviray
1st Term – Mariano Martinez
2nd Term – Jacinto Salanguit
1928-1934
Pedro Samaniego 1st Term – Sisenando Enriquez
2nd Term – Jacinto Salanguit
1934-1940
[p. 6]
Mayor Vice-Mayor
1934-1940
Ciriaco Alvarez
1st Term – Dr. Aniano Mauricio
2nd Term – Dr. Isaias Dumatol
1941-1945
Florencio Oliva Leon Lagos
Feb. - March 1945
Major Basilio Fernando – appointed Military Mayor.
March  - April 145
Atty. Jose Villadolid – appointed Civil Mayor
1945-1946
Mr. Leon Lagos – Appointed Mayor
1946

Mr. Crisanto Villaviray – Appointed
Mr. Jose Cuenca – Appointed
1946-1947
Mr. Juan Salanguit – Appointed
1948-1951
Atty. Gregorio Pañganiban Mr. Jose Advincula
1952 (Incumbent)
Mr. Policarpio Cabalag Mr. Moises Rojales
MUNICIPAL TREASURERS
 1.  Mariano Alix Jr. 1901-1902
 2.  Francisco Alix Sr. 1902-1946
(Note:  Excluding the Japanese Occupation.  He [Alix Sr.] did not accept the position.
 3.  Emilio Limjoco Japanese Occupation
 4.  Victoriano Eusebio
Appointed Acting Mun.  Treas.
Vice – Francisco Alix
 5.  Vicente Villacrusis
Incumbent
JUDGES OF THE PEACE
 1.  Juan Mendoza  7.  Lorenzo Brotonel
 2.  Simon Samaniego  8.  Dominador Rodriguez
 3.  Lucas Advincula  9.  Jose D. Castllo
 4.  Marcelo Ermita 10. Aponilario Apacible
 5.  Salvador Araullo 11. Martin Biscocho
 6.  Vicente Oliva Sr. 12. Rodolfo Castillo (incumbent)
CHIEFS OF POLICE
 1.  Dionisio Flores  5.  Eduardo Alvarez
 2.  Lucas Advincula  6.  Leon Villafranca
 3.  Santiago Simuangco  7.  Diego Dimayuga
 4.  Pedro Alarma  8.  Petronilo Sapico
[p. 7]

Important Facts, Incidents or Events that Took Place

A. Spanish Regime

Nasugbu is believed to have been in existence long before the arrival of the Spaniards in the Philippines. At the time of the Spanish arrival, Nasugbu was already one of the large centers of population in Batangas. This progressive town was situated in a place now called “Lumang Bayan.” At that time, vert wear for main streets with about 500 houses and a population of more than a thousand. The Spaniards built a big stone church for the people in line with their desire to spread Christianity. They also established school and hired teachers to educate the children. There was also a public market built opposite the school. In some respects, the spanish rule improved the economic, cultural and spiritual life of the people, but it also created hardships due to excessive tributes and [the] enforcement of hard labor. The people of Nasugbu, as in other places in the Philippines, protested against yet and clamored for reforms without success.

In 1896, when the revolution broke out, Nasugbu was one of the towns that rose in rebellion against that the radical rule of the Spaniards. Oh and trained and poorly equipped, the young men of the town, under General Pedro Ruffy [page torn] the Spaniards in an attempt two control the [page torn] The “Insurrectos” put up a great fight but they were defeated by the much superior forces of the Spanish soldiers. They retreated and reorganized in the barrio of Bunducan under General Eleuterio Marasigan and Colonel Francisco Marasigan. An encounter to place here and again the filipinos where defeated and were forced to retreat. In the meantime, the civilian population had evacuated to the different barrios of Nasugbu.

Due attack on the town, the Spaniards, in a sudden rage of anger, burned the whole town. Those who were not able to evacuate, numbering about 500 men, women and children, were][page torn] into the church and there in where shot and [page torn] This yes the most tragic and unforgettable event in Nasugbu's history. [Rest of page torn.]

[pp. 8-12 missing.]

