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January 3, 2018

Binubusan, Lian, Batangas: Historical Data

Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the barrio of Binubusan in the Municipality of Lian, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.

[p. 1]

HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF THE BARRIO

Part One: History

1. The present official name of the barrio is Binubusan.

2. The popular name of the barrio in the past was Bayanan, but at present, there are still many old folks who call this barrio as Bayanan. Anyway, the popular name, official name is Binubusan. The derivation and meaning of Binubusan, according to reliable information derived from the dialect word “Pinagbubusan.” Many people from distant places who visited Binubusan found the peaceful condition of the place, the abundance of crops and the hospitality of the people. The prosperity and contentment prevailing in the place made the people stay permanently here. The sitios included within the jurisdiction (territorial) of the barrio are Balibago, Matabungkay, Luyaban, Turobayan, Litlit, Aguba, Matuod, Mainit, Kuwako, Elenahan, Matala, Pinagbarilan, and Karwahe.

Among the important sitios of Binubusan is Luyahan. It is on the western side of Binubusan proper. Since its existence, it has been popularly known as Luyahan. How it came to be called such [a] name is a simple myth. Formerly, this sitio was a wilderness. The most common among the plants that time was the wild ginger known to the few inhabitants of the place as “luya-luya.” As such, the name of the said sitio was derived from the plant luya; thus, calling the place Luyahan. This became this popular and official name up to the present.

Another big sitio is Matabungkay. It is located on the southwestern part of Binubusan. It is also near the shore like Luyahan. Matabungkay is famous for its bathing resorts. Its present name was taken from the falling ground and stone from the hills which means “bungkay.” The old inhabitants added “mata” for they had seen the action. Another smaller section of Matabungkay is Altura. It was called such [a] name because of its altitude. The people could see many places when in this small village.

Balibago is another big sitio belonging to Binubusan. Smaller villages belonging to this sitio are Bungahan, Matala, and Lucban.

Litlit is a small section of the barrio of Binubusan. It is located near a river. On the banks of this river are many little plants called “litlit.” These plants were and are still being used for chewing buyo. From that time on, the place was called Litlit.

There was once a man who was very big and strong but was very stupid when it came to work. This man was the first one who settled in this place called Aguba, a name derived from the capacity of this man in working. He was very slow in movements.

In a mountainous region located near the shore, the north of Binubusan, grew many big trees. During that period, the people’s industry in earning their livelihood was by making kaingins. The settlers in that place made all the forests into kaingins and that not a single tree was left. Several portions of the trees that were cut were left on the ground. These parts left were of uniform height and they were very attractive to see because even though one was very far, he could see them clearly and uniformly.

[p. 2]

The people who happened to visit the place together with the settlers gave the name of “Matuod.”

Mainit is a small village north of Binubusan. It is near the base of the mountain. In this section is a hot spring which becomes very warm on cold weather. Many people come to this place to take a bath. It was then from that time on and up to the present that the place was called “Mainit.”

Kuwako is a sitio located near a river. There was once a man who said that during the early period, he had seen a big giant having a big pipe. The people were afraid to live in this place because of this great creature. Since that time, this place was name after the big pipe of the giant. Thus, the name of the sitio was later called “Kuwako.” Some people say that up to the present, they can see this giant on the bridge when they pass it at midnight.

Elenahan is a small sitio of Binubusan. It is a place where many Santa Elena trees were grown. Because of the great numbers of such trees, the settlers called it Elenahan. Up to the present time, there are many elena trees growing in the place.

Matala got its name from the name of the plant called “tala” by the early settlers. These plants could be found on the banks of the river. The people use these plants in mixing with tobacco which smells sweet while smoking. This place is hilly and is located on the side of the river.

Prior to the arrival of the Spaniards, there were many bandits or “tulisanes.” During that period, the civil guards fought hard against the bandits. There was terrible fighting between them. The people who saw the fighting called that place “Pinagbarilan.”

Karwahe: During the early period, there were no good roads and other means of transportation except by horseback and by carriage. The travelers always sought a short way when going to other places. One time, a rich man rode in his carriage and then passed through a hilly place because he could not cross a river. The hill was so steep that the carriage was broken and was left there. The settlers who settled in that place found the broken carriage. From that time on, the name of the place was called such [a] name as Karwahe.

Sulsuguin: During the early days, the travelers always found a short way in traveling [to] a distant place because of [a] lack of the means of transportation. There was a certain place in which one could not reach unless one passed through the long river. The travelers who happened to reach this place called it “Sulsuguin.”

3. No records or information are available. (Binubusan) Balibago became a recognized sitio in 1932. Luyahan was established in 1920. All the rest have none.

