Balayan, Batangas: Historical Data - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore Balayan, Batangas: Historical Data - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore

Balayan, Batangas: Historical Data

Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the Municipality of Balayan, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.

[Cover page.]
Historical Data
Division of Balayan





This work is in compliance with the desire of his Excellency, President Elpidio Quirino, as expressed in his Executive Order No. 486, dated December 7, 1951, Re – PROVIDING FOR THE COLLECTION AND COMPILATION OF HISTORICAL DATA REGARDING BARRIOS, TOWNS, CITIES, AND PROVINCES.

This brief work in some way answers the President’s wish “for our advancement that such data be re-gathered and brought up to date from time to time, to serve as a source of inspiration and guidance for our future generations, as well as a source of materials for historians, investigators, and researchers” and that this work is urgently necessary because “the manuscripts, books and other publications forming the collections of the National Library were almost entirely destroyed during the battle for the liberation of the City of Manila from the Japanese; and that, among the documents destroyed were those manuscripts containing important data relating to the history and culture of our barrios, towns, cities, and provinces – manuscripts which were collected and preserved by virtue of Executive Orders Os. 2 and 136, dated January 26, 1911, and January 3, 1939, respectively.”

Although this work is not expansive enough as desired, this nevertheless may become a living testimony of the efforts exerted by the teachers in the municipality of Balayan in spite of the meager source or sources of information available as most records,

[Introduction p. 2]

official or not, had also been destroyed during the war or neglected by their owners and keepers to rot and waste under the influence of time and nature’s destructive agents.

To the few living old men of Balayan who made [the] most of this work available, Mr. Ceferino C. Deguito, local historian, researcher, philatelist, archeologist, novelist, and dramatist; Mr. Troadio Frontera, who gave some of his valuable recollections of the data contained in this report; Mr. Casiano T. Calalang, the tireless director of the Balayan Institute, writer of note in English and [the] National Language; the Lopez family, the town’s keeper of important books, documents, and historical data; the old men of the different barrios of Balayan – we owe them so much for their kindness and their cooperation for the happy completion of this brief and humble historical treatise on the municipality of Balayan. The committee, therefore, acknowledges their sincere effort to cooperate in the direction of accomplishing its objective as set forth in Executive Order No. 7, dated December 7, 1951, and General Office Memorandum No. 34, s. 1952, dated April 28, 1952.

1.  Mr. Narciso A. Zarraga - Chairman
2.  Mrs. Juliana E. Ocson  - Member
3.  Mr. Juan Bendicio - "
4.  Mr. Lorenzo Lainez - "
5.  Mr. Francisco Hernandez - "
6.  Mr. Romualdo Cortez - "
7.  Miss Ceferina C. Martinez - "
8.  Miss Alaida C. Esguerra - "
9.  Mr. Florencio Hernandez - "
[p. 1]


One of the progressive towns of Batangas is a place in the western part of this province. “Balayan” is the present artificial name of this town. In the early days, from 1570 to 1677, the former name of this municipality was “Kumintang.” “Kumintang” was a song, only heard then, at the time in this part of the country and derived or named after Datu Kumintang who was then the ruler at that period.

Three years later, in 1590, Kumintang was changed to another name, “Balayihan,” a tongue-twisted word which was straightened into its present form – Balayan by the first Jesuit historian, named Chirino, which meant a place where [a] marriage ceremony was performed.

Not until 1578, although previously given already such name was the official establishment of Balayan made.

Pigafetta, in his voyage with Magellan, mentioned Balayan as an old thriving village long before Christianity had been established on its shore. As the founders of Balayan could never be ascertained as to who they were, the then Datu Kumintang and his elders who came over to the Philippines from Brunei as early as 1894 were the supposed founders. This datu was a grandson of one of those early datus of Brunei.

Charrito – Phil. Magazine, Feb. 1930
Official Establishment – Phil. Magazine, June, 1927

Prominent persons of notable families at the time held leading official positions in the town of Balayan which were as follows:

During the Spanish regime:
Alcalde Mayor Inclusive Dates
1.  Juan Deseala - 1696-1706
2.  Andres Mercado - 1706-1718
3.  Miguel Villareal - 1718-1730
4.  Mariano P. de Tejada - 1730-1737
5.  Pedro Calderon - 1737-1740
6.  Manuel de Luna - 1740-1742
7.  Pedro Jacinto - 1742-1750
8.  Francisco Gonzales - 1750-1758
After the reign of the Alcaldes Mayores, the Capitan Municipal took over the reins of the government which are enumerated in chronological order. They were as follows:
Capitan Municipal Inclusive Dates
1.  Juan Antonio - 1758-1759
2.  Lucas Punzulan (Punzalan?) - 1759-1760
3.  Fulgencio San Vicente - 1760-1761
4.  Juan Castelo - 1761-1762
5.  Ignacio Punongbayan - 1762-1763
6.  Manuel Gamez - 1763-1764
7.  Francisco Magbayan - 1754-1765
8.  Juan Robles - 1765-1766
[p. 2]
Capitan Municipal Inclusive Dates
9.  Gabriel Dimapasukan - 1766-1767
10. Juan T. Mendoza - 1767-1768
11. Miguel Mercado - 1768-1769
12. Silvestre Maningat - 1769-1770
13. Jose Feliciano - 1770-1771
14. Juan F. Macalalad - 1771-1772
15. Ignacio de la Cruz - 1772-1773
16. Jose Valdez - 1773-1774
17. Cipriano T. Gamez - 1774-1775
18. Felipe de San Nicolas - 1775-1776
19. Toribio de Mendoza - 1776-1777
20. Alejo de la Cruz - 1777-1778
21. Ignacio L. Garcia - 1778-1779
22. Simon Macalalad - 1779-1780
23. Angel G. Antonio - 1780-1781
24. Jose de la Cruz - 1781-1782
25. Pedro Maranan - 1782-1783
26. Santiago Rafael - 1783-1784
27. Santiago de los Santos - 1784-1785
28. Bartolome de la Cruz - 1785-1786
29. Juan J. de Mendoza - 1796-1787
30. Anastacio de la Cruz - 1787-1788
31. Gervacio Macalindong - 1788-1789
32. Mamerto Mendoza - 1789-1790
33. Patricio Mendoza - 1790-1791
34. Eduardo Aquino - 1791-1792
35. Esteban Mendoza - 1792-1793
36. Victor Castelo - 1794-1795
37. Bernardo Punongbayan - 1795-1796
38. Mariano del Pilar - 1796-1797
39. Francisco Severino - 1797-1798
40. Lucio de la Cruz - 1798-1799
41. Fernando Buhay - 1799-1800
42. Anastacio de la Cruz - 1800-1801
43. Manuel Gamez - 1801-1802
44. Vicente Gamez - 1802-1803
45. Agustin Castelo - 1803-1804
46. Lino Valdez - 1804-1805
47. Jacinto Mariano - 1805-1806
48. Pedro Mendoza - 1806-1807
49. Agustin Castelo - 1807-1808
50. Doroteo Buhay - 1808-1809
51. Nicolas G. de los Santos - 1809-1810
52. Esteban de Mendoza - 1810-1811
53. Pantaleon de los Santos - 1811-1812
54. Inocencio Perez - 1812-1813
55. Norberto Gamez - 1813-1814\
56. Jacinto Raymundo - 1814-1815
57. Luis Antonio - 1815-1816
58. Rufino Punongbayan - 1816-1817
59. Mariano de los Santos - 1817-1818
60. Vicente Mercado - 1818-1819
61. Sotero Felicano - 1819-1820
62. Mariano de la Cruz - 1820-1821
[p. 3]

Aside from the Alcaldes Mayores and the Capitan Municipal as running the Balayan government, the town also had the priests (Cura Parroco) who made possible the spread of Christianity in the community. They are enumerated in order with the dates of their tenure in office.
Cura Parocco Tenure of Office
1.  Julian de Llamas - 1712
2.  Jose Ballecao - 1712-1725
3.  Tomas Adriano - 1725-1728
4.  Francisco J. de Abalo - 1728-1752
5.  Alejandro Meynari - 1752-1756
6.  Ignacio Monroy - 1756
7.  Mariano Lopez Perez - 1756-1768
8.  Juan de Ayala - 1768-1794
9.  Nicolas de los Reyes - 1794-1807
10. Gavino Severino - 1807-1823
11. Antonio de Cosme - 1823-1827
12. Julian Chavez - 1827-1868
13. Gavino de los Reyes - 1868-1877
14. Lucio Manabit - 1877
15. Gervacio Borguerra - 1777-1894
16. Beningno Gamez - 1894-1916
In addition to these priests, the town had also these maestros municipal who were:

1. Sinforoso Lamano
2. Gervacio de Jesus
3. Cleotilde Jimenes

Immediately after the Spanish regime, the American rule got under way. During this new regime, prominent statesmen of Balayan took hold of the presidency who were then elected by the majority vote. Here they are arranged in the order of their incumbency:
President Tenure of Office
1.  Felix Unson - 1901
2.  Manuel Ramirez Abaka - 1901
3.  Julian Afable - 1901-1903
4.  Bonifacio Javier - 1903-1904
5.  Felix Unson - 1904-1905
6.  Cipriano Lopez - 1906-1907
7.  Severino Caoibes - 1907-1908
8.  Francisco A. Martinez - 1910-1912
9.  Vicente Novales - 1912-1915
10. Mariano A. Martinez - \1915-1916
11. Catalino Roxas - 1916
12. Gaudencio Ferrer - 1916
13. Mario D. Ramos - 1916-1919
14. Ignacio Lainez - 1919-1923
15. Pedro Ramirez - 1923-1925
16. Castor Ocson - 1925
17. Vicente  Galvez - 1925-1931
18. Eliseo Buhay - 1931-1934
19. Pio Martinez - 1935-1938
20. Nemesio Maningat - 1939-1941
[p. 4]

1.  Mariano Martinez 8.  Manuel Apacible
2.  Gaudencio Ferrer 9.  Nemesio Maningat
3.  Matias Caoibes 10. Benigno Torres
4.  Jose Arriola 11. Gregogio Balacaña
5.  Mario Ramos 12. Gregorio Lainez
6.  Domingo Gatpandan 13. Geronimo Creag
7.  Pedro Ramirez 14. Felicisimo Buhay
15. Vicente Galvez
Each term had its own president, vice-president, secretary, treasurer, justice of the peace, chief of police, and several policemen, and many councilors.