[p. 13]

WORLD WAR II

On December 8, 1941, the news of war spread like wildfire in Nasugbu. All classes in the high school and elementary grades were closed and the people prepared to evacuate the barrios. The next day, soldiers of the 42nd Regiment, 41st Division, Philippine Army under General Lim arrived. They established their headquarters in the ruins of the old church in “Lumang Bayan.” Elements of the 45th Phil. Scouts in Fort Stotsenburg also arrived and established their headquarters in the town plaza. The Phil. Scouts recruited some able-bodied men in the town. Two of them were Primitivo Sobreviñas and Oyen Cudiamat. Every day, Japanese Zero fighters and bombers passed but made no bombing on the town. At night, total blackout was enforced with members of the Bolo Battalion patrolling the town. At this time, the Japanese retailer, Yamaoka, the Izumite family and Japanese sympathizers were already rounded up and detained. No untoward incident happened except the looting of the Japanese store.

Christmas of 1941 came and the soldiers were preparing for a midnight mass in the old church when the order to retreat to Bataan came. All the soldiers of the 41st Infantry Division and the Phil. Scouts left that Christmas Eve hurriedly. When the soldiers had left, more people evacuated to the barrios. Meanwhile, Manila residents who were employees of the Roxas y Cia evacuated to this town. Houses of nipa and bamboo were constructed in the hacienda compound.

New Year, 1942, was ushered in uneventfully here in Nasugbu except for the news that the Japanese had landed in different places and would eventually come. On the first week of January, 1942, the Japanese came. At first, it was only a platoon who also left, but after a week, a horde of Japanese soldiers arrived. The school and the municipal building were made into garrisons and general headquarters. They also established their own government with Mr. Florencio Oliva as Mayor, Mr. Felipe Oliva as Secretary, and Mr. Emilio Limjoco as Treasurer, the incumbent Treasurer, Mr. Francisco Alix Sr., having refused to serve the Japanese government. For almost two months, Nasugbu was used as a stepping stone of the Japanese soldiers in their attack on Corregidor and Bataan. Later on, they moved to Lumbañgan, a barrio of Nasugbu, where they stayed until liberation.

[p. 14]

At the beginning of the Japanese rule, neighborhood organizations were organized. The people of the poblacion were censused with a leader in every block. The people never suffered acute shortage of food as the rice harvest of Nasugbu was enough for all the people. Rations of rice, soup, lard, cigarettes, matches and other commodities were given. Locally-made cigarettes flooded the market. To remedy [the] hoarding of rice, the BIBA (Bigasang Bayan) was organized with Atty. Pedro Gallardo as manager. A group of Japanese agriculturists also arrived and converted the sugarcane fields into cotton fields. Hundreds of people, men and women, were employed in the cotton fields.

After the surrender of Bataan on April 9, 1942, guerrilla organizations were secretly organized. The first to start such [a] movement was Sisenando (Dado) Destreza, a local and youthful man. His organization was a unit of an organization in Cavite. Some of his men were Teodulo Botones, Miguel Cochingco, and Lucas Rodriguez. This organization did a remarkable job of liquidating spies and Japanese sympathizers up to 1943. However, the organizers met a tragic death due to intramural fights among other guerrilla organizations. One night, they were all murdered except Teodulo Botones and Mike Cochingco, who were able to escape. The persons responsible for these murders are still alive and should not, therefore, be mentioned. Other guerrillas organized themselves like the Fil-American Irregular, their founder was Gasilao on December 2, 1942; and the ROTC under Col. Terry Magtanggol, with its headquarters in Kutad, Looc. These organizations did remarkable jobs, too. They were able to harbor escaped American soldiers and sent valuable information by radio to Australia. The ROTC unit here often had to rendezvous with U.S. submarines in Kutad Cave, a place not far from the poblacion. They were given guns, ammunition, food, and cigarettes marked “I Shall Return.”

Due to information sent by these organizations, the poblacion was spared during the landing of the American forces. Another guerrilla organization worthy of mention was the Golden Regiment organized in Sept. 1944 by Col. Eduardo Alabastro, the overall commander of Southern Luzon. The local organization was under Eduardo Villadolid, an Ex-USAFFE officer. The Blue Eagle

[p. 15]

counted with a large number of members with most of the prominent citizens holding key positions. All of these guerrilla organizations were under Lt. Col. J. D. Vanderpool, the guerrilla coordinator.

