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January 3, 2018

Lumbangan, Nasugbu, Batangas: Historical Data

Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the barrio of Lumbangan in the Municipality of Nasugbu, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.

[Acknowledgment.]

This report has been made possible through the concerted efforts exerted by the teachers in Lumbangan Elementary School. The history and name of the barrio was reported by Mr. Nicolas Oriondoand Miss Osmunda Villaluna. The historical report of Lumbangan was prepared by Mrs. Juliana V. Benson as chairman and with Misses Maria Soledad Roxas and Sofronia P. Cueto as members. The Folkways were reported by Miss Josefa R. Bayaborda and the Puzzles, Riddles and Proverbs were reported by Miss Felicitas S. Oliva and Miss Miguela S. Andino. The historical data are gathered and reported by Miss Ignacia S. Reyes as chairman and Misses Josefa R. Bayaborda, Socorro S. Samaniego and Purificacion S. Vasquez as members.

Any credit which this report may be accorded must, therefore, be in favor of these persons who unselfishly and willingly worked together to make this report possible.

GERARDO TOLENTINO
Principal

[p. 1]

I. HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF THE BARRIO OF LUMBANGAN

PART I – History

1. Present Official Name of the Barrio -------- LUMBANGAN

2. Popular name of the barrio present and past, derivation and meanings of these names. Names of sitios included within the territorial jurisdiction of the barrio.

a. Past popular name of the barrio – Lumbangan. Derived from an old belief that this place was formerly abundant in lumbang trees.

b. Present popular name of the barrio – Central. This name has come about because of the establishment of the Central Azucarera Don Pedro in thish place. Because people from the neighboring towns of Tuy, Balayan, Calaca, Lemery, Taal, Lian and Calatagan transact business with the Central, this new name has become more popular to the people of these towns and to the truck conductors whose trucks pass this way from Batangas, Manila and other towns to Nasugbu.

c. Names of sitios included within the territorial jurisdiction of this barrio –
a.  Calamundingan d.  Ulila
b.  Pandan e.  Cogonan
c.  Bangcal
3. Date of establishment – Early part of the American occupation, sometime in 1901.

4. Original families –
a. Barcelon and
b. Atienza families

5. List of tenientes del barrio from [the] earliest time to date –
a.  Regino Atienza (1934-1938)
b.  Pascual Atienza (1938-1941)
c.  Silvino Atienza (1946-1950)
d.  Vicente Tanglao (1951 to date)
6. Stories of old barrios and sitios within the jurisdiction that are now populated –

1. Lumbangan Proper

According to the latest surveys, Lumbangan has an area of about 100 hectares and a population of 1,884. The owner of the sugar central which was constructed on this barrio in October, 1950, is a Spanish citizen and those who occupy high positions

[p. 2]

are mostly Spaniards. A large percentage of the inhabitants are Tagalogs. During the milling season, the population is temporarily swelled because extra laborers come to work in the Central. They come from the neighboring towns and provinces in the north, especially Pangasinan. These people live in a place popularly known as “Pangsinan,” derivative of the province [where] they came from.

The original plant of the present Central Azucarera Don Pedro was built in 1927. The present Central, which is much larger and more modern than the original one, was built in 1950.

To improve the home and community life of the employees, the company built the Barrio Obrero. This is composed of a mixed group of people. The houses are mostly owned by the company. Those built by the Central are uniformly planned and painted. Those along the road are owned by the residents who are either employed in the factory or are independent laborers or merchants. An apartment house was recently built to house the official personnel. The residential compound is occupied by the department heads and those occupying high positions in the factory. Almost all the houses are built of strong materials. The sanitary condition in the whole compound can be rated above average. The school site is within this section. Employees and laborers of the Central are given free light, water and medical aid. When the nature of one’s trip is official, free transportation is also extended. Playground sites are also provided.

2. Calamundingan –

This sitio is on the eastern side of Lumbangan proper. The people here are mostly farmers, carpenters, merchants, peddlers and workers in the Central. The people own their houses and raise vegetables and chickens. Houses are temporary and semi-permanent

[p. 3]

materials. Next to Lumbangan Proper and the Barrio Obrero, this place is the best developed and progressive.