1.  Ruperto Cudiamat 8.  Casimiro Abellar
2.  Vicente Paz 9.  Jose Buhay
3.  Ricardo Aesquivel 10. Sofronio Garcia
4.  Ignacio Lainez 11. Potenciano Noblejas
5.  Manuel Apacible 12. Manuel Ramirez
6.  Lorenzo Ermita 13. Ramon Ramirez
7.  Eufracio Cudiamat 14. Modesto Novales
1.  Lorenzo Ermita 4.  Estanislao Villena
2.  Jose Jardin 5.  Emilio Limjoco
3.  Zacarias Maullon 6.  Alejandro Lacsamana
Justice of the Peace
1.  Juliano Calzado 7.  Marciano Atienza
2.  Pio Martinez 8.  Fernando Barrion
3.  Ruperto Cudiamat 9.  _____________ Madlangbayan
4.  Francisco Macalaguim 10. Lorenzo Brotonel
5.  Victor Macalingcag 11. Ceferino Inciong
6.  Augusto Amurao
Chief of Police
1.  Felix Garcia 5.  Timoteo Cabrera
2.  Mariano Ramos 6.  Conrado Ramos
3.  Francisco Garcia 7.  Marcial Ramos
4.  Alfonso Panganiban
1.  Gaudencio Ferrer 21. Ignacio Lainez
2.  Catalino Roxas 22. Bonifacio Lainez
3.  Geronimo Ramos 23. Natalio Lopez
4.  Cipriano Ramos 24. Telesforo Chuidian
5.  Cipriano Lopez 25. Pedro Ascue
6.  Eufracio Cudiamat 26. Francisco Martinez
7.  Bernardino B. Alvarez 27. Pio Martinez
8.  Martiniano Bandual 28. Nemesio Maningat
9.  Apolonio Bahia 29. Troadio Frontera
10. Casto Ramos 30. Sotero Cudiamat
11. Eliseo Buhay 31. Vicente Galvez
12. Mario Ramos 32. Amado Buhay
13. Mariano Ramos Joya 33. Florentino Valeros
14. Jose Arriola 34. Castor Ocson
15. Matias Caoibes 35. Fermin Calzado
[p. 5]
16. Florentino Caoibes 36. Manual Maglunog
17. Sebastian Marella 37. Pedro N. Ocson
18. Jose S. Lopez 38. Lorenzo Punzalan
19. Leon Martinez 39. Gregorio Lainez
20. Marcelo Ermita 40. Jose A. Caoibes
At the outbreak of the Second World War on December 8, 1941, the Japanese landed on our shores and a government was established by them. These officials were no longer elected by the people but were appointed. The alcalde, vice alcalde, chief of police, and justice of the peace were appointed by the Japanese Army. These appointed officials were:


1. Nemesio Maningat
2. Julian Justiniano


1. None


1. Leodivino Buhay
2. Conrado Ramos
3. Alejandro Lacsamana


1. Alejandro Lacsamana
2. Daniel Pastor
3. Gregorio Sarsoso

Chief of Police

1. Francisco Garcia
2. Jose Paytaren
3. Conrado Ramos

Justice of the Peace

1. Gregorio Aquitania

On July 4, 1946, the Republic of the Philippines was inaugurated under the presidency of the late Honorable Manuel Roxas. Alcaldes of the towns were called mayors since then. The following are the municipal officials of Balayan:
Mayor Vice-Mayor
1.  Nemesio Maningat 1.  Antonio de Castro
2.  Sergio Aliño 2.  Felicisimo Buhay
3.  Rufino B. Lainez
4.  Modesto Novales
Secretary Treasurer
1.  Manuel Ramirez 1.  Aurelio Beron
2.  Ramon Ramirez 2.  Agaton Salazar
3.  Erlinda Cudiamat
[p. 6]
Chief of Police Justice of the Peace
1.  Gregorio Arcalas 1.  Lorenzo  Brotonel
2.  Julian Tesorero 2.  Mariano de Leon
3.  Felix Vidal 3.  Lorenzo Aguila
1.  Pedro N. Ocson 1.  Pablo L. Solis
2.  Ireno Sison 2.  Norberto Maglunog
3.  Sofronio Garcia 3.  Baltazar Magsino
4.  Benigno Torres 4.  Pedro N. Ocson
5.  Florentino Maningat 5.  Pedro de Castro
6.  Vicente Solis 6.  Felix Magahis
7.  Timoteo Hernandez 7.  Troadio Frontera
8.  Vicente Daigdigan
9.  Luis T. Ramos
10. Benigno Torres
1952 to date Councilors
1.  Luis T. Ramos 5.  Pedro Castillo
2.  Vicente Daigdigan 6.  Sofronio Gutierrez
3.  Mariano Rodica 7.  Concepcion G. Inciong
4.  Pedro de Castro 8.  Alfredo Solis
Balayan has some historical sites like Bombon, Dam Ballelos and old ruins like the town church which is a reminiscence of Spanish structures.