Sometime in 1944, two Japanese Zero fighters made a forced landing at the beach. They were hurriedly repaired but were spotted by U.S. forces. These Zero fighters were strafed and totally destroyed. During this time, the Japanese were becoming fierce. People suspected of being anti-Japanese were apprehended and beaten up in their garrison in Lumbañgan.

At about the second week of January, 1945, the people woke up one early morning surrounded by Japanese soldiers. All the people found in houses and streets were herded to the plaza. They were hogtied, loaded in trucks and taken to their garrison for questioning. Some of them were unfortunate as they were found red-handed with evidence of guerrilla activities. After a thorough questioning and beating, many were released but eight of them were retained, highly suspected of active guerrilla activities. These eight were sentenced to die.

On January 16, 1945, they were taken by the Kempetai to their mountain headquarters in Aga, a barrio of Nasugbu 25 kilometers away from the poblacion. They were Jose Rustia, a surveyor by profession and father of six girls; Felipe Oliva, the municipal secretary, nephew of the mayor; Fidel Vargas, ex-USAFFE; Antonio Alix, son of the chief sacristan of the local parish church and father of many small children; Antonio Zabarte, son of an administrator of one of the haciendas of Nasugbu; Marcelo Sobreviñas, a student; Gelacio Cupo and Roming, nephew of Jose Rustia. It was late in the evening when they were taken to the coconut groves and were made to dig their own graves. All of them except Roming, who was able to escape miraculously to tell the tale, were brutally murdered by the vicious and cruel Kempetai.

On January 31, 1945, the 11th Airborne Division under General Swing landed in Nasugbu. The American forces landed without any resistance from the Japanese. Nasugbu became the evacuation center of thousands of people from neighboring towns. Mayor Oliva was arrested for having collaborated with the enemy, and a Military Mayor, Maj. Basilio Fernando, was appointed.

[p. 16]

This page is either missing from the original document or the document was erroneously paginated.

[p. 17]

AFTER WORLD WAR II

For three solid years and a month, the people lived in terror and in want. After the hectic days under Japanese rule, the people once more enjoyed life in a democracy. The people were better clothed and fed and at last they again lived decently and could sleep without entertaining the fear of death during the night because during the Japanese occupation, death lurked in every corner.

This place became the seat of the provincial government. Colonel Fortunato Borbon was appointed military provincial governor with the youthful Atty. Lino Inciong of Tuy as his Secretary.

A certain Major Basilio Fernando was then appointed as the military town mayor. He served from February to March, 1945. Mr. Francisco Alix Sr. sought reinstatement as the municipal treasurer. He did not serve the Japanese regime.

On March 8, 1945, schools were opened. The effect of the war on the lives of the people and the buy and sell business gave problems to school officials. There were not enough professionally trained teachers who could be employed. Some of the teachers who were teaching here during the pre-war [period] had gone home to their respective places. So, high school graduates were taken in to teach.

There were not enough classrooms. Classes had to be conducted in the home of the civic-spirited citizens. These temporary classrooms were had free.

Another problem was the [lack of] textbooks and school equipment like hyloplates [?], desks, tables and chairs. Teachers had to improvise these things and had to make the best of the materials they had on hand. The initiative and resourcefulness of the teachers were greatly challenged.

On March 15, 1945, classes in Wawa were organized like in the poblacion, classes were held in the homes of civic-spirited citizens. Then, classes in other barrios were opened later when the conditions proved to be normal.

The Nasugbu Institute, a private institution, was also opened after the liberation in July, 1945. First year to third year classes were opened, as follows:

[p. 18]

3 – 1st year sections; 2 – 2nd year sections; and 1 – third year class. The total enrolment of that year was 281 students. Seven teachers were employed with Director M. Kasilag.

In the year 1947-1948, a complete high school was established. In July, 1949, courses in Typewriting and Stenography were offered. Another important construction was accomplished, the building of a permanent schoolhouse.

At present, the institute is housed in a big and spacious building which was completed in 1952. There are 640 students and 16 members of the faculty, respectively.

After Major Basilio Fernando, Atty. Jose Valladolid was appointed civil mayor. He served from March to April, 1945.

Next to him was Mr. Leon Lagos. He served as Acting Mayor of the pre-war days [and] was appointed by this Governor Modesto Castillo. He served in that capacity for months only.

