Santa Maria, Bauan, Batangas: Historical Data Part I - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore Santa Maria, Bauan, Batangas: Historical Data Part I - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore

Santa Maria, Bauan, Batangas: Historical Data Part I

Historical Data graphic
Historical data from the National Library of the Philippines.



Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the barrio of Santa Maria, Bauan, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.

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1. Present official name of the barrio - - - Sta. Maria

2. Popular name of the barrio:

a. Present – Sta. Maria
b. Past – Munting Tubig
c. Sitios:
1. Wawa
2. Balangutan
3. Munting Tubig
4. Patugo

3. Date of establishment:

It was established during the Spanish Regime.

4. Original Families:

a. Mariano Caguete
b. Narciso Caguete
c. Evaristo Sandoval
d. Cirilo Panopio
e. Doroteo Salcedo
f. Cipriano Corona
g. Roman Medrano
h. Mariano Agina
i. Modesto Villanueva
j. Agaton Calinao
k. Juan Villanueva
l. Deogracias Mendoza
m. Pedro Calinao
n. Deogracias Mendoza

5. List of tenientes from earliest time to date:

a. Agapito Azucena
b. Doroteo Villanueva
c. Alberto Calinao
d. Feliciano Dinglasan
e. Saturnino Calinao
f. Aliburyo Cordero
g. Cirilo Panopio
h. Jose Panopio
i. Modesto Villanueva
j. Agaton Calinao
k. Juan Villanueva
l. Deogracias Mendoza
m. Pedro Calinao
n. Deogracias Mendoza

6. Story of old barrios or sitios within the jurisdiction that are now depopulated or extinct: None.


Sta. Maria is the westernmost barrio of Bauan that lies along the coast of Batangas Bay. Formerly, this was called Munting Tubig. Few people lived in this place. The barrio was covered with forest. In Wawa, there were only twenty homes with only about fifty inhabitants living. In Balangutan, there were

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only six houses and ten persons. In Munting-Tubig, there were only seven houses with fifteen inhabitants. In Patugo, there were only three houses with six people living. As years passed, the population increased. Many houses were built.

During the Spanish times, there were no roads and bridges. People went to town walking, or riding on horseback, and sometimes by boat. In was in 1927 after the great flood that roads and bridges were built. The main street before was in front of Modesto Villanueva’s house near the seashore. The funniest thing was that during those years, only the cabezas could pass on this road.

The people during those times were engaged in fishing and farming. They sold their things in the market so early in the morning for their means of transportation was walking. Since no good roads were built during those days, they had to pass along the seashore. There were no schools during that time. In order that their children could acquire [a] little education, the children were sent to town.

When the Americans arrived, roads had been built and bridges had been constructed. The living condition of the people was improved. People from other places resided here and, thus, the population of the barrio increased. The means of transportation were developed from one place to another. After five years, there were already 300 homes and inhabitants totaled 1,000.

7. Data on historical sites, structures, buildings, old ruins, etc.

It was in the year 1900, after the Spanish-American War, that the first school was built. This was made of nipa. It was near the seashore in Balangutan. They had only Grades I and II. Alibaryo Cordero from the town worked for the establishment of this school. At the same time, he was the barrio lieutenant.

The second school was built through the influence and leadership of Modesto Villanueva who was at the same time the barrio lieutenant at that time. The school was then transferred near his house because he was also the one who donated an adequate school site.

Later on, this school was rebuilt in 1920. The same person worked for the establishment of a newer and better school. This school was able to accommodate pupils from Grades I-IV until the Japanese came. When the American

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liberation forces were about to come, the Japanese destroyed this building in the year 1944. The Japanese got all the materials to be used as shelter in their hiding places.

Then the liberation came in 1945. The school was transferred to Munting Tubig. Here, the site was enough. The barrio people contributed and raised funds for the construction of this new school. Each contributed the amount of ten pesos (₱10.00). The newly constructed school during the liberation was made of nipa and it cost about four hundred pesos (₱400.00). Since the new school building was made of light materials, it did not last long.

In 1948, another school was built. This school was built of materials that came from the Surplus Depot. The incumbent Vice-Mayor Dominador Anis together with the cooperation of some prominent barrio folks worked for the construction of the new school building. This school building remains but it will not last more than two years. This building might collapse because it is made of light materials.

It was in 1950 when the two-room building was constructed. The amount spent for this two-room building came from the War Damage Commission. The school now has a complete elementary.