Bombon, which is located in the southeastern part of the poblacion and along the coast of Balayan Bay is worth remembering because it was the first place where the Moros from the Visayas landed when they came to this town. These Moros were led by Datu Puti.

Dam Ballelos, which is the name of one of the streets in the poblacion, got its name in memory of a man, Damaso Ballelos, who fought bravely and was killed by the Americans.

The church, which is in the northwestern part of the poblacion, was wholly built through the forced labor known as Labor Tax during the Spanish regime. The people being poor could not pay their taxes in cash and they were made to work for fifteen days every year.

In addition to the above historical ruins and sitios important facts, incidents and events also took place during the Spanish rule, likewise with the American rule.

During the Japanese regime, 1941-1945, very few people from the poblacion were killed by the Japanese. Among those who were killed were Dr. Rodolfo Bahia, Mr. Amador Deguito, Mr. Lorenzo Galvez, Mr. Luis de Guzman, Mr. Federico Gaa, and Mr. Damaso Maningat. No houses were burned in the poblacion except Mr. Jose Lopez Manzano’s home in Gumamela, about several hundred meters from the poblacion. The Japanese soldiers went from house to house to get whatever they wanted especially rice, clothing, and many other things. They also got working animals, like carabaos, cows, and horses. They also got calesas, carts, and also trucks and automobiles and used them in carrying war implements and other things in their travels.

[p. 7]

The first Japanese soldiers came to this town in 1942. Very few people stayed in the poblacion because most of them went to far away barrios to live temporarily. The Japanese civilians established an association called the Dai Nippon. They compelled the farmers of the locality and the neighboring barrios to plant cotton instead of sugar, rice, and other crops. These Japanese soldiers did not stay long in the poblacion. In 1944, [a] great number of Japanese soldiers came to this place. They were so many that they occupied the two large school buildings and many large houses in the poblacion. Some of the people who hated the Japanese because of their abuses formed a secret move known as Guerrilla Organizations. When the Japanese learned this movement, they caught and tortured those who were reported to them as guerrilleros. Among those who were killed were Dr. Rodolfo Bahia, Mr. Amador Deguito, and Mr. Lorenzo Galvez.

Very few classes were opened in the public schools during this time. Many children would not attend the classes because they were afraid of the Japanese and many others were in the far away barrios. The textbooks that were used were the same textbooks used before the war. They only told the teachers to cut or cover the back parts that were pertaining to American and Filipino heroes and patriots. All the Japanese, both soldiers and civilians, went away from this place sometime in December, 1944. The American soldiers who landed in Nasugbu in January, 1945 arrived here in March of the same year. They stayed in this place for about three weeks to liberate the town.

Following World War II, the following accomplishments were made in the poblacion:

1. Construction of the municipal building during the administration of Mayor Rufino Lainez, 1948-1951.
2. Construction of the public market during the administration of Mayor Lainez, 1948-1951 and the present administration of Mayor Modesto Novales, 1952-1954.
3. The reparation of Plaza Mabini under the administration of Mayor Rufino B. Lainez.
4. The reparation of streets and bridges in the poblacion under the administration of Mayor Modesto Novales.
5. The construction of a 6-room PTA school building in 1952 with the help of the Parents-Teachers Association in which Mr. Ceferino Deguito is the president for two consecutive terms 1952 and 1953.

[p. 8]

1. Ang palanganga, hindi nakikilala sa labi.
    Whether or not one chews buyo (betel) can be told from the lips.

2. Kung ano ang bigkas, siya ang bikas.
    A person’s appearance tells us what he is.

3. Ang pagmamalinis ay hindi pagmamainam
    Neatness is not necessarily pretense.

4. Ang gawang pamihasnan, maliwag malimutan
    What one has been used to is hard to forget.

5. Walang humipo ng palayok na hindi naulingan.
    Hands that hold dirty pots will certainly catch dirt.

6. Kapag ang tao ay walis ng walis, agahan mo at may yagit.
When one sweeps and sweeps there must be dirt.

7. Ang bibig mo ay ilapat, nang huwag manggaling sa iyo ang usap.
    Hold your tongue.

8. Hindi dapat ipagka-ila, ano mang ginawa.
    Tell the truth.

9. Mabuti pa ang matakaw kaysa magnanakaw.
    A greedy man is better than a thief.

10. Ang taong sinungaling ay dapat maging matandain.
      A liar must have a good memory.

11. A magdaraya ay hindi pinagpapala.
      A liar is never appreciated.

12. Ang taong bulaan, yukuran at hagkan.
      A liar is the brother of a thief.

13. Kung ano ang bukang bibig, siyang laman ng dibdib.
      What a man says so does he feel.

[p. 9]