In the same year, there was another appointee to the Office of the Mayor. This man was Mr. Jose Cuenca (R.I.P.). He was fair in complexion, stocky, approachable and very generous. One time, when he was a municipal councilor, he did not collect his per diems. He devoted the money to a worthy cause. As a mayor, he did the same. Part of his salary went to the school as aid to the teachers who were then so poorly paid. He also financed a great part of the expenses incurred when holding civic parades. So to say that this man showed his love to his fellowmen in deeds and not in words alone.

Then later, a former schoolteacher, Mr. Juan Salanguit, was appointed to the post of the mayor. His short term 1946-1947 proved to be successful. He also won the hearts of his townsmen but he was not able to run for [the] mayoralty during the elections in 1947 because his very good friend, Atty. Gregorio Pañganiban, was the candidate.

In [the] 1947 elections, the political rival of Atty. Gregorio Pañganiban was Mr. Leon Lagos. Mr. Jose Advincula and Mr. Constancio Enriquez were the

[p. 19-20 missing.]

[p. 21]

PART TWO – FOLKWAYS

Traditions, Customs and Practices in Domestic and Social Life, Birth, Baptism, Courtship, Marriage, Death, Burial, Visits, Festivals, Punishments, etc.

A. Social and Domestic Life:

1. Showing respect to elders, parents, relatives, godparents by kissing their hands after prayers, upon leaving or returning home, upon meeting on special occasions, and after arriving from the church.

2. When addressing their elders, the word “po” or “ho” is always used.

3. Elders are given preference at [the] table and anywhere.

4. Asking permission from parents before accepting any invitation or going to some place.

5. Accepting meekly any reprimands or scolding from the old folks.

6. Recognizing the authority of the eldest brother or sister upon the death of the father or mother.

7. Taking off the hat or making the sign of the Cross when passing a church or a cemetery.

8. Making the sign of the Cross before going downstairs.

9. Praying together at Angelus time.

10. Saying a short prayer when a funeral passes by.

11. Visiting sick relatives and helping to care for them.

12. Going to church on Sundays and other Holy Days of Obligation.

[p. 22]

B. Birth

1. It is the father’s duty to bury the placenta of the newborn baby.

2. The placenta is placed in a glass so that the child will possess white teeth.

3. When burying the placenta, the midwife advises the father to keep quiet while doing so, so that they baby will not be a crybaby.

4. The umbilical cord should be placed in the safe place so that the child will not become a problem child when he grows up.

5. Right after birth, the parents of the child notify the godparents-to-be.

C. Baptism

1. A child who is in danger of dying receives his first baptism called “buhos tubig.” This is done in the house by an old person. Usually, the real godparents act as sponsors.

2. The child is baptized in the church by the priest. The sponsors shoulder all the expenses of the baptism, such as buying the baby’s attire, paying the fee in the church, transportation and, sometimes, the hired musicians.

3. The godparents also give gifts in the form of jewelry or money. This gift is called “pakimkim.”

4. The parents of the child, in return, send a roasted pig or delicious foods to the sponsors, which is called “sabit.”

5. Racing to the door after baptism is done by the sponsor so that his godchild will be tops in all his undertakings.

6. Babies, after Baptism, are carried by the sponsor to the house accompanied by a band.

7. Upon reaching the house, the sponsor throws coins so that the baby will have a prosperous life.

[p. 23]

D. Courtship

1. When a man is attracted to a certain girl, he serenades her.

2. After making himself known to the parents of the girl, he begins his nocturnal visits whereby he airs his heartthrobs and desires.

3. He also writes love letters and sends flowers or gifts to his lady love.

4. He invited the parents of the girl to a party or picnic.

5. When a man is accepted by the girl and her parents, they call for the parents of the man and they have what we call “bolongan.” They agree on the wedding and set aside the date.

E. Marriage

1. Parents must sanction the marriage. Couples who marry against the wishes of their parents are liable to be disinherited. Furthermore, they are cursed by their parents to have endless sufferings in the married life.

2. The family of the groom is expected to shoulder all the expenses of the wedding.

3. The bride provides hersekf with her trousseau.

4. The family of the groom prepares the food in the home of the bride though it may be far. This is what we call “baysanan.”