4. The original families in Binubusan were the following: Ruiz, Casihan, Macalalad, Hernandez and Austria. The early families of Luyahan belonged to Platon Manalo, Joaquin Decilos, Mariano Carandang, Ceferino Cahayon, Repromio Doctor, Mariano Austria and Antonio Veroya. The early families of Matabungkay were the following: Maximo Lundag, Raymunda Jonson, Manuel Alaras, and Cayetano Alaras. The original families of Balibago were the Anzaldos, the Dimaalas, and the Elipongas.

5. The list of tenientes del barrio of Binubusan from the early times to date are the following: Carlos Malinay (4 years);

[p. 3]

Hugo Gonzaga (4 years); Prudencio Samaniego (20 years); Eugenio Familiar (10 years); Simon Cunamay (8 years); Gregorio Cudiamat (8 years); Crisanto Corrado (4 years); Luis Ruiz (4 years); and the present incumbent is Luis Ruiz.

The list of tenientes del barrio of Balibago is as follows: Eleuterio Banaag, Juan Dimarca, Gaudencio Chamiso, Lucas Pineza, Feliciano Panganiban and Crispulo Belmi.

The list of tenientes del barrio of Matabungkay from the earliest time to date is as follows: Simon Daigdigan, Juan Lundag, Bernabe Solis, Rufino Lundag, Cipriano Lundag, Dalmacio Corpuz, Criterio Banaag, and Silvestre Austria.

Arranged chronologically are the tenientes del barrio of Luyahan from the date of its establishment to the present: Antonio Veroya, Zosimo Perez, Eugenio Macalindong, Antonio Austria, Eugenio Macalindong, Modesto Carandang, and Antonio Austria.

6. There is not any barrio or sitio which is now depopulated or has become extinct within the jurisdiction of Binubusan.

7. Data on historical sites, structures, buildings, old ruins: During the Spanish occupation of the barrio of Binubusan, there were several big houses built by the Spaniards. There was also a church and a convent built by them, too. They taught some children to pray and to read the Spanish language. There was a priest assigned here who solemnized marriage and burial ceremonies. As a consequence of the cruelties and abuses done by the Spaniards to the people, they never became reconciled to the Spanish rule. After a few years of sufferings, the people formed a conspiracy to overthrow the Spanish rule. When the rebellions between the Filipinos and the Spaniards ensued, the people burned these buildings so that the Spaniards would not stay any longer in this place. Up to the present, one can still see the ruins of this church and the convent. This site is the present cemetery of Binubusan.

All the other sitios of Binubusan have no historical sites, structures, or old ruins that could be seen.

8. Important facts, incidents or events that took place:

a. During the Spanish occupation:
On August 20, 1896, the cry of Balintawak was held under the brave leadership of Andres Bonifacio. Six days after it, the Philippine Revolution began. The beginning of the revolt in Binubusan was in the month of December of the same year. Felipe Austria was appointed by the people as the leader or chief of the revolution against the Spaniards in this place. In March 1897, the Spaniards arrived and attacked Binubusan. The people, under the leadership of Austria, fought with only five rifles and bolos. In April 1898, the people surrendered due to lack of arms or force to fight the Spaniards.

The Spanish occupation had little effects on the lives of the people. In some respects, the early Spanish rule had created hardships. These hardships were largely the result of the practices connected with the payment of tributes and the enforcement of labor. On the other hand, the spiritual life of the people was greatly changed.

The sitio of Luyahan was still uninhabited during the pre-Spanish and Spanish Regimes as evidenced by the date of its establishment. Therefore, facts and events could not be gathered from the present inhabitants. During the Spanish occupation, no incidents or events took place in the sitio of Matabungkay. The same is true with the sitio of Balibago.

[p. 4]

b. During the American Occupation to World War II:
In the month of April, 1898, the Americans came. These Americans, together with the Filipinos, fought against the forces of the Spaniards. Due to the great force of the Americans, the Spaniards surrendered in august, 1898. After the surrender of the Spaniards, one year after, the Filipino-American war began. In may, 1900, when there was the "Flores de Mayo," the Americans attacked Binubusan. There was no fight. The leader was caught alive and the members surrendered. This place was the last one attacked by the Americans because before proceeding to this place, all the neighboring towns and barrios had already surrendered.

The American occupation had great effects on the people of Binubusan. Schools were built for the primary grades. A church was also built and the people learned ways of moral life. The spiritual life of the people was greatly improved. The people learned to live a better life because modern ways of agriculture where introduced.

In Luyahan, no progress was made since its occupation from the year 1900 to 1919. There was no school, no chapel for religious instruction and only a portion of land was cultivated. There was but a store at that time. Shuttered nipa huts could be seen that time.

c. During and after World War II:
The bombing of pearl harbor on December 8, 1941 caused the outbreak of world war ii in the Pacific between the Japanese and the Americans. It was in April, 1942 when the Japanese forces entered Binubusan. They did not stay long in this barrio. In the year 1943, the Japanese arrived for the second time and inhabited the whole barrio. The people evacuated to the mountains in the meantime that the Japanese lived or occupied most of the houses. They destroyed the plants planted by the people because they earned their living from the food of the people of this place. They even destroyed the fishpond so as to catch fish for their food.

