Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the barrio of Binubusan in the Municipality of Lian, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.
HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF THE BARRIO
Part One: History
1. The present official name of the barrio is Binubusan.
2. The popular name of the barrio in the past was Bayanan, but at present, there are still many old folks who call this barrio as Bayanan. Anyway, the popular name, official name is Binubusan. The derivation and meaning of Binubusan, according to reliable information derived from the dialect word “Pinagbubusan.” Many people from distant places who visited Binubusan found the peaceful condition of the place, the abundance of crops and the hospitality of the people. The prosperity and contentment prevailing in the place made the people stay permanently here. The sitios included within the jurisdiction (territorial) of the barrio are Balibago, Matabungkay, Luyaban, Turobayan, Litlit, Aguba, Matuod, Mainit, Kuwako, Elenahan, Matala, Pinagbarilan, and Karwahe.
Among the important sitios of Binubusan is Luyahan. It is on the western side of Binubusan proper. Since its existence, it has been popularly known as Luyahan. How it came to be called such [a] name is a simple myth. Formerly, this sitio was a wilderness. The most common among the plants that time was the wild ginger known to the few inhabitants of the place as “luya-luya.” As such, the name of the said sitio was derived from the plant luya; thus, calling the place Luyahan. This became this popular and official name up to the present.
Another big sitio is Matabungkay. It is located on the southwestern part of Binubusan. It is also near the shore like Luyahan. Matabungkay is famous for its bathing resorts. Its present name was taken from the falling ground and stone from the hills which means “bungkay.” The old inhabitants added “mata” for they had seen the action. Another smaller section of Matabungkay is Altura. It was called such [a] name because of its altitude. The people could see many places when in this small village.
Balibago is another big sitio belonging to Binubusan. Smaller villages belonging to this sitio are Bungahan, Matala, and Lucban.
Litlit is a small section of the barrio of Binubusan. It is located near a river. On the banks of this river are many little plants called “litlit.” These plants were and are still being used for chewing buyo. From that time on, the place was called Litlit.
There was once a man who was very big and strong but was very stupid when it came to work. This man was the first one who settled in this place called Aguba, a name derived from the capacity of this man in working. He was very slow in movements.
In a mountainous region located near the shore, the north of Binubusan, grew many big trees. During that period, the people’s industry in earning their livelihood was by making kaingins. The settlers in that place made all the forests into kaingins and that not a single tree was left. Several portions of the trees that were cut were left on the ground. These parts left were of uniform height and they were very attractive to see because even though one was very far, he could see them clearly and uniformly.
The people who happened to visit the place together with the settlers gave the name of “Matuod.”
Mainit is a small village north of Binubusan. It is near the base of the mountain. In this section is a hot spring which becomes very warm on cold weather. Many people come to this place to take a bath. It was then from that time on and up to the present that the place was called “Mainit.”
Kuwako is a sitio located near a river. There was once a man who said that during the early period, he had seen a big giant having a big pipe. The people were afraid to live in this place because of this great creature. Since that time, this place was name after the big pipe of the giant. Thus, the name of the sitio was later called “Kuwako.” Some people say that up to the present, they can see this giant on the bridge when they pass it at midnight.
Elenahan is a small sitio of Binubusan. It is a place where many Santa Elena trees were grown. Because of the great numbers of such trees, the settlers called it Elenahan. Up to the present time, there are many elena trees growing in the place.
Matala got its name from the name of the plant called “tala” by the early settlers. These plants could be found on the banks of the river. The people use these plants in mixing with tobacco which smells sweet while smoking. This place is hilly and is located on the side of the river.
Prior to the arrival of the Spaniards, there were many bandits or “tulisanes.” During that period, the civil guards fought hard against the bandits. There was terrible fighting between them. The people who saw the fighting called that place “Pinagbarilan.”
Karwahe: During the early period, there were no good roads and other means of transportation except by horseback and by carriage. The travelers always sought a short way when going to other places. One time, a rich man rode in his carriage and then passed through a hilly place because he could not cross a river. The hill was so steep that the carriage was broken and was left there. The settlers who settled in that place found the broken carriage. From that time on, the name of the place was called such [a] name as Karwahe.