5. The feast is held in the house of the bride. The lavishness depends upon the social standing of the couple being married.

6. After the wedding ceremony, the couple goes to all their relatives to kiss their hands and receive their blessings. They also receive gifts to help them start their new life.

7. Usually, the bride goes with the family of the groom after the feast and the latter is left with the bride’s family. This is done so that they will know how to deal with their in-laws.

[p. 24]

F. Death

1. A priest is called to administer the last Confession and Extreme Unction to the dying.

2. The dead is dressed in his wedding dress or best clothes.

3. Friends and relatives send flowers, money, or any form of help to the bereaved family.

4. The family of the deceased slaughter a pig and serve the people who pay a visit or help in preparing the food.

5. The relatives, neighbors and friends keep vigil for one night.

6. Prayers are said for nine consecutive nights. After the prayers, they play games to console the bereaved family. This feast is called “Pagsisiyam.”

7. The relatives of the dead wear black dresses for one year and they abstain from dancing and merrymaking.

8. After the mourning period, the family celebrates a feast which is called the “babang luksa.”

9. The last wishes of the dead are followed faithfully so that the family will not be haunted.

G. Burial

1. Relatives and friends go with the funeral.

2. The younger members of the family are made to kiss the hand or are carried across the coffin so that they will not be haunted.

3. Caution is taken not to drop tears on the corpse because this may cause another death in the family.

4. Ants or flies seen on the corpse should not be mentioned for they will surely increase in number.

H. Visits

1. Visitors are allowed to eat first.

[p. 25]

2. Entertaining visitors when holding forums and assemblies.

3. Serving sweets and drinks to visitors.

4. When visitors arrive at the same time they are eating, they invite them to join them at [the] table.

5. Callers give their due respect to the owner of the house by not entering the house without being told to do so. They also give the necessary greeting to the owner of the house.

I. Festivals

A. Christmas

1. A family reunion is held at Christmas. They exchange gifts. Small children go to their godparents and kiss their hands. They receive gifts in return.

2. The people hear the midnight mass and have their “noche buena” afterwards.

B. New Year

1. New Year’s Eve is celebrated by having a get-together in the family. After the midnight mass, there is usually a “Media Noche.” Pansit or palitaw is served because these mean [a] long and prosperous life.

2. Children make bamboo cannons and they go around making a lot of noise.

3. Houses are cleaned very well to greet the New Year. Debts are paid and they refrain from making new ones. Well, the people turn over a new leaf.

C. All Saints’ Day

1. Masses are said for the dead.

2. Wreaths, candles are taken to the cemetery. Tombs are cleaned and repainted.

3. Housewives prepare rice sticks, cakes and puspas.

4. At night, groups of people and children go around to ask for alms. They sing from house to house and receive suman or money.

[p. 26]

D. St. John’s Day

1. People hear mass on this day.

2. Both the old and young people take a bath in the river.

3. People have their haircut on this day so that they will have abundant and nice hair.

E. Easter and Lent

1. During Lent, people refrain from dancing, sing song hits and the like.

2. Several homes have the “pabasa.” The passion of Christ is recalled by singing.

3. On Palm Sunday, people bring palms to church to be blessed by the priest. Blessed palms are kept in the homes for they are used against lightning and thunder.

4. On Holy Friday, the “Siete Palabra” is held to commemorate the seven last words of our Lord. Some people go to the beach and they have what we call “penetencia.” They inflict all sorts of punishments on their bodies like whipping, dragging and the like.

5. On Easter Sunday, we have what we call “Hallelujah.” Some young ladies also dance the “bati.”

6. On Easter Sunday, when the bells announce the resurrection of our Lord, children are told to jump as high as they could so that they will grow tall.

F. Feast of the Patron Saint

1. A year’s preparation is done. Houses are repaired. Pigs are put in pens. Desserts are made.

2. Misa Dalmatica is held in the morning. People from different towns come and attend the fiesta. As many as four bands go around the town. At night, there is a procession, wherein religious and curious people participate. Firecrackers costing hundreds of pesos add to the highlights of the affair.

3. Shows, fairs and games could be seen everywhere.

[p. 27]

4. All houses are opened to visitors. Food is served lavishly.

G. May Festivals

1. Ladies decorate baskets with flowers and offer them to the Blessed Virgin Mary. Songs and prayers are said in her honor. Merienda is served afterwards. This is what we call “alayan” or “bulaklakan.”