On January 31, 1945, the American forces landed in Nasugbu. They attacked the Japanese forces in the neighboring towns and barrios. There was no battle in this barrio because the Japanese evacuated upon learning of the landing of the Americans. After the end of World War II, the people lived again a happy life. They repaired the destruction made by the Nippons. They were able to improve the yields of production in the farms because the Americans imported large quantities of sugar from this place. Schools where improved and more children wear educated. The people began a new life again. Summing up the effects of the American occupation, there we're very great improvements. Independence was granted on July 4, 1946.

From the year 1941 to 1943, the Japanese occupied Luyahan and its smaller section of Ligtasin. Ligtasin became one of the temporary camps of the Japanese. These soldiers wrought destruction on properties. They confiscated rice, corn, eggs, chickens, pigs and even cattle. A few of the inhabitants were killed because of their refusal to give up their belongings.

After World War II, some of the people of Luyahan received were damaged reparations from the Commission. No other measures and accomplishments are being undertaken following World War II. Balibago is another sitio which suffered under the Japs' maltreatment and atrocities. They killed about eleven persons from this place and

[p. 5]

took buy force chickens, cows and carabaos. Balibago is economically self-sufficient. The people are simple, peaceful and industrious. Their chief occupations are farming, sugarcane planting and fishing. Soon after the liberation, they began repairing the homes and worked in the fields.

9. (a) Destruction of lives, properties and institutions during wars, especially in 1896-1900 and 1941-1945:
1896-1900 --- Lives:  Many persons died during the Civil War and also during the epidemics.
Property:  No destruction.
Institutions:  None.
1941-1945 --- Lives:  Six men died in action in Bataan and in the concentration at Camp O'Donell.
Property:  There was great destruction in the barrio.  Sugarcane and palay in the fields were destroyed by the Japanese.  Fishponds were destroyed.  The people left their houses and evacuated to some peaceful places.
Institutions:  The school building built in 1936 remained standing.  It was not destroyed.
Part II: Folkways

10. Traditions, customs and practices in domestic and social life; birth, baptism, courtship, marriage, death, burial, visits, festivals; punishments, etc.

Prior to 1896, people of this place had several and different traditions, customs, and practices in domestic and social life. According to reliable sources, the people of Binubusan were awkward when it came to farming and other industries. They were used to primitive methods of farming. They were also very behind in civilization. In spite of this, they were friendly and lived like brothers and sisters.

Persons born during those days were named after the months of the year while some got theirs from the calendar introduced by the Spaniards during their occupation. A week after the birth of a child, the parents, together with the godfather or godmother, went to the barrio church for the baptism. The priest who was assigned in the barrio solemnized the baptism.

Courtship practices were the same with the present ones. The man courted the woman before the marriage was announced.

When there was a dead person, the members of the family, with some relatives and neighbors, spent the whole night watching the dead. They played different games. Drinks were served at midnight. The following day, the dead was taken to the cemetery for the burial ceremonies.

People of Binubusan are hospitable. People coming from other places were entertained in the most welcomed ways. When the barrio fiesta is fast approaching, the people are busy preparing delicious foods for the coming visitors. Persons who committed crimes are investigated by the officers of the barrio and when found guilty, they are confined behind the stone walls which are in town.

Resource person: [Sgd.] Epifanio Ruiz

[p. 6]

Luyahan-Birth:

Matapos na lumabas ang bata, ay isang taong matalino ang maglilipat sa banig na malinis upang Ang bata ay maging matalino rin. (Immediately after the birth of a child, and intelligent person is selected to transfer the baby to a clean matte so that the baby would come out intelligent, too.)

Baptism: Kinabihasnan ang maghanda sa araw ng pagbibinyag ng bata. Ito ay ginagawa ng mga magulang ng bata. (It is a common practice among the parents of the child to give a baptismal party at the time of baptism.)

Ang ninong o ninang ng bata ay palihim na naglalagay ng salapi sa kamay ng bata. Ito ay tinatawag na pakimkim. (The godfather or godmother of the child puts secretly in the hand of the baby a certain amount of money.)

Courtship: Ang pagsisilbi sa tahanan ng babae upang maibig ang isang binata ay isang kaugalian. (Rendering services to the family of the girl to win her love is traditional.)

Ang paghingi ng sari-sari tulad ng bahay para sa bagong kasal, tugtugan at handa sa araw ng kasal at iba pang mga bagay ay bahagi ng panunuyo ng isang binata. Ang mga kahilingan ng magulang ng babae ay dapat tuparin upang matuloy ang kasalan. {The request for a house, orchestra, feast and others by the parents of the girl is a part of the courtship. The suitors to fulfill the wishes to realize the marriage.)