3. Pandan, Bangcal, Ulila, and Cogonan –

The sitios of Pandan, Bangcal, Ulila and Cogonan are composed of farming groups. Bangcal and Pandan are composed of 32 families and Cogonan and Ulila have 27 families to date. The original family in the group is the Valeriano Dimafelix family. The people living there are mostly farmers. They do not own the land that they till, they care tenants and laborers of the Central Don Pedro. Many of the families live in temporary houses of bamboo, nipa, and cogon.

The sitio of Cogonan, which was the original site of the first sugar central built in this section of Nasugbu, is now depopulated. Most of the persons living in this sitio have transferred to the new site of the Central.

The name “Lumbangan” may literally pass into history and the new name “Central” may in the coming future take its place. The popularity of this new name has grown so fast that the place is known to most people from other places by its new name “Central” than its original name Lumbangan. This name is becoming more and more sparingly used and only by those old residents of the place and only whenever reference to the place is officially made. But to those people who transact business with the sugar central and to those who are new in this place, the name Central is more popularly known and more commonly used. There is a very bright future for this barrio. The time may come when this flourishing barrio may be converted into a new town of Batangas.

[p. 4]

7. Data on historical sites, structures, buildings, old ruins, etc.

The following dates, although new, may prove important to the history of the barrio, hence its incorporation into this report:

a. Opening of the first school – June, 1923

b. Establishment of the present Central – 1925-1927

c. Construction of the Central Hospital – 1952

d. Construction of the Laboratory Building - 1925

8. Important facts, incidents, or events that took place –

a. During the Spanish Occupation – None worth mentioning, for during that time, this place was nothing but a thickly forested section of the town of Nasugbu.

b. During the American Occupation to World War II – Reports are conflicting as to the real date when this barrio came out to be one. But some records bear the date of 1903 as the beginning when some people began to settle in this place. During this period, much improvement had taken in this place. Worth mentioning are the establishment of a public school in this place, the increase of dwelling houses due to its being along the provincial highway from Batangas and Manila to Nasugbu, and most important is the establishment of the sugar central. The sugar central has drawn people from neighboring towns to this place, making it a veritable small town. More and more houses are being built scattered along the provincial road and around the Central compound, mostly by the Central owners for the employees and some by workers in the mill who have decided to make this place their permanent residence. People who live in this barrio now are of a mixed group; composed of Tagalogs,

[p. 5]

Pangasinenses, Pampangos, Bicolanos and some Visayans.

c. During and after World War II –

This place was liberated the same time as the town of Nasugbu. Although the place was occupied by the Japanese, not much damage was done to the place despite the fact that a garrison was located in it. This may be because the residence were able to deal properly with the Japanese soldiers. The only damage done to the Central came from the American planes of liberation when the powerhouse caught fire when bullets from the plains set fire to it. The estimate of this damage can be found somewhere in this report under the caption Central Azucarera Don Pedro. It is said that when the American forces of liberation occupied Nasugbu on January 12, 1945, only 7 Japanese soldiers we're left in the garrison at the Central. These soldiers we're left to blow up the Central the arrival of the Americans. They did not, however, find time to execute their mission due to the timely report made by the guerrillas from this place to the American authorities in Nasugbu. A platoon of American soldiers was dispatched to this place and all the 7 Japanese soldiers were killed as they fled.

9. Destruction of lives, properties and institutions during wars, especially in 1896-1900 and 1941-1945.

No record could be found about the existence of this barrio during the period from 1896 to 1900. No life nor property was damaged between the periods of 1941 and 1945 except what has already been described elsewhere in this report.

[p. 6]

A Historical Report of Lumbangan

Lumbangan is a typical rural community sprawling in the midst of sugarcane plantations. This community is comparatively a new settlement and has its name derived from the word “lumbang,” a native tree noted for its high quality of oil-bearing fruit.

During the Spanish regime, this site was thickly vegetated with these lumbang trees. Maguay [unsure, blurred] also, a principal source of manila hemp and which has fast disappeared in this region, abundantly grew. Paradoxically, after a. Of a little more than 60 years, not a single lumbang tree could be found anywhere in the vicinity. Topographically, Lumbangan is a part of a valley surrounded by rolling hills and also traversed by the Lian River which, in a way, accounts for the productivity of the adjoining lands due to the deposition of alluvial soil during the rainy season. It is a part of the vast estate owned by the Roxas family (of Spanish descent) who's forefathers, it is set, acquired this place from the Spanish government by virtue of a royal decree. Politically, it is just one of the barrios of the town of Nasugbu, but nevertheless, partly responsible for the popularity of the district.