14. Ang maibigin sa kasinungalingan, ay kapatid ng bilanguan.
      A liar eventually lands in jail.

15. Kung sino ang palasumpain ay siyang sinungaling.
      They that frequently swear frequently lie.

16. Hindi lahat ng napasok sa simbahan ay banal.
      All are not pious that go to church.

17. Ang mabuting pangaral, walang katumbas na halaga.
      Good advice is priceless.

18. Ang hanap sa bula, sa bula di mawawala.
      Easy come, easy go.

19. Ang hanap sa hamog, sa tubig naaanod.
      What comes from the dew you gathered must vanish with the water.

20. Kamay na di malabanan, yukuran at hagkan.
      There are hands that you must respect, kiss and obey.

21. Sa masunurin sa magulang lumalapit ang kayamanan.
      Those who are obedient to their parents attract good fortune.

22. Hampas ng magulang ay nakakapagpataba.
      Punishments from parents are blessings in themselves.

23. Sumunod ka at nang ikaw ay sundin.
      Obey and you will be obeyed.

24. Ang marahang pangunugsap, sa puso ay nakakalunas.
      A soft answer softens the heart.

25. Ang mabuting kalooban ay malaking puhunan.
      An obedient nature is an investment.

26. Ang taong lampas sa gulang, di dapat pakitunguhan; ang iyong pagpaparoonan, ay tatanda ka rin naman.
      Do not quarrel with the old for you will one day be old too.

27. Ang sumunod sa aral, karaniwa’y nakikinabang.
      Those who hearken to good advice reap the fruit of their labor.

28. Ang puri ay sa nagbibigay at hindi sa pinagbibigyan.
      They honor themselves that honor others.

[p. 10]

28. Ang magandang asal ay kaban ng kayamanan.
      To the good and courteous belong the best in this world.

30. Ang tao hindi man mahal, bigyan puri at kalugdan.
      Be courteous even to the lowly.

31. Ang salitang matatamis, sa puso ay nakaaakit, nagpapaluwag ng sakit.
      Sweet words soften the heart and ease the pain.

32. Ang anak na di marunong sumunod sa utos ng magulang ay hindi pinagkakalooban ng mabuting kapalaran.
      Those who are discourteous and disobedient to their parents do not get the blessings of good luck.

33. Kung ano ang masama sa iyo, huwag gawin sa kapuwa mo.
      What is bad to you, do not do to others.

34. Ang perlas ay nananatili ang halaga kahit nasa putik.
      The genuine pearl is always pearl even when found in the mud.

35. Magmamakipot ay maluwag, magmamapino ay magaspang.
      Trying to be tight but loose; trying to be fine but coarse.

36. Ang isda ay sa bibig nahuhuli.
      Fish is hooked by its mouth.

37. Ang dila ay hindi patalim, nguni’t kung sumugat ay malalim
      The tongue is not a blade; but it can cut deep.

38. Magbigay ka at ika’y bibigyan.
      Give and you shall be given.

39. Kung sino ang maawain, siyang papalarin.
      The kind are always blessed with good fortune.

40. Kung ano ang itinanim, siyang aanihin.
      What you planted you shall reap.

41. Huli man at magaling ay maihahabol din.
      A good act is never late.

42. Makikilala mo ang taong may bait sa kumpas ng kamay at buka ng bibig.
      The good in a man his gestures show, his words prove what is true.

[p. 11]

43. Ang inilalago ng lirio’t sampaga, sa nag-aalagang loob na maganda.
      Flowers bloom through the kindly touch of the hands that tend them.

44. Ang taong hindi marunong magmahal sa sariling wika, katulad ng hayop at malansang isda.
      He who does not love his native tongue is worse than the lower creatures.

45. Ang tao pag mayaman, marami ang kaibigan; pag mahirap na ang buhay, di man batiin sa daan.
      When one is rich, he has many friends; when he becomes poor, all turn away from him.

46. Matamis ang mamatay ng dahil sa bayan.
      It is sweet to die for one’s native land.

47. Ang puri ng tao kung pahahalagahan, ay gaya ng tubig na nasa tapayan. Kaunting langis na ito’y mapatakan, hindi iinumin at pandidirihan.
      Honor is like drinking water in a jar; a little oil dropped in it will make it repugnant.

48. Kung tunay na tubo, matamis hanggang dulo.
      True sugarcane is sweet up to its tip.

49. Pag ang sakit ay malaki, pangako ay marami; kung gumaling na at maigi, Dios man ay di masabi.
      We promise so much when in pain and forget them all when in good health.

50. Ang bayaning masugatan, nag-iibayo ang tapang.
      The wounded brave becomes doubly brave.

51. Kung ano ang tugtog, siyang sayaw.
      Dance with the music.

52. Bagong hari, bagong ugali.
      A new king gives new rules.

53. Kung ano ang tabas, siyang labas.
      The cut determines the shape.

54. Kung ano ang lakad ng alimangong matanda, siyang lakad ng alimangong bata.
      Like father, like son.

55. Ang lahat ng tao mag-away man, huwag ang mag-asawa sa loob ng bahay.
      The whole town may quarrel but the married couple should not.