8. Important facts, incidents or events that took place:

a. During the Spanish Occupation:

During the Spanish Occupation, many of the inhabitants were members of the insurrection. This place became the hiding place of insurrection soldiers.

b. During the American Occupation to World War II:

Since most or nearly all the people of this place lived along the seashore, many people died during the strongest typhoon in the year 1927.

c. During and after World War II:

During World War II, this place was selected as the best place for [the] concentration camp of guerrillas. Guerrilla activities were being held in this place which led to the death of one suspected guerrilla lieutenant, Atty. Marquez.

9. Destruction of lives, properties and institutions during wars, especially in 1896-1900 and 1941-1945.

During the years of Japanese Occupation, the farms which were planted to rice and other foodstuffs were converted to cotton plantations under the command of

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the Japanese Imperial Army.

Properties of the people were being confiscated. Fowls and animals were being taken from the people. Many lives perished on land and others on sea travels.

The school building was burned and materials of good quality were used as their shelter in their hiding places.

b. Measures and accomplishments toward rehabilitation and reconstruction following World War II:

The school which was burned by the Japanese was reconstructed. Now, the new two-room building is used as the permanent building of the school children.

10. Traditions, customs and practices in domestic and social life:

a. Birth – A mother that is going to deliver a child, the father must be present, for according to them, the mother will find difficulty in delivering the child. Also, when somebody is going to summon the midwife, the person requested to call a midwife must not turn his face backward in order to ease the delivering mother.

b. Baptism – As soon as the child is delivered, the parents of the delivering mother should select the one to be the godmother or godfather before the child is brought to the church for [the] baptismal ceremony.

c. Courtship – When a gentleman is going to court a young woman, he must first get the permission of the parents. When there are groups of young men in the house of the lady, the first gentleman who comes first should be given the privilege to sit near the lady. If there are young men sitting on the benches, he must not pass in front of the courtier who came first, there might be troubles.

d. Marriage – When the contract for the marriage of a young man and a young woman was accomplished, the relatives of the woman are given the privilege to eat first at the table. When the wedding party is about to be finished, the bride and the bridegroom are seated on a short table and two plates are place in front of them. The relatives of the bride and bridegroom give the dowries as a means of their first income or earnings. When all the dowries are collected, the whole amount is given to the bride. It is also the custom in this place to separate the bride and bridegroom during their first night of sleep. It is only after the next day that the bridegroom can go to the house where the wife is.

e. Death – When somebody dies in this place, it is the custom of the near neighbors to give all the help

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they could give in the form of service or money. During the night, all the relatives together with the neighbors will go to the house of the dead and offer their prayers. Some spend the whole night without sleeping in the belief that if they will not watch the body of the dead, he might be taken by some spirit without their noticing. Some activities are being performed in the form of jokes, programs, or plays. After the dead body has been buried, all the relatives must wear black color as [a] sign of respect and condolence. All the relatives do not cook any leafy vegetables because they think that it will be difficult for the dead body to reach heaven.

f. Festivals – The common festivals which are being observed throughout the barrios in the municipality of Bauan are also being observed in this barrio. It is the custom in this barrio to observe the (PISTA SA NAYON). Here, the people celebrate the Patron Saint “Mahal na Poon Santa Cruz” once every year or more. In this place, all the people from the wealthiest to the humblest contribute for the celebration. They prepare food for all the visitors since it is their belief that no calamities will ever occur during the period.

g. Punishments – Although the barrio of Sta. Maria belongs to one or two clans, yet punishments are also imposed on the wrongdoers. The punishments given to the guilty persons are as follows:

1. The guilty person is being segregated from the family.
2. They are given hard manual labor.

11. Myths, legends, beliefs, interpretations, superstitions:

a. Beliefs and Superstitions:

1. The spirit of the dead only does not die with the body but goes somewhere.

2. It is believed that we can be cured of tuberculosis by drinking the blood of the dog.

3. To save a dog-like victim from certain death or lunacy, the part bitten is wiped with the brain of the dog.

4. The first rain of May is used for washing the skin and ridding it of prickly heat, dandruff, etc.

5. To cure baldheadedness, the hairless one catches a lot of house flies, crushes them and rubs them against his gleaming parts and it is believed that their hair will grow on it.


Notes and references:
Transcribed from “History and Cultural Life of the Barrio Sta. Maria” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.
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