In view of the fact that this barrier traces its development to the progress of the sugar industry, account of the early conditions here. This estate, being owned by one family, was administered by “hacenderos” or ad-

[p. 7]

ministrators, and the tenants had to pay some form of rental for the use of the land. Before the establishment of the present sugar central, a smaller one was erected in Looc, another barrio of Nasugbu, which was later moved to the outskirts of the town proper. This central, however, was sold to give way to a more modern one, the present Central, which began its operation in 1927. However, the sugarcane industry was already a well-established industry in this region. The crushing of the canes at the start of the industry in this place was done by means of the wooden rollers pulled by cows and carabaos. Because of the rapid progress which this industry experienced during the first world war, iron mills rapidly took [the] place of the wooden meals. Constant program and bright prospects continued to favor the production of sugar so that in [the] years that followed the big central was established

The present populace of this barrio is composed mostly of the employees of the sugar central and their families and also the tenants in the adjoining haciendas. In this locality, as in others, we find a conglomeration of peoples. The first employees and laborers where recruited from Pangasinan and the towns of eastern Batangas. Of course, as years passed, there was a constant influx of more people here in addition to the natural increase of the earlier settlers. Economically, we can say that the people of Lumbangan are in a better condition than the other barrios, the stability of which is wholly dependent upon the stability of the sugar industry.

Realizing the increase of children reaching school age

[p. 8]

and considering the distance from this place to the nearest school then existing, the authorities concerned opened a school in close cooperation with the Roxas and Company whose magnanimity of heart and benevolence have shown outward manifestations in their kindly gestures towards their employees and the community in general. This school gradually developed to the present Lumbangan Elementary School which has complete enrollment in all grades in the elementary. The enrollment last year, which totaled 684 pupils, all from this locality, is evidence of the good attitude of the people towards education. There are 12 teachers, including the principal. It may, therefore, not be long when the problem of illiteracy in this place may be entirely solved.



The owners of this Central did not overlook the religious aspect of life, so that a church was also built in the Central site, thus affording a place where people could pray, meditate and hear mass. It might be mentioned in passing, the story of the adoption of the patron saint of Lumbangan, St. Del Pilar. It was related by an old woman, the only witness to the incident, that at the present site where the church is built, she found a small image of the patron saint at the base of a banana tree. Unable to explain how the image was found in such circumstance, the only plausible reason find expression in a sort of miraculous incident. This news spread like wildfire. The people being deeply religious in nature, decided and convinced the owners of the Central that a church should be erected at the place where the image was found and adopted the St. Del Pilar as the Patron Saint whose feast day is in October.

[p. 9]

With respect to the health conditions of the people, they (mostly employees and their families) are well-taken care of with the establishment of a hospital and improved working conditions.

The war in 1896 did not affect much this place because by then, there were but a handful of people here. The war in 1941 caught this place at the height of the milling season. There was but a short stoppage of milling for the Japanese realized the importance of sugar for their army and required the management to continue operation of the Central, but under their strict surveillance. During all the years that we were under the Japanese rule, the Central operated regularly in milling seasons, although the production was much below normal because some of the land was planted with cotton and other food products for the Japanese army. As regards to the buildings and the plant itself, they were not damaged till the latter days of January, 1945 when the American forces of liberation which landed in Nasugbu, in scaring the Japanese stationed at the Central, machine-gunned the plant, hitting the power house. The Japanese, in their hurry to leave the place, had no more time to explode the dynamites which they planted throughout the mill. Shortly after liberation, the Central resumed operations at a much-paralyzed capacity. There were not many lives either killed by the Japanese or killed in action. Somehow, the people knew how to get along with the Japanese who owned the Central as their garrison without, however, exposing themselves either as Japanese spies or guerrillas. It is noteworthy to mention that in spite of the existence then of underground activities, atrocities committed elsewhere in the islands were not committed here.

[p. 10]

The presence of a modern distillery as an integral part of the Central was also partly instrumental in rehabilitating the sugarcane industry affecting favorably the planters, their tenants, the Central, and the employees. There was a great demand for alcohol to be used in the manufacture of wines and whiskeys and luckily, the distillery of this Central was one of the few plants in the Islands not damaged by war. All the molasses produced and even centrifugal sugar were converted into alcohol. One can just imagine the financial aid this alcohol boom gave towards the restoration to normalcy, both to the people of the Don Pedro District and to the government through the taxes paid by them to the government.

