The History, Archeology, Folklore and Ancient Songs of Bauan and Its Vicinity by Celedonio P. Goria, 1923 - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore The History, Archeology, Folklore and Ancient Songs of Bauan and Its Vicinity by Celedonio P. Goria, 1923 - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore

The History, Archeology, Folklore and Ancient Songs of Bauan and Its Vicinity by Celedonio P. Goria, 1923

This page contains the complete transcription of the 1923 ethnographic paper written by one Celedonio P. Gloria from .jpeg scans of the originals made available by the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections. Corrections for grammar had been made in certain parts but no attempt was made to rewrite the original paper. Original pagination is indicated for citation purposes.
Henry Otley-Beyer Collection
[Cover page.]

Tagalog Paper No. 291.



Celedonio P. Gloria

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1. TAGALOG: Bauan, Province of Batangas, Luzon.

2. History: Historical traditions and legends: Folklore: Beliefs: Magical tales: Archeological remains: Local geography, and stories about particular geographical features: Old Tagalog songs.

3. Archeology: Description of various finds, and stories about archeological sites.

4. Language: Texts (Old Tagalog Songs).

- - - -

March 8, 1923.

[p. 1]


Up to this day, there exist old man in Bauan and its vicinity who can relate many interesting things about the town and its suburbs. I have approached some of them and i have put down in the following pages what i gleaned from what they recounted.


So tradition exists witch tell of the origin of Taal Volcano. However, according to a certain Joaquin Mañibo of Bauan, Taal Volcano erupted in the years 1572, 1709, 1716, 1880, 1903, and 1911. Those eruptions cost many deaths, but the most destructive both of lives and property where the eruptions of 1572, 1716, and 1911.


Tradition has it that the eruption of 1572 cost the removal of three towns of Batangas province from their sites near the Taal lake two places farther away. Thus, Tanauan, Taal, and Bauan which used to border the lake have been moved away. Successive eruptions cost the removal of Tanauan from the north of Mt. Makulot to the interior, of Bauan from the southern shore of the lake to Batangas bay, end of Taal from the south western shore of the lake to the shore of Balayan bay.

[p. 2]


The first seat of Bauan was in a place now called Diñgin, south of the lake. From that place, Bauan had been moved further and further south, so that the present site of Bauan is the place where the town was moved for the fourth time.

Bauan or Bauan (onion) [obviously, garlic] was thus called because the town of Bauan was then known for the production ofbauang; (onions) [garlic]. In former times, Bauan was a part or barrio of Taal. Bauan was then ruled by a Teniente Absoluto.

Upon the removal of Bauan from Diñgin, a relatively large family was left in the place. In the course of time, this family multiplied and today forms the inhabitants of the town of Alitagtag.


About the year 1716, the people of Alitagtag came to fear the way to the place where they got water after the sun had already set. They said that they saw a very big man on horseback who used to ride on the water. At times, they saw at night a big bonfire floating on the water. Tradition has it that when anybody who saw this things exclaims wonder or surprise, a strong wind accompanied by torrential rain would immediately occur.


The inhabitants of Alitagtag conceived an idea of

[p. 3]

erecting a cross near the place to drive the spirits away. They fashioned a very hard black [blurred word] in the shape of a big cross and erected it near the road to the place where they got water. The giant on horseback, however, did not cease to appear around the place. In the course of time, the place around the cross was converted into a forest and nothing was heard of it again until later.


A story tells of a faithful wife who had been wretchedly treated by her husband. One midnight, the husband arrived in their little hut very thirsty, and asked the woman to go to the Diñgin to get water. The woman, with tears in her eyes, proceeded to get water; however, because the night was very dark, she lost her way. She arrived in a forest and saw a cross (the same cross erected by the people of Alitagtag).


The woman kneeled before the cross and prayed. She left her jar near the cross. She was astonished when she saw that water was dripping from one flank of the cross into her jar until it was full. She told her story to her neighbors and soon pilgrims came to visit the place to see the miraculous cross.