2. At night, there is a procession wherein the town’s beauties participate. This is what we call “Sta. Cruz de Mayo.”

Superstitious Beliefs

I. Marriage
1. When a couple comes home from the church after the wedding, they are given sweets so that they will enjoy marital bliss.

2. When a wedding and a burial arrive at a church at the same time, the newlyweds will die soon.

3. Caution should be taken in putting the veil on the couple so that it will not fall off. This would mean early death or separation.

4. The bride must not fit on her wedding gown or else her wedding shall not be continued.

5. After the wedding ceremony, the friends and relatives of the couple throw rice and money to insure prosperity and security for the newlyweds.

II. For a Woman on the Family Way
1. When a woman is on the family way [and] she sits by the door, she will suffer in her delivery.

2. A woman who is on the family way, when going up the house, should go upstairs directly without stopping so that she will not suffer during her delivery.

3. The husband of the woman on the family way should not repair their house because his wife will suffer in delivery.

[p. 28]

III. Baptism
1. The sponsor in Baptism should give something to the godchild as a Baptismal gift so that they will not be susceptible to sickness.

2. During Baptism, if there is an only boy or an early girl among the children being baptized, the boy or girl will have many admirers when he or she grows up.

3. The sponsor must infuse into the child’s head while the child is being baptized so that the child may inherit the good traits of the godparent.

IV. Planting
1. It is good to plant when there are many stars so that there will be a good harvest.

2. It is better to plant pineapples in the afternoon so that the fruits will be sweet.

3. In sowing the palay, the sleeves of the shirt should be hanging so that the leaves of the palay would hang and not bother the harvester.

4. While planting bananas, one should be in a squatting position so that the banana plants will not grow tall.

V. In Taking a Bath
1. It is bad to take a bath on Tuesdays and Fridays because it may cause illness.

2. It is bad to take a bath on one’s birthday, this may result to illness.

3. A person who sleeps right after taking a bath will become insane.

4. In bathing a newly-born baby, do not pour water over his head because he will be susceptible to cold.

5. Taking a bath on Good Friday is not good for you are driving the graces of God.

[p. 29]

POPULAR SONGS

Awit

May isang punong granada
Hitik na hitik ng bunga
Paano Neneng ang pagkuha
Nalilibiran ng pagsinta.

Ihuli mo ako ng isang
Ibong kulyawan.
Barilin mo’t patamaan
Nguni’t huwag sasaktan.

Mag-init ng tubig,
Kumukulo’y malamig,
Himulmulang malinis,
Nguni’t balahibo’y
Huwag maaalis.

Duruin mo sa duruan,
Nguni’t huwag lalampasan,
Iihaw mo nang tayangtang,
Sa baga’y huwag idadarang.

Balutin mo sa papel
Talian mo ng buhangin
Sa ilog mo paraanin
Tuyong iharap sa akin.

Punong Kahoy

Doon sa amin, bayan ng Silangan
May tumubong kahoy, sanga’y maruklay
Sino man ditong taong dumaan
Pilit na sisilong kung naiinitan.

Kung makasilong na’t makapagpahinga
Binunot ang punyal sampu ng espada
Tinaga sa puno, inulit sa sanga
Iyan ang ganti ko sa iyong kahoy ka.

Ang sagot ng kahoy, ay aba kapalaran
Di ka na nag-isip nang kahihinatnan
Ako’y nag-ampon sa naiinitan
Ang ganti sa akin, ako’y pinatay!

[p. 30]

Tao Po, Tao Po

Tao po, tao po, may bahay na bato
Bukas ang bintana, tayo’y magpandango,
Kung walang gitara’y maski na bilao
Makita ko lamang ang dalaga ninyo.

Ang dalaga ninyo’y ayaw paligawan,
Nagpasok sa silid, nagsakit-sakitan,
Nang siya’y makita ng kanyang magulang,
Aray ko Ina ko, masakit ang tiyan.

Nagpakaon agad ng dalawang mediko,
Pinagtigisanan and dalawang pulso.
Sabi ng medico’y hindi sakit ito,
Sinta ng binata, namuo sa ulo.