Sulsuguin: During the early days, the travelers always found a short way in traveling [to] a distant place because of [a] lack of the means of transportation. There was a certain place in which one could not reach unless one passed through the long river. The travelers who happened to reach this place called it “Sulsuguin.”
3. No records or information are available. (Binubusan) Balibago became a recognized sitio in 1932. Luyahan was established in 1920. All the rest have none.
4. The original families in Binubusan were the following: Ruiz, Casihan, Macalalad, Hernandez and Austria. The early families of Luyahan belonged to Platon Manalo, Joaquin Decilos, Mariano Carandang, Ceferino Cahayon, Repromio Doctor, Mariano Austria and Antonio Veroya. The early families of Matabungkay were the following: Maximo Lundag, Raymunda Jonson, Manuel Alaras, and Cayetano Alaras. The original families of Balibago were the Anzaldos, the Dimaalas, and the Elipongas.
5. The list of tenientes del barrio of Binubusan from the early times to date are the following: Carlos Malinay (4 years);
Hugo Gonzaga (4 years); Prudencio Samaniego (20 years); Eugenio Familiar (10 years); Simon Cunamay (8 years); Gregorio Cudiamat (8 years); Crisanto Corrado (4 years); Luis Ruiz (4 years); and the present incumbent is Luis Ruiz.
The list of tenientes del barrio of Balibago is as follows: Eleuterio Banaag, Juan Dimarca, Gaudencio Chamiso, Lucas Pineza, Feliciano Panganiban and Crispulo Belmi.
The list of tenientes del barrio of Matabungkay from the earliest time to date is as follows: Simon Daigdigan, Juan Lundag, Bernabe Solis, Rufino Lundag, Cipriano Lundag, Dalmacio Corpuz, Criterio Banaag, and Silvestre Austria.
Arranged chronologically are the tenientes del barrio of Luyahan from the date of its establishment to the present: Antonio Veroya, Zosimo Perez, Eugenio Macalindong, Antonio Austria, Eugenio Macalindong, Modesto Carandang, and Antonio Austria.
6. There is not any barrio or sitio which is now depopulated or has become extinct within the jurisdiction of Binubusan.
7. Data on historical sites, structures, buildings, old ruins: During the Spanish occupation of the barrio of Binubusan, there were several big houses built by the Spaniards. There was also a church and a convent built by them, too. They taught some children to pray and to read the Spanish language. There was a priest assigned here who solemnized marriage and burial ceremonies. As a consequence of the cruelties and abuses done by the Spaniards to the people, they never became reconciled to the Spanish rule. After a few years of sufferings, the people formed a conspiracy to overthrow the Spanish rule. When the rebellions between the Filipinos and the Spaniards ensued, the people burned these buildings so that the Spaniards would not stay any longer in this place. Up to the present, one can still see the ruins of this church and the convent. This site is the present cemetery of Binubusan.
All the other sitios of Binubusan have no historical sites, structures, or old ruins that could be seen.
8. Important facts, incidents or events that took place:
On August 20, 1896, the cry of Balintawak was held under the brave leadership of Andres Bonifacio. Six days after it, the Philippine Revolution began. The beginning of the revolt in Binubusan was in the month of December of the same year. Felipe Austria was appointed by the people as the leader or chief of the revolution against the Spaniards in this place. In March 1897, the Spaniards arrived and attacked Binubusan. The people, under the leadership of Austria, fought with only five rifles and bolos. In April 1898, the people surrendered due to lack of arms or force to fight the Spaniards.
The Spanish occupation had little effects on the lives of the people. In some respects, the early Spanish rule had created hardships. These hardships were largely the result of the practices connected with the payment of tributes and the enforcement of labor. On the other hand, the spiritual life of the people was greatly changed.
The sitio of Luyahan was still uninhabited during the pre-Spanish and Spanish Regimes as evidenced by the date of its establishment. Therefore, facts and events could not be gathered from the present inhabitants. During the Spanish occupation, no incidents or events took place in the sitio of Matabungkay. The same is true with the sitio of Balibago.