[p. 12]

56. Ang hindi lumingon sa pinanggalingan, hindi makararating sa paroroonan.
      They who forget their own past will not reach their destinations.

57. Pag may hirap, may ginhawa.
      If there is hardship, there is joy.

58. Pag maaga ang lusong, maaga ang ahon.
      Work early and you will rest early.

50. Daig na agap ang liksi.
      Forethought is better than alertness.

60. Aanhin pa ang damo kung patay na ang kabayo.
      The grass is useless when the horse is dead.

61. Masisi na sa agap, huwag sa kuyad.
      Better be blamed for being too soon than being too late.

62. Ang taong nagigipit sa patalim ma’y kumakapit.
      The desperate become fearless.

63. Malakas ang loob, mahina ang tuhod.
      Some are brave but weak-kneed.

64. Malaking kahoy walang lilim.
      A big tree without a shade.

65. Kapag duwag, walang palad.
      To the coward does not go the spoils.

66. Ang kapangahasa’y bunga ng pag-asa.
      Those what attempt are ever hopeful.

67. Ang hindi mapagtipon, walang hinahong magtapon.
      Those who do know not what thrift is lead a life of waste.

68. Pagkaraan ng kasaganahan, susunod ang kasalatan.
      Years of plenty are followed by years of want.

69. Magtanim ka nang magtanim, nang marami kang anihin.
      Those who planted much will harvest plenty.

70. Ubos-ubos biyaya, mamaya nakatunganga.
      Give away, give away; someday you will have nothing for yourself.

71. Kapag may sinuksok, may titingalain.
      Those who save have something to fall [back] on in times of want.

[p. 13]

72. Sa maliliit na dampa nagmumula ang dakila.
      The great are born in humble huts.

73. Ang maliit na umpisa malaki ang hangga.
      Great things from small beginnings.

74. Ang naniniwala sa sabi-sabi, walang bait sa sarili.
      Rely on yourself not on others.

75. Ang ulang atik-atik, malakas magpaputik.
      Continuous showers make the ground muddy.

76. Ang laki sa layaw, karaniwa’y hubad.
      A pampered child is reared in vain.

77. Ang bato ay hindi lalapit sa suso.
      The stone does not go to the snail.

78. Walang binhing masama sa mabuting lupa.
      Any kind of seed will thrive in fertile soil.

79. Maglaan sa kabataan ng tukod sa katandaan.
      Make hay while the sun shines.

80. Kung saan ka nadapa, doon ka bumangon.
      Rise where you fall.

81. Walang luha na tumatagal ng isang taon.
      There is no sorrow time cannot heal.

82. Pag may kasayahan, may kalungkutan.
      Where there is sorrow, there is joy.

83. Ang pag-asa ay lunas.
      Hope brings joy.

84. Pag may hirap, may ginhawa.
      Those who have suffered will find their rewards.

85. May tenga ang lupa, may pakpak ang balita.
      Do not gossip.

86. Ang bait ng bata nasa matanda.
      The old set the right examples.

87. Madali ang maging tao, mahirap ang magpakatao.
      It is easy to be born a man but difficult to behave like one.

[p. 14]

88. Ang mahinhing dalaga, sa kilos nakikilala.
      Modesty is in being not seeming.

89. Di man magmana ng ari, magmana ng ugali.
      Inherit not riches but good manners.

90. Ang lumakad ng matulin, kung matinik ay malalim.
      If the swift walker is pricked by a thorn, it goes deep.

91. Hindi lahat ng ginto ay dalisay.
      Not all gold is pure.

92. Walang sunog na tutong sa taong nagugutom.
      To a hungry man, the rice is never scorched.

93. Ang langaw na nakatungtong sa kalabaw ay mataas pa sa kalabaw.
      The fly on the carabao’s back feels higher than the carabao.

94. Ang malas daw sa huego ay buwenas sa pag-ibig.
      Unlucky in gambling, lucky in lovemaking.

95. Kung saan nakahilig ang punongkahoy, ay doon mabubuwal.
      As a tree is incline, so it falls.

96. Magpakahabahaba ang prusisyon, sa simbahan din ang tuloy.
      Even the longest procession leads to the church.

97. Walang mataas na bakod sa taong natatakot.
      There is no fence too high for a frightened person.

98. Huwag kang makipaglaro sa kuting, baka ka kalmutin.
      Don’t play with a kitten lest it scratches you.

99. Walang matimtimang birheh sa matiyagang manalangin.
       Persistence wins the most stubborn girl’s consent.

100. Mabuti ang sampal na kaibigan kaysa halik ng kaaway.
         Better a friend’s slap than an enemy’s kiss.

[p. 15]