The authorities of Bauan heard of the cross and they caused it to be removed to Bauan. According to the wri-

[p. 4]

ings of Fr. Gaspar de San Agustin in 1756, that cross is the one that exists today in Bauan. The cross has been plated with silver and, to this day, it is worshipped in Bauan. On May 3, every year, the people of Bauan celebrate feasts in honor of their patron saint – the Holy Cross.


During the eruption of Taal Volcano in 1911, the town of Bauan was threatened by falling lava and fire. However, the people contrived to get the cross from the church and take it along the town in [a] procession. The danger soon abated; the wind turned in a direction away from Bauan.


An old man of Mulauin, Alitagtag known as Nemesio Magboo recounts that in 186 [blurred last number], when the chief of the town of Bauan was Mr. Norberto Cusi, the town-chief, or Capitan, caused the digging of a well in Mulauin. When the depth of the well was about thirty meters, the diggers encountered a hollow passageway whence issued great gusts of wind. At the middle of the passageway, a big trunk of worked wood was found. The length of the log was about ten yards while the width was about one foot. There were holes on one and apparently for fastening rope. The excavators were not able to lift the log. For fear of the strong winds which prevailed in the passageway, the fall was again filled with earth.

[p. 5]


When Bauan was moved from Diñgin, the town was moved to the east of Mt. Duruñgao. The second site of Bauan was occupied for only a short time. Another eruption drove the people southward to a place near Batangas bay. At the fourth seat or present site of Bauan, there still exists a Castillo (castle) which used to serve as [a] stronghold against the depredations of the Moros.

Mt. Duruñgao was thus called because from the top of the mountain, Duruñgao (Look-Out), one can see Cape Santiago, the island of Lubang, the island of Maricaban, and the island of Mindoro to the south; towards the east, the whole region around the town of Batangas can be seen.


To the east of Mt. Duruñgao, there is a level slope about ten hectares in area. An old man, Saturnino Evangelista, says that when he was still a little boy, he discovered many things around the place. While plowing, he would sometimes unearth unbroken plates, cups, and small earthenware.

He would sometimes see copper coins and silver plates labeledPeru. At times, he would see small pieces of gold in the form of a parallelogram, and copper medals. At other times, he would discoverbolos(big knives) covered with rust.

[p. 6]

To this day, the place is called Saguintoan (Goldenland).


To the western slope of Mt. Duruñgao, there is a small area, about three hectares, known as communal land. Nothing grows in this place except trees or shrubs calledalagao. The flowers and buds ofalagaowhen boiled in water are good for [the] cold. This communal land must have belonged also to Bauan.


To the east of Saguintoan (Goldenland), there used to be three strong springs which could reach the sea in former times. These springs exists to this day; however, their waters do not reach the sea anymore.


To the east of Saguintoan (Goldenland), a certain man, Mariano Hernandez, caused the erection of a sugarcane mill in 1872. Policarpio Abante, one of the workers of Mr. Hernandez, relates that after they had erected the mill and the boiler, he was surprised one night when he saw a very big man whose hat was about one and a half meters in diameter. The big man was leaning, sitting rather, on top of the chimney. This big giant expressed himself in this wise: “Do not erect her a sugarcane mill because the place is located just above our subterranean

[p. 7]

road which goes from Mt. Makulot (east of Taal Volcano) to Mt. Mainit (region of hot springs on the southern part of Batangas province).” After uttering those words, the giant disappeared.


The next morning, the owner and workers discovered that the chimney was destroyed. Stones were scattered here and there. The workers continued in their daily work. The mill was functioning normally despite the loss of the chimney.

One noontime, when Policarpio was ladling the boiling juice of the sugarcane, he was pushed by a big giant into the tank. The poor workman suffered burns.


Many old people wonder about the two footprints which had been found around Bauan. One big footprint, about three feet long and one foot wide, of the left food had been found on a rock in Mt. Makulot; another big footprint, of the same size, of the right foot had been found impressed on a rock at the top of Mt. Mailayin. The distance of Mt. Makulot and Mt. Mailayin is from twenty to thirty kilometers.