Marriage: Ang pagbibigay ng pasunod sa bagong kasal ng angkan ng bawat panig ay karaniwang ginagawa. (Giving dowry to the newlyweds is a common practice.)

Ang paghahanda sa araw ng kasalan ang hindi pa nalilimot sa ngayon. (Giving a wedding party is customary up to now.)

Death and burial: Matapos mailibing ang patay ay ipinagdarasal ang kaligtasan ng kanyang kaluluwa. Ito ay ginagawa sa loob ng siyam na gabing sunod-sunod. Sa ika-siyam na araw ay naghahanda para sa mga nakikiramay. Ang mga gawaing ito ay umaaliw sa mga naiwan ng namatay. (After the burial, solemn prayers follow for nine successive nights for the salvation of the dead's soul. At the 9th day, a feast is given for those who will come. This practice serves as a consolation to the bereaved family.

Resource Person: [Sgd.] Antonio Viroya

Balibago – Courtship and Marriage:

A young man chooses his ideal girl. Then, usually after sunset, he often makes visits to her home. He sees to it that he is courteous, takes off his hat before entering the house, and greets the old persons. After having spent [a] sufficient length of time in courting, he begins to show his sincere love and intentions by serving in the girl’s home. He supplies water and firewood, found the rice, and works in the fields. This is called "nagpapakilala" or "nangingibig." At this time, the parents asked the lady if she is decided to marry the young man. If answered affirmatively, they tell the young man to let his parents come. The boy's parents invite some old counselors. They confer on the date of and requirement for the wedding. This is called "pamumulong."

When everything is settled, both parties prepare for the marriage celebration. The man's parents shoulder all the expenses.

[p. 7]

They buy the lady’s and the young man's dress and suit. The woman invites her friends and relatives. The bride's parents select the "Ninong and Ninang sa kasal" or the witnesses to the wedding rites.

On the appointed day, the wedding ceremony is performed in the church. The groom takes care not to drop the wedding ring for dropping it would mean bad luck. As the married couple walks down the aisle the people welcomed them with cheers and smiles. Going home, they are met with showers of rice, money and sweets on the stairs. This is done to invite good luck. Then, food is served to the visitors and dancing and singing afterwards take place. After this comes the "pangangaan." A small table and two chairs are arranged. The bride and the groom sit opposite each other. Relatives and friends come around them. Each one gives either money, or wares, or other kinds of gifts. If one offers a rope, it means he would give a domestic animal. The boy’s party gives the "panganga" to the bride and the girls party gives theirs to the groom. When the marriage celebration is ended, the bride is escorted by the relatives of the groom to his home. The groom is left but the next day, he will join his wife.

Baptism: Since this place is far from the town, "buhusan ng tubig" is commonly practiced. With the use of salt and water, a person performs the temporary baptism. A child is truly baptized by the priest during the feast days in the neighboring barrios.

Death: When a sick person is already dying, his neighbors and relatives attend to him. They pray for the salvation of his soul. When he is dead, his clothes are changed. He is placed in the coffin. When night comes, many sympathizers stay overnight with the family of the deceased. They play cards and other games. Coffee, bread, and cigarettes are served. The dead is brought downstairs for the funeral, someone breaks a piece of bamboo floor from the place where the person died. Another gets a coconut shell with water. Water is poured drop by drop along the way to the cemetery. When there is no more water, the coconut shell and the piece of bamboo floor are thrown away.

Four days after the burial, prayer is offered for the salvation of the dead’s soul. Food is served to the sympathizers. The same thing is done during the ninth day or “siyaman,” and the fortieth day or “apatnapung araw.” After one year, the family and relatives of the dead end the wearing of black dresses. Again this time, a prayer is offered and food is served.

Resource Person: [Sgd.] Nomeriano Alaraz

Matabungkay –

The traditions, customs and practices in domestic and social life generally follow the old customs of our old generations. On the birth of a child, the father or relatives light firecrackers or fire the guns as a sign of a newborn baby. In selecting the ninong or ninang, the grandfathers and grandmothers of the child are given the privilege to select. After two or three weeks, “buhos tubig” will be performed and there will be a little party. When the parents of the newborn baby have saved enough money, baptism will be done by the Roman Catholic priest or by the Protestant pastor. They usually prepare foods for the godfather or the godmother and other invited persons of the community. Sometimes, there are dances and songs.

In courtship, the parents of the man has to invite several persons to do some work as plowing the fields or any other sort

[p. 8]

of work. They call this act as “pagpapakilala” or introduction. The next day, the parents of the man will inquire what will be their faith. When they are accepted, the marriage date will be set. The parents of the man will prepare pigs, chickens or any other kind of food for the celebration of the marriage to be solemnized by the priest or by the judge or by the Protestant pastor.