May Isang Babaing

May isang babaing naglako ng hipon,
Ginabi’t dinilim, walang sumalubong,
Pagdating ng bahay, ibinagsak ang bakol,
Magsaing ka Pedro’t ako’y nagugutom.

Kung magsasaing ka’y kalahating gatang,
Na kalahati’y luto, kalahati’y hilaw,
At gayon din naman, sa pag-iibigan
Kalahati’y oo’t kalahati’y ayaw.

Sitsiritsit Alibangbang

Sitsiritsit alibangbang, salaguinto’t
Salagubang. Ang babai sa lansangan
Kung gumiri’y parang tandang.

Ang anak na dalaga ni Tandang Liloy
Ang napang-asawa’y masamang amoy
Ha! Ha! Ha! Ha! Huwak [Huwag?] na toy!

Mayrong Dalaga

Mayrong dalaga, kong mamalas
Labis na labis kung siya’y gumayak
Ang baro at saya, ay hakab na hakab
Ang buong katawa’y nababakas.

Ang dalagang ito’y singkaran nang ganda,
Maitim sa uling, madilat ang mata.
Ang butas ng ilong, katulad ng kweba
Tadtad ng bulotong, ha! ha! ha!
Huwag na toy!

[p. 31]

GAMES

1. Sungka

The “sungkaan,” which is composed of seven holes on each side and two big holes at each end called “bahay” in this game. Each except the “bahay” contains seven stones or shells. The “mano” gets her stones and distributes them in all the holes until they are all gone. In the last hole where she drops the last stone, she gets all the stones and distributes them. If the last stone falls on a hole whose opposite hole contains stones, then the stones are taken as “subi.” The one who has the most number of stones in her “bahay” is the winner.

2. Sintak

In this game, a big round stone and six small ones are needed. The mother stone or “ina-ina” is thrown upwards, and the small stones are taken one by one. Then the same small stones are taken two by two, three by three and so on until they are taken by fives. Then follows the “kuhit-kuhit” – touching the ground with the forefinger as many times as there are participants in the game. Then comes the “agad-silid.” Once the mother stone is thrown upward, the children stones are picked up one by one and placed on the left hand. The next step is the “hulog-bombong.” Arrange the fingers of your left hand in such a way that they look like the hollow part of a bamboo. Then, each stone is allowed to pass through it. This step is followed by the “sibara” – extend the forefinger and thumb, making an arch-like position. Each stone is allowed to pass under it. Then comes the “laglag-bunga,” – all the small stones are taken in the right hand. They are dropped by twos, then by threes, by fours, and by fives. They are then dropped and taken again. This is called “lukob.” The last part of the game is “pipi” – the opponent’s hand is placed over the stones and the one who wins taps it.

3. Siklot

Many stones are used in this game. The stones are placed in the hollow of the hand and then the player turns her hand upside down so that the stones will rest on the other side of the hand. Those stones which fall are touched abruptly (pinitik). Those that remain are called litters or “biiks.” The one who has the greater numberof “biiks” wins.

[p. 32]

4. Sulot-sulot Bandol

The children in this game stay inside the circle. The “it” uses a short stick and goes around to touch them. The one touched will be the next “it.”

5. Bunot-kugon

The players are grouped into two, each having a mother. The players hold each other’s waists in succession. The mother of one group pulls the mother of the other group and the one who pulls the greater number of players to her side wins.

6. Himbabao

The children in this game hide and shout “himbabao.” The “it” looks for them. The one who will be seen first will be the “it.” The one who reaches the post without being caught is considered the winner.

7. Piko-piko

The mother opens her palm wherein the others put their forefingers. Then, they sing this song:

Piko-piko, salaguring
Sa batiya’y kikimkimin.

The one whose finger is caught will be the “it.”

8. Pasinordin

The mother will say”

“Pasinordin, kumbentong malalim
Kuliting, kuliting, kumuha ka ng damo.”

The others will ask, “Anong dahon?”

The mother will answer:

“Dahon ng ikmo!”

(Any kind of leaf that she may think of may be given.)

9. Otso

The players make two circles in the form of [the] number “8.” As in Sulot-sulot Bandol, the “it” goes around the circle. The one who is left in the circle walks, forming [the] figure “8.”