To the east of the island of Pagal was a small projection from the bottom of the sea whose top was only a

[p. 8]

square meter in area. This small area has now grown to about five hundred square meters. The island is covered with forests today.

The island is called Pulong Balahibo (Feather Island). Tradition has it that when the island was only one square meter in area, some fishermen who happened to come near the place saw near it beautiful chicken feathers floating with the bubbles of the sea. From that time on, the island which had attained considerable size has been called Pulong Balahibo (Feather Island).


An old fisherman from Lobo tells that a very long time ago, skeletal remains were found to the west of Mt. Malabrigo. West of Mt. Malabrigo is a small mountain whose top is now level and covered with forests. The foot of the hill is a precipice and the precipice rests from the sea. Tradition tells how a coffin-like depression was found on the top of the hill. In the coffin, a skull as large as a big pot was found. What were supposed to be the extremities of the dead body were very enormous. Some slender bones were found to measure about three feet.

Up to this day, the place where the skeletal remains of a big giant was supposed to have been found is called Sacabaong (Coffinland).


Lumbermen state that on top of Mt. Malabrigo

[p. 9]

there can still be found very big seashells. One such big shell has been found to be two meters long and one meter wide. There were shells of considerable size around. Mt. Malabrigo, together with Verde Island, are abundant sources of shells and lime for the surrounding towns.


West of Bauan, there is a place called Malimatoc. The name of the town suggests a Visayan origin. Tradition tells how this place west of Bauan was in very early times was deforested by adventurers from Capiz. The place abounded in leeches (limatic in Tagalog; limatoc in Visaya). Because of this fact, the region had to this day been called from the Visayan name Malimatoc (Many-leeches).

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[p. 10]

