Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the barrio of Kaluangan in the Municipality of Calaca, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.
PART I – HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF BARRIO KALUANGAN
1. Present official name – KALUANGAN
2. Popular name of the barrio:
b. Present - - - - - - - Kaluangan
The barrio is called Kaluangan because among the neighboring small barrios and sitios, it has the widest level land suitable for farming. It is said to be “maluang,” hence the name. The small sitios included in the territorial jurisdiction of Kaluangan are Orasion, Pangyayot, Kalawite, and Delingkinte.
3. This barrio Kaluangan was established in the early part of the Spanish occupation.
4. People the live and settled in the place from the early period to the present are the people that came from Sinisian who changed their residence for the want of a happy and prosperous livelihood.
5. The barrio tenientes from the Spanish period to the present are the following: arranged in their order of occurrence:
(2) Gregorio Maullon
(3) Balbina Mendoza
(4) Nazario Endozo
(5) Pedro de Roxas
(6) Francisco Marasigan
6. Stories of the old sitios:
a. Orasion – This is a small village with a few families living in it. The village is called Orasion because of the deep and narrow trail below trees and bushes. Because of the thick trees that cover the deep trail, sunlight can hardly penetrate into it, so that the trail is always dark and gloomy even at daytime. The darkness of the trail at all times reminds people of early evening, when it is time for praying.
b. Pangyayot – This village is called by such name because of its physical structure. It is a narrow village, the width of which is around fifty meters with both sides very steep, sinking down, like landslides. Pangyayot, the name given to the place, means thin (payat).
c. Kalawite – This is a village formerly covered with trees, cogon and talahib. This barrio is separated from the other sitios by deep ravines on the east and west sides, which meet at the southernmost part. According to old persons, this place was called Kalawite because during the early Spanish time, there lived in the place a cruel and boastful man, whose name they could not remember. When this man got mad, his boast was to kill his enemy with his left hand only. This man used his left on light as well as hard work. So, the place was eventually called Kalawite, because of the left-handed man, for left-handed in the dialect means “Kalawite.”
7. Kaluangan is east of Dila and is separated from Dila by a deep ravine. The village is about a mile in length and a kilometer in width. It has a wide and level land, fertile and favorable to farming.
8. During the Spanish occupation, Kaluangan and other neighboring sitios were hiding places or bandits and robbers.
No important incidents took place in the place during the American occupation.
After World War II, the population increased rapidly. The people are law-abiding, hardworking and peaceful. People are practicing the kaingin system up to the present. Parents are interested in the education of their children, and are very cooperative in school activities. The males are busy with their farms and the females are busy with their housekeeping. The people of the village are religious and devout Catholics. They often go to church on Sundays, fiestas and holidays.
In view of the location of the place, very far from the poblacion, the past wars had not affected the place very much. After World War II, the place became more prosperous due to the industry of the people who are engaged in farming, trading and raising of animals.
PART II – FOLKWAYS
10. The people are interested in reading books and papers. They are interested in attending meetings and convocations or programs. The people are willing to participate in social and political affairs. When a child is born, the parents select the godfather if a boy, and the godmother if a girl. Since the people are pure Roman Catholics, babies are baptized in the church. The people are courteous, especially to women. They do not forget the old Filipino custom of “po” and “opo.” The marriage custom is the same as the other barrios. Marriage is highly celebrated. When a person dies, a daily prayer for nine days is said for the repose of the soul. Mourning is made by the family and relatives for one whole year. Punishment for a crime is quite hard. When a person commits a crime, he or she will be whipped. If he or she cries, then the pain is not felt, hence the whipping continues; but if the whipped person does not cry, then he or she feels the pain and will be pardoned.
11. The people believe in God. They also believe in nature. Every action of nature, to them, has meaning. They also believe in some superstitions. They believe that the world was created by God. They also say that the lands were created by God for the people, the trees and animals. They believe that
mountains are lands without owners. They believe that caves were made for a purpose, for someone to live in. People believe that seas, lakes and rivers were made by God for man. Trees, plants and animals are [the] world’s vegetation. They believe that the sun, stars and moon are heavenly bodies beyond their control. They believe that whenever there is an eclipse, there is trouble among the heavenly bodies. They say that earthquakes are signs of rain, heat or storm. To them, lightning and thunder are fire and they are dangerous. They say that clouds are compounds of smoke coming from fires and lamps. They say that rain comes from the sky, and that the wind is carried by somebody with mysterious power and strength. They believe that the first man and woman on earth were Adam and Eve. They believe that the birth of twins is double compensation from God. They believe that sickness is caused by mysterious acts of nature, such as coldness, warmth and the winds.
12. The popular songs in the place are kundimans, pandangos and others. The people are fond of ball games, running by pairs and jumping. They love music, playing the guitar and serenading.
13. The people have good riddles, too, such as:
14. Proverbs and sayings:
b. Pag haba ng tale ng baka, pag polopot sap aa.
c. Magbayad kung may utang.
d. Pag may buhay, ay may yaman.
15. They have a different way of telling time. When the sun rises, they say that it is six o’clock. When the sun is overhead, they say it is twelve o’clock. When the sun sets, it is six o’clock P.M.
In case of rainy days, when the sun cannot be seen, they tell time through various ways and means. When the chickens get down from the trees, it is already morning. When they get hungry at noon, they say it is twelve o’clock. When they see the leaves of trees coming close together or when the tops of vegetables bend, it is already evening.