MGA BUGTONG

1. Iisa na, kinuha pa.
Kaya ang natira, ay dadala-dalawa. (tulya)

[p. 33]

2. Ang isda ko sa Mariveles
Nasa ilalim ang kaliskis. (sili)

3. Oo nga’t sili, nasa ilalim ang aligi. (alimango)

4. Oo nga’t alimango, nasa ilalim ang ulo. (pagong)

5. Oo nga’t pagong, nasa ilalim ang tombong. (niyog)

6. Oo nga’t niyog, nasa ilalim ang bunot. (mangga)

7. Oo nga’t mangga, nasa ilalim ang pula. (itlog)

8. Bugtong kong tiya-tiyatong,
Tiyatiyatong kong bugtong. (sibuyas)

9. Lumabas si Rita, kanyang saya’y pula. (pusong saging)

10. Dahon ng dahon, sanga ng sanga,
Wala namang bunga. (kawayan)

11. Tumindig siya’t sumigaw,
Ako’y lalaking matapang. (tandang)

12. Ako’y may biting sangkalan,
Inaamoy, tinititigan. (langka)

13. Ako’y nagtanim ng hiya,
Sa laguerta ng Kastila,
Ang dahon ay mahahaba,
Ang bunga ay mataba. (niyog)

14. Kabiyak na niyog, magdamag na nagolipod. (buwan)

15. Wala sa langit, wala sa lupa,
Ang daho’y nanariwa. (dapo)

16. Iisa ang sinuotan, tatlo ang nilabasan. (kamisita)

17. Maputing parang busilak,
Kalihim ko sa pagliyag. (papel)

18. Bumubuka’y walang bibig,
Ngumingiti nang tahimik. (bulaklak)

19. Puno’y bumbong, sanga’y usiw
Bunga’y gutang, lama’y lisay. (papaya)

20. Ako’y nag-ihaw ng apoy,
Tubig ang iginatong. (ilaw)

[p. 34]

MGA SALAWIKAIN
(English & Tagalog)

1. His head is already wet when he puts on a hat.
Nang magsalakot, basa na ang tuktok.

2. Time should be properly used, for it is as worthy as gold.
Ang oras ay samantalahin, sapagka’t ginto ang kahambing.

3. Laziness is the brother of hunger.
Ang katamaran ay kapatid ng kagutuman.

4. Laziness is the mother of poverty.
Ang katamaran ay kahirapan.

5. The mistakes of the poor are noticed by all.
Ang kamalian ng mahirap ay napupuna ng lahat.

6. When there is famine, there will be abundance.
Pag may tag-araw, ay may tag-ulan.

7. Behind the black clouds will shoot forth the rays of the sun.
Pagkapawi ng ulap, lumilitaw ang liwanag.

8. The fisherman who draws his net too soon won’t have any catch at all.
Ang mangingisdang nagtataas agad ng lambat ay walang isdang masasagap.

9. Don’t count the chickens before they are hatched.
Huwag mong bibilangin ang itlog
Hanggang hindi nagiging manok.

10. He who believes in tales has no mind of his own.
Ang naniniwala sa sabi ay walang bait ng sarili.

MGA SALAWIKAIN
(Tagalog)

1. Lumalakad ang kalabasa, naiiwan ang bunga.

2. Ngayon tutukain, ngayon kakahigin.

3. Palakihin ang maliit, bumawas sa malaki.

4. Pag ang tubig ay tining asahan mo’t malalim.

5. Sabihin mo ang iyong kasama at sasabihin ko kung sino ka.

[p. 35]

R E S O U R C E      P E R S O N S

The following persons were consulted in the gathering of the data for the Poblacion.

1. Mr. Francisco Ureta
2. Mr. Amando Villamarin
3. Mr. Leopoldo Alix
4. Mr. Ruperto Bautista
5. Mr. Eduardo Villadolid
6. Mr. Luciano Bautista
7. Mr. Vicente Romasanta

Compiled by:

1. Mr. Aproniano Boongaling
2. Mr. Modesto Alix
3. Miss Apolonia Villafranca
4. Miss Rufina de Guzman
5. Mr. Canuto Ruedas
6. Miss Santas Garcia

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Notes and references:
Transcribed from “Historical Data of the Municipality of Nasugbu,” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.

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