1. I come from the sea.  On cloudy days, I ascend heaven.  When I wish to drop down on plants, the farmers like me very much.  Unless I fall, plants die and farmers worry.  I'm the rain.
2. I'm in black and I'm in white.  During school days, I am very busy.  Children would carry me to school.  Most peple are fond of me for I give them knowledge.  I hate those children who do not take care of me.  I would be stored away without anyone holding me during vacation.  I am a book.
3. I cannot work without water.  It is not the water for drinking that I need.  It is either blue, black, red, or green.    People cannot write letters to their friends without me.  I'm almost found everywhere.  It is not difficult to find me in any store.  I'm a fountain pen.
4. I may be small or spacious.  Children and teachers come to me  during school days.  They enjoy the shelter under my roof.  Children clean me every day.  They make me attractive as possible.  I am a schoolhouse
5. I am invisible but people feel me.  I am found everywhere.  When I am sober, I am quiet and peaceful.    When I am angry, I am very powerful.  Nobody can stop me.  I destroy plants, trees, houses, and even telephone wires.  I usually get mad during the months of August, September, and October.  I am the wind.
6. He teaches me to read and write.  He acts as a father to me.  If I do not know my lessons, he helps me, but sometimes he scolds me.  Most often he is kind.  Without him, I can't make myself a better boy.  He looks after my conduct and when I do wrong, he corrects me.  He is my teacher.
7. It has a big body.  It is the chief helper of the farmers.  Without it they are helpless.  They cannot plow their fields.  They depend entirely upon its service.  It is the carabao.
8. It is called the "ship of the desert."  It carries passengers as well as baggage and heavy loads.  It does its work patiently with much endurance.  It does not mind the burning heat of the sun or the scorching sand.  It is the camel.
9. It is a powerful instrument.  It has aided scientists to discover microbes and other tiny organizms.  Without it, germs that cause dreadful diseases could not have been discovered.  This great invention is called the microscope.
10. I am neither a man, a woman, a boy, nor a girl.  I have no tongue but I have a mouth.  I can talk and I can sing.  When people hear me, they feel happy.  Sometimes, I would cause them to dance.  I give comfort to the lonely hearts.  Have you ever seen me?  I was made by a great inventor.  I am the radio.
[p. 16]
11. A plate of corn brightens every town. Stars in heaven.
12.  It looks at me, but I can't look at it. Sun
13.  The first is fifty, the second is zero, the third is five, and the last is a vowel. Love
14.  Three negroes always ready for service. Stove
15.  House of St. Anne, surrounded with spear. Pineapple
16.  What is it that you have but is always used by others and seldom by you? Name
17.  Once in a minute, twice in a moment, but never in a thousand years. Letter M
18.  There, then, you say but you cannot see it. Wind
19.  There is one word which contains five letters, if I take out one, how many letters remain? Money
20.  It is neither a human being nor an animal, but it possesses a face and two dims. Watch
21.  Two parties on each side of a mountain. but cannot see each other. Eyes
22.  You can carry me, I can carry you.  What am I? Shoes
23.  It has a tongue, but it cannot talk. Shoes
24.  It has no feet but it walks, it has no eyes but it weeps. Foundatain pen
25.  The balls of thread can reach the sky. Eyes
26.  I am afraid of one but not of two. Bamboo
27.  I killed the mother because I love the daughter. Banana
28.  When I am small, I have a dress, when I am big I have no dress at all. Bamboo
29.  When the king is passing, two soldiers are bowing. Railroad crossing
[p. 17]
30. A beautiful lady eating her body.  Candle 
31.  Who is your uncle's brother, who is not your uncle? Father
32.  A piece of iron that can guard like a lion.  Key 
33.  That has a had that cannot think.  Cabbage. 
34.  Water in Camiling cannot be blown by the wind.  Water of young coconut. 
35.  What plant is busy melting during hot days?  Ice plant 
36.  A beautiful queen sitting on a throne.  Kasoy
37.  The hair of Adam cannot be counted.  Rain 
38.  Fire over, fire under, good food in the middle.  Bibingka 
39.  What makes the oil boil?  Letter b 
40.  Spell hard water in three letters.  Ice 
41.  Who is the man who cannot tell a lie?  The dead man 
42.  What is the country that can be eaten?  Turkey 
43.  What is [it] that everybody has seen but will not see again?  Yesterday 
44.  I have two boxes which open without noise.  Eyes 
45.  A beautiful lady, no one can marry.  Doll 
46.  If you are really an egg seller, tell us what egg has a tail.  Lice 
47.  In what month of the year do you eat the least?  February 
48.  I am sitting when walking.  How is that?  Bicycle riding 
49.  When do we close a door?  When it is open 
50.  Wherever I go, I carry my own radio.  Mouth 
[p. 18]

Our people had many strange beliefs. They believed in omens. If men or women started to go anywhere and a rat or a snake crossed their paths, they returned home at once. That was a bad omen, they said. If they met a man who sneezed, that was also a bad omen, and if they went on, something evil would happen to them.

They also believed in charms. They thought that these charms would protect them. They called them anting-anting. Sometimes, a man wore a crocodile’s tooth or a wild hog’s tooth about his neck. When he had this charm on, he believed that he would not be killed while hunting. In battle, he thought that the enemy’s arrows would not hit him.