Immediately after liberation, the Central’s management rehabilitated the entire plant, introducing modern equipment, expanding the entire plant, thereby increasing the capacity, and constructing more and better houses for the employees and granting salary increases. Thus, we now have an additional one large apartment for 1k [unsure, blurred] families which was constructed more than a year ago, a large two-story concrete hospital completely equipped with modern conveniences and facilities, and a nice new laboratory inside the compound of the Central which will soon be completed and occupied by the personnel of the laboratory department. There are the new sites added to the physical structure of Lumbangan. However, other improvements in the community living at large have been made also possible through the close and cooperative efforts of the management and its employees, the school and the people. To elucidate the facts, evidences of these strides for improvements are worth mentioning.

[p. 11]

The employees of the Central, particularly those receiving higher salaries, thought of organizing the Central Employees Savings and Loans Association, and in line with the functions of this, they established a cooperative store bearing the name CESLA (the shareholders are the employees, too). Although the people are engrossed in their work in the Central, especially during milling season, they still find time for recreation. There is the Central Don Pedro Athletic Association maintained and supported also by the higher salaried employees. Hence, the people, both young and old, afford some sort of recreation in games. The basketball game is the most popular and best-liked by the residents of the place. A good opportunity is also provided for those interested in shows. However, this is limited to the employees with high positions in the Central. The show is shown in the Club House once a week every Thursday night.

The school has also taken the initiative, with the support of the prominent residents of the place, to improve the sanitation of the barrio. To facilitate the accomplishment of this objective and the objectives along other areas (economic, social and spiritual), the barrio was divided into five puroks, each having its own officers and adviser with duties defined. Of course, the school personnel found a little difficulty in their initial step, but as it is, the people are becoming more conscious of their civic, social and economic duties. Thus, we can look forward to the time when the barrio of Lumbangan will be very much improved, making it a home of contented and happy people.

Reported by:

Mrs. Juliana V. Benson, Chairman
Miss Maria Soledad Roxas, Member
Miss Sofronia F. Cueto, Member

[p. 12]

THE CENTRAL AZUCARERA DON PEDRO

One of the pioneers in the growing of sugarcane and in the manufacture of muscovado sugar, the western part of the Province of Batangas, comprising Nasugbu, Lian, Tuy, Balayan, Calaca, Lemery, Taal and San Luis, had from time immemorial been served by thousands of small and carabao-driven muscovado mills. Due to favorable prices which low-grade muscovado sugar hand enjoyed in the local as well as foreign merchants up to the early ‘20s, it was not until then that the first small central in Nasugbu was erected by the Vda. de Pedro F. Roxas y Berederos de A. R. Roxas to mill the cane produced in its vast hacienda in Nasugbu. This small central had long been dismantled.

The original plant of the present Central Azucarera Don Pedro was built and erected by the Mirrless-Watson Co., Ltd. of Glasgow, Scotland in 1926-1927. Its first crop, after signing up sugarcane planters previously dedicated to the production of muscovado sugar in the western part of Batangas, was harvested in 1927-1928. The founders of the present central, which was incorporated in October, 1930, were Doña Carmen Gargollo Vda. de Roxas, Don Ramon Roxas de Fernandez, Don Antonio Roxas y Gargollo, Don Enrique Roxas y Arguelles, Don Andres Soriano y Roxas, Don Alfonso Zobel y Roxas and Don Jose C. Zabarte.

Since its establishment more than 26 years ago, the Don Pedro Central has maintained a record of fine relations with its planters and an excellent showing of progressiveness and efficiency in the manufacture of sugar. From [an] initial production 115,805 piculs for 1927-1928, it gradually increased its output every year, reaching a peak of 784,518 piculs for 1933-1934, the last crop preceding the local sugar limitation in the implementation of the Jones-Costigan Act and, later,

[p. 13]

the Tydings-McDuffy Act. Its production for 1940- 1941 increased to 650 4743 piculs from a loan of 501,409 piculs for 1934-1935, the first crop which was [blurred word] by force of limitation, for which the planters alone were compensated with benefit payments for the destruction of their came in the field. The Don Pedro Central has consistently established a quality ratio of 2.00 or more piculs of sugar per ton of cane.