In death, they have to pass one night for the gathering of the relatives, friends, and acquaintances. During the night, they have different games played and mostly, they stay up to the morning. They prepare [the] coffin for the dead. During the burial ceremony, almost all the people go. Sometimes, they have an orchestra to furnish the music up to the cemetery. In the visits, the visitors are very courteous while the hosts are very hospitable. In this place, there is no celebration of the fiesta.

In punishments, the barrio lieutenant calls the two parties and gets their declarations. If they could not agree, they are brought to the municipal building in town for further investigation. The one found guilty is fined or put to jail. This penalty is in accordance to law or ordinance.

Resource Person: [Sgd.] Criterio Banaag

11. Myths, legends, beliefs, interpretations, superstitions; origin of the world, land, mountains and caves, seas, lakes, rivers, plants, trees, animals, sun, moon, stars, eclipses, earthquakes, lightning and thunder, clouds, rain, wind, storms, changes of climates; other natural phenomena, first man and woman, and birth of twins and more:

One of the legends and beliefs of the people was the origin of Binubusan. According to reliable sources, Binubusan came from the dialect word “pinagbubusan.” Many people from distant places who came to this place found out that the people were hospitable, the barrio was peaceful, and there was abundant food. The prosperity and contentment prevailing here made the people love to stay here permanently.

There are many superstitious beliefs that are still adhered to by the people of the barrio. Among them are the following:

a. When going to a certain place and it so happens a black cat crosses the way, it is a sign of bad luck or omen.
b. When there is a dead person, the used plates on the table are not kept on piles because it is believed that a member of the same family may suffer the same fate.
c. When there is a newly-wedded couple, the bride is not allowed to go out until after four days. If this is not followed, the man and wife will not succeed in life. These are only a part of their beliefs.

The origin of the world according to the old folks was that the world was at first all water. Then, God created the land, then the first man and woman. It is also believed that the rivers, mountains, lakes, and caves were created by God at the beginning of the world. Others believe that some caves were made by bandits living in the forests during the pre-Spanish time. When God created the world, plants, trees, and animals were created, too.

The sun, to them, is a big ball of fire which is very hot. The same belief is with the moon. It is a ball of fire

[p. 9]

Which is very cool. The stars are heavenly bodies which have their own light and so cool. Eclipses are believed to be the result of the fighting between the sun and the moon. Earthquakes are caused by a powerful man who makes the earth move when angry. Lightning is the opening of the sky, and that thunder is caused by a powerful man when he is shouting. The rain is caused by the angels above, who, when they are crying, tears are falling to the ground. Wind is caused by a powerful [man] who blows through the mouth when angry. Storms are caused by the fighting of the angels and the man with a powerful mouth.

No one could tell about the changes of the climates. The first man and woman who settled in this place were Turite and Aluha. It is said that this couple lived in this place until the barrio was depopulated.

Births of twins or more were signs of riches according to the forefathers or the old folks living at present. Sickness, to their belief, was a punishment by God to people who committed crimes and to those who did not believe in God. Witchcraft, in their belief, was a woman supposed to have powers to do evil. She was an ugly woman and not a believer in God.

Magic, the old folks say, was the art of performing things which happen through secret sayings. They praised the magicians in the belief that they were powerful persons next to God.

It is with high honor to say that the people of Binubusan are all believers in God and worship him in their own ways.

Resource Person: [Sgd.] Restituto F. Coronado

For Luyahan: (Beliefs and Superstitions)

1. Ang bahay na mapanhikan ng bayawak ay masamang pangitain. Ito ay tanda na hindi magtatagal at may mamamatay sa loob ng tahanan. (It is a bad omen when an iguana enters a house. It is a sign that pretty soon, one of the members of the family will pass away.)
2. Kapag ang mga bata ay naglalaro ng sunda-sundaluhan at patayan, ito ay pangitain na magkakaroon ng digmaan. (When the children play soldiers, killing each other, this is a sign that there will be war.)
3. Masama ang maligo sa araw ng Martes at Biyernes sapagka’t kung dapuan ng sakit ay malubha, lalo’t ang magiging sanhi ay paliligo. (It is bad to take a bath on Tuesdays and Fridays because persons who get sick suffer most especially if it is caused by taking a bath.)

Resource Person: [Sgd.] Silvino de los Reyes

12. Popular songs; games and amusements: Binubusan

Songs ---

Lalaki – Kung sa akin na nga lamang
Huwag lamang ang sugalan,
Buro, alak at pang-ginggi
Manok at lalaki
Pag ito ay nasarili
Ilustrado ang lalaki.
Babae –
Ikaw kapatid ko
Ay magdahan-dahan
Ng pagsasabi mo
Baka ka masinsay-

[p. 10]

Pilipit ang isip
Sayang ang ginasta
Sa pinag-aralan.