Translationsby CELEDONIOP. Gloria.
I. (1)
I. (1)
Huling arao nang lamang ang sumapitMay the last day occur
at ang paghohocom sa lupa ñg lañgitWhen the heavens shall judge our earth--
aco lama, i, siya pinapapagtiisI am only experiencing pains
ñg may puno,t, walang dulo cong pagibigOn account of a love that began without end.
Ang taon at buan, linggo, arao, orasThe years and the months, weeks, days, hours,
Panahon at saca ang sandaling quisap;The time and the wink of the eyes;
tauo, hayop, cahoy, bato,t, lupang landasThe man, beasts, trees, stone and the land
inip na sa aquing binabatang hirap.Are worried because of my sufferings.
Ang boong lamiga,i, binabanig halosThe coldness of night serves as mat
sa paliguigliguid ñg bahay mo irogAll around your house, my dear love,
mag hapo,t, mag damag aquin nalilibot.I wander about in the daytime and night.
at naguupanding baon maon ompooBecause of desire to approach you;
[p. 11]
Minsan ay hindi na nangyayaring pinaladI have not had a fortune even once,
Laging sa pag pulong o paquiqui osapWhether courting, or e'en just talking;
cung lubhang inip na sa linacad lacadWhen I get tired of walking at last,
Ooui na lamang daliri ang cagat.I return to my home with a finger in my mouth
II. (1)II. (1)
Cung may sisisihin sa aquing pag-ibigIf there is somebody to blame for my love,
uala ñga cung hindi ang tunay na lañgitThere is no other else but the sky;
pagcat pinospos ca ñg ganda at diquitBecause she adorned you with beauty
ay di sinibulan ñg aua dibdib.But left your breast without pity.
Caya sa ganitoy pag isipan mo ñgaAnd so at this instance, please think
cung may matouid cang mag walang bahalaIf you have a reason to leave me;
ma quiquita mo nang matay lumuluhaSeeing already tears in my eyes,
ay na titiis mo sa pag dadalita.You cannot sympathize with my lot.
Anopat sa iyo na lamangI can frankly state that only to you
ipinag cabunto yaring pag mamahalHave I shed and exhausted my love;
at ang onti onting pag ibig sa iba'i.And what little fancies I had for the others,
[p. 12]
binaui sa iyo lahat ay pinisan.I gathered an poured them to you.
III. (1)III. (1)
Flores na,t, guirnalda, diamante ma,t, perlasWhether flower wreaths, diamonds or pearls
ang langanga,i, aco,i, sa iyo liliyagFill my way, I can love you still--
aaminin co nang ang bibig nang ahasI accept even mouth of the snake be my way
at pag daanan cong pa sa iyong harap.In passing along to your side.
Aaminin co nang maguing pauang saquitI will even accept as my own,
ang lahat ñg hirap sa silong ñg lañgitAll sufferings under the skies
mamatamisin co anoman ang paitHowe'ever bitter I will consider them sweet,
huag lamang na di, sa yo madiñgig.If only I can make my only self heard.
Sa lagay na ito,i, matitiis cayaCan you bear at this instance
na di tatanawin yaring lumuluha?Not to glance at my state when I'm crying?
sacaling di man gaui ang maauaE'en if unaccustomed to pity,
habag mo,i, sisibol di man quinucusa.Your sympathy will spring voluntarily.
IV. (1)IV. (1)
Icao sa puso co,i, guintong walang cupasIn my heart you are always a gold,
pag sinta sa iyo,i, walang ca-My love is a sea ever at its
[p. 13]
ting dagatat its high tide;
icao rin ang astro ñg aquing pag liyagYou are the star of my love
na di lomolobog sa anomang oras.That never ever sets any hour.
Nagpapahirap cay guinhaua sa saquitYou cause all my pains, but still you inspire me;
Icao ang masama na caibig ibigYou are one that is bad, but lovely still;
quinadudumalan ñg hinhin co,t, baitMy sense and my tastes abhor you,
dapuat mahal ca sa aba cong dibdib.However, you're loved by my breast.
V. (1)V. (1)
Yaring pinag himang linichang pag-irogThis love which sprouted and nurtured so fittingly
sa daquilang altar ni Cupidong diosUpon the magnificent altar of Cupid;
nang ipag uusig na sa tacbong lugodWhen there was already such happiness, hope,
sinabat ñg hirap na catacotacot.There sprang on the way fearful pains.
Bahagya pa lamang na hakbang na nasaFor scarcely alone does my hope first step,
pinataguistis na sa mata ang luhaThere came in my eyes already much tears;
ca'y Hercules manding gaua ang panudlaFor Hercules then must have made the spear