The aggregate investments of the central in machinery, railroad track and rolling stock, buildings, equipment and supplies, distillery, etc., up to the outbreak of the war in December, 1941 totaled ₱6,575,000.00, including ₱360,000.00 [unsure, blurred] worth of quota rights purchased. While the damage to the meal as a result of the war, which was placed at ₱231,000.00, weird relatively slight, the losses of the central due to its inability to male the 1941-1942 crop where placed at ₱2,700,000.00, consisting of its share of 214,000 tons of cane in the field, which was estimated to yield 452,000 piculs of sugar and 1,282,000 gallons of molasses.

The cost of reconstruction and additional investments in the central after the war to date is placed at ₱4,500,000.00. From its present daily capacity of 2,800 tons of cane, a plan has already been approved to increase it to 5.300 tons, by increasing the speed of the mill rollers through a change in the mill gear ratios, and speed off the mill engines by changing the fly wheels and installations of long range valve gears.

When it comes to [the] enhancement of the efficiency of the mill, the owners and operators of the central have spared neither efforts

[p. 14]

nor expense to make it so. Innumerable instances may be cited in support of this assertion, a recitation of a few of those will suffice: in [the] process of installation of an 8" C.E.P.I. For the electro-magnetical, anti-calcareous treatment of boiler water for the locomotives and factory boilers. The CEPI apparatus is electrically operated at 110 volts and 97 amperes.

For the first time, this current milling season, a new apparatus is going to be used, similar to the CEPI anti-calcareous apparatus, type VE, 110 volts and 97 amperes, and operates on an electro-magnetical breakage of mineral salts that cost incrustations in the tubes. As claimed by the manufacturer, S.A. Epuro of Belgium, this apparatus prevents scale deposits on heaters and evaporators. The apparatus has been installed between the heater pumps and the juice heaters.

Another improvement recently introduced for use during the current milling season is a double-swing High Speed Exact-Weight sacking scale to be used in bagging export sugar. For drying export sugar, a vertical sugar dryer, locally made onsite, is used. It is fed on top by the elevators and a continuous blast of steam heated air he is forced at the bottom, an exhaust fan relieves the dryer of moist air at the top into an air duct. The vertical dryer shell is made of H. S. plates, 16 ft. high and 50" in diameter provided inside with 11 horizontal revolving trays and 11 conical buffalo compartments. This dryer was made in the central in 1947.

For washed sugar drying, a horizontal revolving Hersey Hot Air Sugar Dryer was installed in 1950, motor-driven, 2,000 piculs

[p. 15]

capacity in 24 hours; main shell is 4 ft. in diameter and 26 ft. long. Below the vertical dryer is a sugar bin equipped with an automatic weighter at the outlet. Sugar from both dryers are finally with on Toledo Platform scales.

Two units of cane scales are in use by the central: I-Streeter-Amet new track scales and automatic weighing recorder, 20 ton capacity, hand lever operated, installed in 1949; card and pink print 2/22" [unsure, blurred] type-wheel and dial indicator, provided with hydromatic control; used for gross weighing of cane cars and trucks; and 1 Howe track scale, with recording beam and ticket stamping device on rider. Capacity, 10 tons, manually operated, used for tare weighing of empty cane cars and trucks.

The central owns and operates 180.3 kilometers of railway networks in the four towns of Tuy, Balayan, Lian and Nasugbu, all in Batangas Province, with several wooden and all-steel bridges. Railroad lines are all 60 cm. gauge, using 30 lbs. per yard rails. There are eight steam locomotives, all Henchel, of different tonnages, cool or bunker fuel burning and seven Plymouth locomotives, gasoline or diesel operated, of different tonnages. Cane and sugar rail cars consist of 20 sugar boxcars (NBs), of 10 tons each; 400 cane open cars, all steel, of 3 tons each, and 820 cane open cars, all steel, of 4 tons each.

The central also owns and operates 9 cargo trucks and five truck-trailers for alcohol, sugar and general supplies haulage to and from Manila. These are used also for cane hauling

[p. 16]

during the milling season; aside from these, the central hires more than 100 private trucks during the milling season to haul cane to the central from places not connected by railroad.