Chorus

Ang akala mo baga
Kapag ang lalaki ay nakabota na,
At nakapagkapote,
Inglis at Kastila, marunong sumabi,
Ay ilustrado na sa aking sarili.

Sa akala ko’y totoo
Na wala nang ilustrado
Sa mahihirap ng tao
Lalo nang kaparis mo.
(End)

Kundiman

Kailan ma’y di ko naturang inabot
Ang oras ng iyong kalamigang loob,
Bato man sa lupa, sukat na madurog
Tangi ang puso mong ‘di ko mapalambot.



Di paris man yata, yaring aking isip
Sa matuling takbo na hanging mabilis
Inaakala lamang, ay di rin sasapit
Sa pinto ng iyong matibay na dibdib.
(End)

Sinasabi Ko Na

Sinasabi ko na, sinasabi ko na,
Ako’y di marunong,
Pinipilit ninyo, pinipilit ninyo,
Ako ay kumancion
Ang kahalimbawa, ang kahalimbawa,
Ay bal-on sa burol,
Bagama’t may tubig, bagama’t may tubig,
Iga rin kung hapon,
May bilin pa naman, may bilin pa naman
Ang aking magulang
Ang gawang kumancion, ang gawang kumancion
Huwag pag-aaralan.
Puyat pa kung gabi, puyat pa kung gabi,
Abala kung araw,
Ang gawa sa buhay, ang gawa sa buhay
Ay nalilimutan.
(Wakas)

Kundiman

Ibong pilikano, may pinto sa dibdib,
Pusong nanungawan, nagbigay pasakit
Taong hindi gusto’y, kamhima’t umibig
Magpakamatay man, walang masasapit.

Nawiwiling puso, sa kaligayahan,
Nagpapasasa ng layaw,
Yamang oras ngayon, hihibik sa buhay
Ang pinagyaman mo ay ikamamatay.
(Wakas)

[p. 11]

Simpait ng Dita

Simpait ng dita, nilasap ng buhay
Nagugunita ko, o mutyang hirang
Subalit laging nagugunam
Ang sumpa at pangako
Kay dagling naparam.

Halina giliw at muli mong paligayahin
Ang aking puso, pag may damdamin,
Hanggang kailan pa kaya,
Muli mong sasariwain
Ang sumpa, sa sadlak sa libing
(Wakas)

Resource Person: [Sgd.] Cayetano Cabasis

13. Puzzles and Riddles: Binubusan

1. The arrows of Adam, we could not count. (Rain)
Sibat ni Adan, hindi mabilang. (Ulan)

2. Two stores open at the same time. (Eyes)
Dalawang tindahan, sabay buksan. (Mata)

3. Five brothers and sisters on but one breast. (Hand)
Limang magkakapatid, iisa ang dibdib. (Kamay)

4. Water that was rooted, roots the bore flowers. (Lamp)
Tubig na nagkaugat-ugat, ugat na namulaklak. (Ilaw)

5. Cane of the captain, no one has ever taken. (Snake)
Tungkod ni Kapitan hindi mahawakan. (Ahas)

6. Mang Kiko’s house, surrounded with gold. (Papaya)
Bahay ni Mang Kiko, palibot ng ginto. (Papaya)

7. I planted a banana in front of a Virgin. (Candle)
Nagtanim ako ng saging sa harap ng Birhin. (Kandila)

8. Hair of the king, no one could have it waving. (Water)
Buhok ng hari, hindi mawahi. (Tubig)

9. I tapped the jar, the shrimps ran afar. (Pupils)
Tinugtog ko ang galong, nagtakbuhan ang hipon. (Mag-aaral)

10. A trunk of wood, the mid-part is iron, the point is death. (Gun)
Puno’y kahoy, gitna’y bakal, dulo’y kamatayan. (Baril)

11. A small literno one could look at it. (Neck)
Isang gatang-gatangan, hindi matingnan. (Liig)

12. It has no trunk nor roots, but bears flowers. (Stars)
Walang puno, walang ugat, hitik ng bulaklak. (Bituin)

13. The mother is still crawling, the child is already sitting. (Squash)
Ang ina’y nagapang pa, ang anak ay naupo na. (Kalabasa)

14. Running here and there, but could get to nowhere. (Swing)
Takbo ruon, takbo rito, hindi makaalis dito. (Duyan)

15. The house of the carpenter has but one post. (Pigeon’s)
Bahay ng alwagi, iisa ang haligi. (Sa kalapati)

16. It has no teeth nor jaw, but hot air it throws. (Gun)
Walang ngipin, walang panga, mainit ang hininga. (Baril)

[p. 12]

17. Three ladies went to church, the first wore green, the second wore white, and red for the third. When all went out, they all wore red. (Buyo for chewing)
May tatlong dalagang nagsimba, berde ang suot ng una, puti ang pangalawa, ang pangatlo ay pula; nguni’t nang magsilabas sila, pare-parehong pula. (Ikmo, apog, bunga)