sa kaloloua co,i, tumambay ang bisa.That could have penetrating effects to my soul.
[p. 14]
VI. (1)VI. (1)
Cacadcarin na ñga quinidquid na laitI'm about to unwind the spool of my hate.
babataqui,t, hatol na imbing naisDictated by humbled aspirations I act--
sa apat na suloc nitong sangdaigdigTo the quadruple corners of the globe,
hihipan ang claring sigao niaring dibdib,The trumpet will sound as a cry of my breast.
Didinguin mo Neneng, ang mailiñgaoñgaoYou will come to hear, Neneng, the echoing
pulong ñg dalitat an aqui,i, papatayRumors of the poor that I am to die
ualang aba doong tototol isa manNobody will pity them, even one,
ang mamiminono,i, saquit ñg halimao.And nothing but pain will rule o'er.
VII. (1)VII. (1)
?Alin, cung may puso, na namamantuñganWho is it, that has heart, and would sit
sa talbis ñg dusa ang hindi dadamayBy the brink of all pains and would not sympathize
sa isang paris oo na ang hinihiga,i,With one like myself who lies down
taganas na luha, himotoc at lumbay?On nothing but tears, anguish, sadness?
Bayaan na munang quidquirin sa isipLet it be reeled this time in the mind
[p. 15]
matam-is na bañgo ñg santong pag-ibigThe sweet fruit of a love that is saintly;
bagadbakad yaong tauag ay colajesThe stratified nature of things we call clouds
Ito ay tanda na niaring pag [blurred word].Shows a sign of my pitiful lot.
VIII. (1)VIII. (1)
?Alin dibdib caya ang macatitiisWhich bosom is it that can suffer
sa mga bigay mong hirap at pasaquit?The pangs and the pains you have given?
lañgit man banta co,i, na capag lalauitE'en in heaven itself I suppose can dangle
ñg aua sa aquin, mutyang iniibig.A pity to me, my dear love.
Oo cung hindi man palad ñg pag-ibigWell then, even if it is not my love's fate
ang naturan na di mag camit ñg lañgitTo be mentioned that it shall attain not the sky--
?alin caya namang landas ñg matouidOh which is the road that is straight
na ang ualang salay bigyan ñg pasaquit?That those without sins will be made to endure?
IX. (1)IX. (1)
Huag uiuicain isang parang biroDo not take and consider as joke
ang aking pag lapit sa iyo,t, suyoMy approaches and implorings to you;
at ito,i, pag tupag ñg isang pañgacongFor this is fulfillment of promises made,
[p. 16]
ualang pag cabatay sa iyo susuco.Since I was a child, that I'll ever love you.
Sa lahat ñg ito,i,  ualang umaalioDespite all my troubles I find no comfort
cung di ang pagsuyong bagong cabibitioExcept for a love that has just been severed;
aaban mo, Buhay, tapat na pag quilioConfide then, my Life, that my love is sincere
umaasang lubis mag pahangang libing.And longs for you always even until my death.
X. (1)X. (1)
Cung biñgi ca, Poon, sa tinauag tauagIf, my Saint, you are deaf to my cries
ay yaan man lamang hintana'i ibucasThat window alone kindly open
para mo nang aua, para mo nang habag,As a pity to me, or compassion
sa nag dadalita ñg lamig at puyat.To a sleepless one in the cold.
Di inalintana ang ñgitñgit ñg dilimI minded not even the blackness of the dark
cacasapit lamang sa harap mo guilioIn order to come only befoire you, my dear;
ñgunit cung hindi mo pansinin ang dayingHowe'er if you will not to account my fond sighs,
mahañgay nasa pang calusong sa libing.I would then prefer more my descent to the grave.
X. (1)X. (1)
Narito na namang sa iyo,i, hihibicI am again here arriving to implore you,
[p. 17]
caladcad ñg dusa sa pag-ibigI am drawn by my pain because of love;
narito na namat muling itatañgisHere I am again to give vent and effusion
ang lahat ñg hirap ñg aba cong dibdib.To all of the troubles of my pitiful breast.
Sa ganito,i, ?baquit di mo bigyang wacasIn this case, why not give then the end
ang hilo ñg buhay ñg abang na liyag?To the thread of the life of your pitiful lover?
na sa iyong camay ang maguiguing lunasIn your hands the antidote lies alone
ñg pusong uindang na sa dusa,t, bagabag.To a heart that's destroyed by torture and pains.
XII. (1)XII. (1)
Paglubog ñg arao sa may dapit haponWhen the sun at last sets during twilight,
gabi, dilim, lamig sa mundo,i, tatabonThen night, darkness, and coldness covers the globe;
hamog sa halamay ang mag papaosbongThe dew of the plants makes them sprout,
gay-on din ang sintang sa puso,i, pag balongJust so will the heart when love reawakens.