The central maintains a complete machine and general repair shop, a spare parts and supply storehouse, a locomotive barn and shop, and a complete sugar laboratory in the factory premises.

The alcohol distillery attached to the central has a capacity of 4,000 gallons of alcohol per day, using two units of Barbet distilling columns.

The planters adhered to the central number 1,500, aside from about 100 emergency planters who are served and accommodated at the mill. The total quota of adhered planters aggregate 740,001 piculs, while the quota of the hacienda belonging to the central amounts to 4,595 piculs based on the 1951-1952 crop. The current crop is estimated at 864,500 piculs compared to 707,010 piculs for the preceding crop.

The money value of the 1950-1951 crop, aggregated to 556,200 piculs export sugar at an average price of ₱14.50 per picul (₱7,000,000) and 169,000 piculs domestic sugar at ₱16.00 per picul (₱2,7000,000), aggregates ₱10,500,000.00, while that for the 1951-1952 crop at the same average prices is estimated at ₱15,000,000.00.

The central employs about 1,100 laborers in the mill and in the field with an annual payroll of ₱1,400,000.00 for the 1950-1951 crop.

Sugar crop-sharing between the planters and the mill under the old contract for the districts of Balayan, Tuy, Lian and Nasugbu

[p. 17]

(which are being served by railroad and trucks) was 55-45 and for other districts served only by trucks, 50-50. Under the new contract, effective since 1950-1951 when production of 700,000 piculs was reached, planters who have signed up receive 60 per cent share. The additional share of 5 to 10 per cent in favor of the planters north approximately half a million pesos for that year alone. Up to September 21, 1951, 684 planters, who represent about 670,000 piculs effecting 1,500 Plantation Audits, have already signed the new contract. The same sharing arrangements holds in the case of molasses produced by the mill.

In common with the practice in other sugar centrals, the Don Pedro Central gives excellent facilities to its employees and laborers. There are 19 large houses and one club house having all the conveniences and comfort of home for its employees, while those for the laborers consist of 55 duplex apartments, 12 newly-built single apartments, one club house, one large apartment for 12 families and two Quonset huts for 14 families each.

Besides these houses, the employers and laborers are given free light, water, and ample lot for flower or vegetable garden or poultry raising. However, free transportation by special train is given to most laborers who live near the central or in Nasugbu town proper. The Don Pedro Athletic Society, which has been formed among the central and distillery employees and laborers, has been receiving the support and monetary aid of the central in the former’s recreational activities, such as basketball, tennis, softball, etc., the grounds and court for which have been provided by the central. The central

[p. 18]

owns two movie projectors which are used every Thursday for the showing of moving pictures films rented and brought from Manila to Nasugbu for the entertainment of the employees and laborers and their families at no cost at all.

In order to help fill the spiritual needs of the people in the central community, a Catholic chapel has been established and maintained in the mill premises.

The central likewise has donated the land for the sites of the Lumbangan Elementary School as well as those for other various schools in Nasugbu.

A large two-story concrete hospital building is now completed and is now in operation. It cost the central about ₱150,000.00. This was built for the benefit of the employees and laborers and their families. The hospital will be completely equipped with all the modern conveniences and facilities available in other institutions of the kind.

The central acts as agent for the Sugar Planters’ Cooperative Association which pools the planters’ sugar for export to the United States. The central also imports and advances the cost of fertilizers for distribution to the planters at cost. Planters may obtain crop loans from the central at a nominal rate of interest.

It is estimated that about 100,000 people depend on the sugar industry in Batangas, computed on the basis of four dependents for each of the planters, tenants, officials, employees and laborers connected with the Central Azucarera Don Pedro.

[p. 19]

Miller-planter relations in the Don Pedro Central have been maintained on a high level of mutual trust and close cooperation. Due appreciation on the part of both the planters and the central of the indispensability of each other’s services has been profitable to the common endeavor for greater accomplishments in the field and in the factory. That the planters have an abiding faith and confidence in the mill may be mentioned, as an example, the non-employment of a planter’s association chemist. This, however, does not suggest even remotely that the planter’s associations which do employ their own chemists to check on [the] central’s operations and laboratory reports, lack confidence in mill management; in the Don Pedro Central, it simply means the planter’s association there has found it a necessary to employ its own chemist for obvious reasons, which [in] fact incidentally spells savings for the planters.