They believed in witches, too. The witch was usually an ugly old woman. People believed that if she looked with angry eyes at a boy or girl, the child would get very sick. A little black twig was then put between the child’s fingers. The twig, they said, was charmed and would make the witch come to the house where the child laid. When the people saw the witch, the child would get well.


1. Below are 10 coconuts. Plant them in such a way that there will be five lines and each line shall have 4 coconuts.

2. Below are sticks which count four. Rearrange the sticks in such a way that they count ten.

3. Here are sticks that count five. Rearrange them in such a way that they count four.

4. See what figures you can form in planting ten young coconut plants with the five places already given. Each place represents a row. In each row, there must be planted four coconut plants.

5. Below are 16 holes and a figure A. From the squares with holes cut out a figure as big as figure A, without enclosing a hole in the figure cut.

[p. 19]


Other information on books and documents treating of the Philippines are found in Mr. Ceferino D. Deguito’s library. The following books and documents are at present accessible for information purposes.

1. 300 Years History of Balayan

2. Panunumpa sa Katapatan – 1901

3. Balayan Provincia del Mismo – 1779
(Certificate of Gov. Basilio Sancho de S. S. Justa y Rufina)

4. Clippings Covering Philippine History about Different Matters Beginning with Stone Age

5. Novena ng Catamis-tamisang Ngalan ni Jesus – 1848

6. Spanish Circulars from Spain for the Filipinos
(3 Boletin Eclesiastico – 1884, 1886, 1889)

7. Breviarum Romanum- 1862
(Books that were used by priests in saying mass)

8. 4,000 years of Pharmacy
(An Outline History of Pharmacy and the Allied Sciences by Charles Wall, 1927)

The local authors residing in the community wrote dramas, essays, and poetry, either in printed or manuscript form. Such Tagalog works of Mr. Ceferino Deguito, the local postmaster, which are available in his library are as follows:

1. Mga Talang Pinaghahanap – Essay

2. Bulaan – Essay

3. Tau-tauhan – poetry

4. Sa Pamamayan ng Tula

5. Tulisan


1. Si Karayap na Mahiwaga

2. Mga Tulang Pinaghahanap

3. Ang Madugong Birang

4. Kubo ni Baro

5. Juan de la Cruz

6. Ang Tatay ng Juez

7. Pangarap na Natupad

8. Koronel Isagani

[p. 20]

9. Mayroon Akong Hinahanap

10. Binili ni Rizal

11. Kahatulang nasa Birang

12. At sa Wakas ay Nagkatapos din

13. Noli Me Tangere

14. Maria Makiling

15. Ako ang Maysala

16. God Repays Good Deed

17. Lola Basiang

18. Ang Buhay

19. Papasko

20. Masagana’t Walang Ligamgam

21. Pitong Kasalanan

22. Mga Uhaw na Puso

Another outstanding short story writer is Mr. Casiano T. Calalang, at present director of the Balayan Institute. Aside from short stories, he also wrote plays and inspiring articles. The titles and the corresponding papers and books where they were published are as follows:

Short Stories

1. Chaff (Phil. Herald, 1926)

2. Keeping the Peace (Phil. Herald, 1926)

3. The Pie (Phil. Herald, 1926)

4. Soft Clay (Phil. Herald, 1926; Filipino Love Stories by Paz Marquez-Benitez; Literary Apprentice, Tenth Anniversary Number; ALPHA, U. P. Annual for 1928)

5. Let’s Elope (Phil. Herald, 1927)

6. Under the Street Lamp (Phil. Herald, 1927)

7. The Fallen Idol (Phil. Herald, 1927)

8. Spurts of Blood (Phil. Herald, 1927)

9. The Barrio Teacher (Literary Apprentice, 1928)

10. Drums of Recollection (Phil. Herald, 1928)

11. Hard Clay (Free Press, 1927)

12. The Descent (Phil. Herald, 1928)

[p. 21]

13. Supremo Andres (Phil. Herald, 1927; Best Filipino Short Stories, O. O. Santa Romana, editor, 1938)

14. The Difference (Phil. Herald, 1928)

15. House of Dirt (Phil. Herald, 1929)

16. Slave of the Sea (Graphic, 1931; Phil. Prose and Poetry, Vol. III)

17. Two Windows (Phil. Herald, 1930)

18. Prelude to Revolution (National Review, 1936)

19. Ang Bukid ay Naghihintay (Ilang-ilang, 1948; Diwang Ginto, Ikalawang Aklat)


1. The Home Breaker (Won first prize in the U.P. College of Liberal Arts Playwriting contest, 1926; Sunday Tribune, 1926)

2. The Doubting Tomases (Phil. Herald, 1926)


1. How Shall We Write? (Phil. Herald, 1926)

2. Ilang Pansin sa Dulang Tagalog (Taliba, 1926)

3. On Story Settings (Phil. Herald, 1928)

4. The Challenge to Masons (Cabletow, 1952)

5. Don Sixto Lopez, Democrat and Patriot (Mimeographed, 1947) Notes and references:
Transcribed from “History and Cultural Life of the Municipality of Balayan,” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.
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