dangang lumalalim gab-ing cadilimanThe deeper the darkness of night goes on,
himotoc ñg puso ay na uululanJust so do the pains of my heart increas;
lalo,t, cung nasambit ang iyong pañgalanYet more when they mention alone your dear name
[p. 18]
ang puso,i, maguiguing hustong cagamutan.In my heart there comes the exact medicine.
XIII. (1)XIII. (1)
Reng, guendeng-gendeng,Reng guendeng-guendeng,
Ang paño mo at paño ko--reng-guendeng;Your handkerchief and my handkerchief--reng guendeng,
reng guendeng-guendeng,Reng guendeng-guendeng,
Pagbuhulin mo ang dulo--reng, guendeng;Tie the ends together in a knot--reng, guendeng;
reng, guendeng-guendeng;Reng, guendeng, guendeng,
Kung itatanong ñg tao--reng, guendeng;If somebody will come to ask--reng, guendeng;
Reng, guendeng-guendeng;Reng, guendeng-guendeng;
Bulaklak ñg matrimonio-reng, guendeng.A flower of matrimony--reng, guendeng.
XIV. (1)XIV. (1)
Reng, guendeng-guendeng,Reng, guendeng-guendeng,
Ang singsing ko sa galamay-- reng, guendeng;The ring worn on my finger--reng, guendeng;
Reng, guendeng-guendeng,Reng, guendeng-guendeng,
Kuhat icao ang magtañgan--reng, guendeng;Take it and hold it in your hand--reng, guendeng;
Reng, guendeng-guendeng,Reng, guendeng-guendeng,
[p. 19]
Kung itanong ñg fiscal--reng, guendeng;If the fiscal will come to ask--reng, guendeng;
Reng, guendeng-guendeng;Reng, guendeng-guendeng;
Bulaklak ñg ilang-ilang--reng, guendeng:A flower of ilang-ilang--reng, guendeng:
Reng, guendeng-guendeng,Reng, guendeng-guendeng,
Ang singsing mo sa daliri--reng, guendeng;The ring worn on my finger--reng, guendeng;
Reng, guendeng-guendeng,Reng, guendeng-guendeng,
Kuhat ikao ang may-ari--reng, guendeng;Take it and keep it for yourself--reng, guendeng;
Reng, guendeng-guendeng,Reng guendeng-guendeng,
Kung itatañong ng pari--reng, guendeng;If the priest will come to ask--reng, guendeng;
Reng, guendeng-guendeng,Reng, guendeng-guendeng,
Bulaklak ñg kamantigui-reng, guendeng:A flower of kamantigui--reng, guendeng:
XV. (1)XV. (1)
Reng, guendeng-guendeng,Reng, guendeng-guendeng,
Isang gabing kadiliman--reng, guendeng;In one very dark night--reng, guendeng;
Reng, guendeng-guendeng,Reng, guendeng-guendeng,
Katahimikan sa bayan--reng, guendeng;When the town was very still--reng, guendeng;
[p. 20]
Reng, guendeng-guendeng,Reng, guendeng-guendeng,
May bato-batong nag daan--reng, guendeng:A bato-bato passed by--reng, guendeng:
Reng, guendeng-guendeng,Reng, guendeng-guendeng,
Sa tapat ñg duruñgauan--reng, guendeng:In front of a window once--reng, guendeng:
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
A kind of bird of gray color looking very much like a dove.
Reng, guendeng-guendeng,Reng, guendeng-guendeng,
Ang huni ñg bato-bato--reng, guendeng;The song of the bato-bato--reng, guendeng;
Reng, guendeng-guendeng,Reng, guendeng-guendeng,
May isa dao caballero--reng, guendeng;There was once a gentleman--reng, guendeng;
Reng, guendeng-guendeng,Reng, guendeng-guendeng,
Naguing tinik, naguing buto--reng, gueneng;Converted into fins and bones--reng, guendeng;
Reng, guendeng-guendeng,Reng, guendeng-guendeng,
Nang panininta sa iyo--reng, guendeng:Because of great love to you--reng, guendeng:
- - - - -- - - - -
[p. 21]
Aray, kung di man;Aray, even if not;
Aray, kung dañgan;Aray, were it not;
Kung dañgan si Neneng ang may kasalanan--Were it not the fault of Neneng--
Neneng, kung tauagin larauan ñg buhay;Neneng, who is called the mirror of life;
Neneng, kung tauwagin larauan ñg buhay,Neneng, who is called the mirror of life.
Aruy, kung di man;Aruy, even if not;
Aruy, kung da ñgan;Aruy, were it not;
Mahal ka sa puso magpakailan man--You are dear to my heart forever and ever--
Neneng, kung tauagin larauan ñg buhay;Neneng, who is called the mirror of life
Neneng, kung tauagin larauan ñg buhay.Neneng, who is called the mirror of life.
- - - - - - - - - -

Notes and references:
Transcribed from “The History, Archeology, Folklore and Ancient Songs of Bauan and Its Vicinity,” by Celedonio P. Gloria, 1923, online at the Henry Otley-Beyer Collection of the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.
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