Many, if not most, of our people whose interest has been confined to many things except the economic affairs of our country, have not fully appreciated the accomplishments and the financial support to the government of our wealth-producing industries. Taking the monetary contribution off the Don Pedro Central alone, many of our countrymen will be surprised to learn that the taxes derived by our government from that source alone for the crop year 1950-1951 aggregated ₱5,155,738.23. These taxes consists of the percentage tax on sugar of the mill and the planters, wharfage tax, assessment tax, sugar adjustment tax (basic), municipal license, professional licenses, auto and truck licenses, income tax, distillery taxes, specific tax on alcohol as paid by the central and the buyers which by the way amounts to ₱4,440,000.00, and the new exchange tax which significantly amounts to ₱125,803.03.

[p. 20]

In the nationwide survey of tourist attractions and facilities in the Philippines, the cooperation of sugar centrals and sugarcane planters may be had for the asking and for a long range objective: the further commercial and industrial development of the Philippines. A visit to sugar mills and sugarcane haciendas will serve the purpose of enlightening local and foreign visitors and investors on miller-planter-laborer relations and other economic and social conditions obtaining in the mill districts.

Full utilization of several by-products of the sugar industry awaits local and foreign capital and sugar centrals, it is believed, would not be unwilling to cooperate with government and private organizations in helping investors to have first hand information on the possibilities of joint or independent efforts towards this end.

SOME FACTS ABOUT THE CENTRAL DON PEDRO

1. The molasses storage tanks situated behind the sugar factory has a total of 1,670,000 U.S. gallons.
2. The alcohol distillery has a capacity of 4,000 gallons of alcohol per day, using two units of Berbet distilling columns.
3. The cost of reconstruction and additional investments in the central after the war to date is placed at ₱4,500,000.00.
4. The present daily capacity of the central is 2,900 of cane. This will be increased to 3,500 tons in 1952-1953 milling.
5. The two smoke stacks of the mill is each less 165 ft. from the ground.
6. The new two-story concrete hospital building of the sugar central has an estimated cost of ₱150,000.00.

For purposes of comparison of the production of the Central Don Pedro with the other sugar centrals in the Philippines, the following data is here with published. These data are based on the 1950-1951 sugar productions in Central Luzon and several Visayan Islands where sugar centrals are found.

[p. 21]

1950-1951 SUGAR PRODUCTION (In Piculs)
Mill No. Central Luzon Production
11 Canlubang Sugar Estate 488,351
13 Luzon Sugar Company 16,849
16 Pampanga Sugar Mills 481,568
17 Central Azucarera Don Pedro 707,020
18 Philippine Sugar Estates, Dev. Co., Ltd. 70,855
29 Hind Sugar Company 68,308
31 Central Azucarera del Norte 33,334
34 Paniqui Sugar Mills, Inc. 102,425
35 Pampanga Sugar Development, Inc. 319,549
45 Central Azucarera de Tarlac 679,205
     Total for Luzon 2,967,265
Negros
5 Bacolod-Murcia Milling Co. Inc. 809,676
4 Central Azucarera de Bais 726,474
8 Binalbagan-Isabela Sugar Company 1,451,459
15 Central Azucarera del Danzo 188,505
19 Hawaiian-Philippine Company 997,951
22 Central Azucarera de la Carlota 1,544,490
24 Lopez Sugar Central Mill Co., Inc. 367,555
26 Ma-ac Sugar Central Co., Inc. 603,666
38 San Carlos Milling Co., Ltd. 585,050
40 Sta. Aniceta Sugar Central 76,812
44 Talisay-Silay Milling Co., Inc. 634,578
46 Victorias Miilling Co., Inc. 1,714,756
     Total for Negros 9,466,140
Panay
2 Asturias Sugar Central, Inc. 175,242
36 Central Azucarera del Pilar 290,153
42 Central Santos-Lopez Co., Inc. 211,745
Cebu
9 Bogo-Medelin Milling Co., Inc. 229,400
Leyte
32 Ormoc Sugar Company, Inc. 226,287
----------------
GRAND TOTAL 13,566,212
(245,852.19 short tons)
Compiled from “THE SUGAR NEWS”

By:

GERARDO TOLENTINO
Principal

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Notes and references:
Transcribed from “History and Cultural Life of Lumbangan,” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.

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