18. Very plenty and very many, but created by one. (God & people)
Marami at makapal, iisa ang lumalang. (Diyos at tao)

19. There are four friends, their heads are all split. (Posts)
Apat na magka-amigo, puro biak ang ulo. (Haligi)

20. It walks without feet, it sheds tears without eyes. (Pen)
Lumalakad walang paa, lumuluha walang mata. (Pluma)

Resource Person: [Sgd.] Buenaventura Macalindong

Matabungkay:

1. Isang biging palay, sikip sa buong bahay. (Ilaw)
2. Isang señora, nakaupo sa tasa. (Kasoy)
3. Naririto na, hindi mo pa nakikita. (Hangin)
4. Baka ko sa Maynila, abot dito ang unga. (Kulog)
5. Isang bayabas, pito ang butas. (Ulo)
6. Dahong bumunga, bungang dumahon. (Pinya)

Resource Person: [Sgd.] Criterio Banaag

Luyahan: -

1. Ano ang kauna-unahang ginawa ng kalabao? (Anino)
What is the very first thing the carabao does at sunrise? (Shadow)
2. Alina ng una, itlog o manok? (Manok)
Which comes out first, the hen or the egge? (Hen)
3. Mayroong dalawang pusa; ang harap ng isa ay sa silangan at ang isang pusa ay sa kanluran. Bakit sila nagkakitaan? (Sila ay magkaharap)
There are two cats; one is facing the east, the other is facing the west. Why can they see each other? (They are facing each other.)
4. Dumaan ang negro, nagkamatay ang tao. (Gabi)
The negro passed by, the people died. (Night)
5. Pag bago’y mahuna, matibay pag luma. (Semento)
It is breakable when new, unbreakable when [it] gets old. (Cement)
6. Puno’y kahoy, gitna’y bakal, dulo’y kamatayan. (Baril)
The handle is wood, the [middle] is iron, the point is death. (Gun)

Resource Person: [Sgd.] Antonio Viroya

Balibago –
1. Kain nang kain, walang bituka’y walang ngipin. (Gunting)
Eating and eating, no teeth, no intestines. (Scissors)
2. Isang magandang dalaga, nakaupo sa tasa. (Kasoy)
A beautiful lady, sitting on a cup. (Kasoy)
3. Baboy ko sa kaingin, nataba’y walang pakain. (Kamote)
My pig at the kaingin, grows fat without eating. (Camote)
4. Bumili ako ng alipin, mataas pa kay sa akin. (Sombrero)
I bought a slave, nobler than I am. (Hat)
5. Dala ka ng iyong dala. (Bakya)
You are carried by what you carry. (Wooden shoes)
6. Magtag-ulan at magtag-araw, hanggang tuhod ang salawal. (Manok)
Rain or shine, he wears short pants. (Hen)
7. Narito-rito na, di mo pa nakikita. (Hangin)
It’s coming, coming, but it is unseen. (Wind)
8. Nanganak ang hunghang, sa tuktok nagdaan. (Saging)
The fool gave birth through the head. (Banana)

Resource Person: [Sgd.] Feliza Dimanzana

[p. 13]

14. Proverbs and Sayings: Binubusan –

1. Kung mayroon kang itinanim, mayroon kang aanihin.
(If you planted something, you will have something to reap.)
2. Ang taong tamad, ginto man ang ulan, ay hindi makakapulot.
(A lazy man would get nothing even if it rains with gold.)
3. Ang ugali sa pagkabata ay dala hanggang tumanda.
(Habits formed in youth are carried over to one’s manhood.)
4. Ang taong madaldal, tandaan mo at duwag.
A man who talks much is a coward.
5. Aanhin pa ang damo kung patay na ang kabayo.
(What is the use of the grass when the horse is dead?)
6. Ang ayaw mong gawin sa iyo, huwag mong gagawin sa kapuwa mo.
(Do not do unto others what you do not want others to do unto you.)
7. Ang salita ng taong sinungaling ay hindi pinaniniwalaan kahit na tutoo.
(The words of a liar can’t be relied on thought it is already true.)
8. Ang madaling hanapin ay madali ring mawala.
(Easily earned is easily lost.)
9. Sa taong may hiya, ang salita ay panunumpa.
(A man who has shame, his word is an oath.)
10. Tulungan muna ang sarili, bago tulungan ang kapuwa.
(Help yourself first before you help others.)
11. Ang taong may kabaitan ay makikita sa pagsasalita at sa pagkilos.
(You can judge a person by his words and actions.)
12. Ang gawang kabaitan ay lalong maigi kay sag into at pilak.
(An act of kindness is better than gold and silver.)
13. Ang taong walang pagtitiis ay walang makakain.
(A man without patience will have nothing to eat.)
14. Ang kaibigan kung tapat, karamay kahit sa hirap.
(A friend who is sincere shares with privation.)
15. Kaya matibay ang walis, palibhasa’y nabibigkis.
(If there is unity, there is strength.)