In the month of April, 1898, the Americans came. These Americans, together with the Filipinos, fought against the forces of the Spaniards. Due to the great force of the Americans, the Spaniards surrendered in august, 1898. After the surrender of the Spaniards, one year after, the Filipino-American war began. In may, 1900, when there was the "Flores de Mayo," the Americans attacked Binubusan. There was no fight. The leader was caught alive and the members surrendered. This place was the last one attacked by the Americans because before proceeding to this place, all the neighboring towns and barrios had already surrendered.
The American occupation had great effects on the people of Binubusan. Schools were built for the primary grades. A church was also built and the people learned ways of moral life. The spiritual life of the people was greatly improved. The people learned to live a better life because modern ways of agriculture where introduced.
In Luyahan, no progress was made since its occupation from the year 1900 to 1919. There was no school, no chapel for religious instruction and only a portion of land was cultivated. There was but a store at that time. Shuttered nipa huts could be seen that time.
The bombing of pearl harbor on December 8, 1941 caused the outbreak of world war ii in the Pacific between the Japanese and the Americans. It was in April, 1942 when the Japanese forces entered Binubusan. They did not stay long in this barrio. In the year 1943, the Japanese arrived for the second time and inhabited the whole barrio. The people evacuated to the mountains in the meantime that the Japanese lived or occupied most of the houses. They destroyed the plants planted by the people because they earned their living from the food of the people of this place. They even destroyed the fishpond so as to catch fish for their food.
On January 31, 1945, the American forces landed in Nasugbu. They attacked the Japanese forces in the neighboring towns and barrios. There was no battle in this barrio because the Japanese evacuated upon learning of the landing of the Americans. After the end of World War II, the people lived again a happy life. They repaired the destruction made by the Nippons. They were able to improve the yields of production in the farms because the Americans imported large quantities of sugar from this place. Schools where improved and more children wear educated. The people began a new life again. Summing up the effects of the American occupation, there we're very great improvements. Independence was granted on July 4, 1946.
From the year 1941 to 1943, the Japanese occupied Luyahan and its smaller section of Ligtasin. Ligtasin became one of the temporary camps of the Japanese. These soldiers wrought destruction on properties. They confiscated rice, corn, eggs, chickens, pigs and even cattle. A few of the inhabitants were killed because of their refusal to give up their belongings.
After World War II, some of the people of Luyahan received were damaged reparations from the Commission. No other measures and accomplishments are being undertaken following World War II. Balibago is another sitio which suffered under the Japs' maltreatment and atrocities. They killed about eleven persons from this place and
9. (a) Destruction of lives, properties and institutions during wars, especially in 1896-1900 and 1941-1945:
Lives: Many persons died during the Civil War and also during the epidemics.
Property: No destruction.
Lives: Six men died in action in Bataan and in the concentration at Camp O'Donell.
Property: There was great destruction in the barrio. Sugarcane and palay in the fields were destroyed by the Japanese. Fishponds were destroyed; The people left their houses and evacuated to some peaceful places.
Institutions: The school building built in 1936 remained standing. It was not destroyed.
Part II: Folkways
10. Traditions, customs and practices in domestic and social life; birth, baptism, courtship, marriage, death, burial, visits, festivals; punishments, etc.
Prior to 1896, people of this place had several and different traditions, customs, and practices in domestic and social life. According to reliable sources, the people of Binubusan were awkward when it came to farming and other industries. They were used to primitive methods of farming. They were also very behind in civilization. In spite of this, they were friendly and lived like brothers and sisters.
Persons born during those days were named after the months of the year while some got theirs from the calendar introduced by the Spaniards during their occupation. A week after the birth of a child, the parents, together with the godfather or godmother, went to the barrio church for the baptism. The priest who was assigned in the barrio solemnized the baptism.
Courtship practices were the same with the present ones. The man courted the woman before the marriage was announced.
When there was a dead person, the members of the family, with some relatives and neighbors, spent the whole night watching the dead. They played different games. Drinks were served at midnight. The following day, the dead was taken to the cemetery for the burial ceremonies.
People of Binubusan are hospitable. People coming from other places were entertained in the most welcomed ways. When the barrio fiesta is fast approaching, the people are busy preparing delicious foods for the coming visitors. Persons who committed crimes are investigated by the officers of the barrio and when found guilty, they are confined behind the stone walls which are in town.