Resource Person: [Sgd.] Antonio Austria

Luyahan –

1. Ang hanap sa bula, sa bula rin nawawala.
(What from the dew you gather, must vanish into the water.)
2. Huwag mong ipagpabukas ang magagawa mo ngayon.
(Do not leave for tomorrow what you can do today.)
3. Mabuti pa ang matakaw kay sa magnanakaw.
(It is better to be a glutton than a thief.)
4. Ang hipong tulog ay nadadala ng ilog.
(The sleeping shrimp is carried by the water.)
5. Sabihin mo ang kasama mo at sasabihin ko kung sino ka.
(Tell me who your companions are and I will tell you who you are.)
6. Ang tubig, kapag matining, asahan mo at malalim.
(Still water is deep.)

Resource Person: [Sgd.] Antonio Viroya

Matabungkay –

1. Pula ka nang pula, sa mukha mo natama.
2. Nakikita mo ang butas ng karayom, nguni’t ang butas ng palakol ay hindi.
3. Hindi lahat ng kumikinang ay ginto.
4. Huwag mong bibilangin ang sisiw hanggang hindi pa napipisa.
5. Huwag mong sisikaran ang tulay hanggang hindi ka nakatutulay.

[p. 14]

6. Kung ano ang binhi ay siyang bunga.
7. Kung ang padala ay dila, ang pagbalik ay balita.
8. Walang mataimtimang babae sa matiyagang lalaki.

Resource Person: [Sgd.] Criterio Banaag

Balibago: -

1. Ang bayaning masugatan, nag-iibayo ang tapang.
A hero when wounded becomes braver.
2. Kung talagang tubo, matamis hanggang dulo.
A real sugarcane is sweet till the end.
3. Walang matimtimang birhen sa matiyagang manalangin.
There is no merciless virgin to a devoted worshipper.
4. Magpakatukso-tukso [magpakatuso-tuso] ang matsin ay napaglalangan din.
However cunning the monkey is, it can be tricked.
5. Madali ang maging tao, mahirap ang magpakatao.
It is easy to be a man, but hard to act like a man.
6. Pag may hirap, may ginhawa.
When there is hardship, there is comfort.
7. Kung saan mabasag ang palayok, doon naiiwan ang lila.
Where the pot breaks, there the clay rests.
8. Miminsang mabali ang tulay.
A bridge collapses just once.
9. Kung saan ang hilig ng kahoy, ay doon ang lagpak.
A tree falls where it is inclined.
10. Di ko man hanapin, dudulog, lalapit kung talagang akin.
Though I don’t keep on hunting, if it’s really mine, it will be coming.

Resource Person: [Sgd.] Juana C. Bautista

15. Methods of Measuring Time, special calendars:

During the Spanish occupation, the people of Binubusan did not have any device used in telling or measuring time. According to the old folks, they just looked at the sun. The different positions of the sun gave them the time. Another method is by looking at the leaves of the acacia. They say that the leaves close at five o’clock in the afternoon. One more device is the position of the North Star. At three o’clock in the morning, this star is above the eye level. It disappears when it is four o’clock. Pertaining to the calendar, it was the “Honorio Lopez” calendar which was used during the Spanish regime.

Resource Person: [Sgd.] Doroteo Balaguiot

In Luyahan, one method of measuring time used by the barrio folks was the position of the shadows of the trees or any other object. At noon, they could tell the time that it was almost twelve o’clock because the shadow cast by the object is centered to it. Others tell the time by the position of the sun.

Resource Person: [Sgd.] Antonio Viroya

In Matabungkay, the methods used in telling time were by the rising and setting of the sun, by the crows of roosters at night and by the closing of leaves of certain trees in the afternoon. The people use the calendar made by Honorio Lopez for they say it is very dependable. In it are the names of children and the foretelling of the future conditions, etc.

Resource Person: [Sgd.] Criterio Banaag

16. During the Spanish time, the people of Binubusan were very interested in stories. One of the stories they loved to read was the “Ibong Adarna.” There were also some other stories like the “Kurido” and the “Moro-moro.” Some people play these stories during the celebration of the fiestas.

Resource Person: [Sgd.] Doroteo Balaquiot

[p. 15]

Part Three: Other Information

17. Information on books and documents treating of the Philippines and the names of their owners.

No records or information are available.

18. The names of Filipino authors born or residing in the community, the titles and subjects of their works, whether printed or in manuscript form, and the names of persons possessing these:

No records or information are available.

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Notes and references:
Transcribed from “History and Cultural Life of the Barrio (Binubusan)” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.

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