Lipa City, Batangas: Historical Data - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore Lipa City, Batangas: Historical Data - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore

Lipa City, Batangas: Historical Data

Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the City of Lipa, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.

Just a note to all who may come to use this page, the “historical data” for the City of Lipa begins at page 12. No explanation is given at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections site.
Historical Data
[Cover page]








[p. 12]

d. Marriage

In the evening, the suitor goes to the young girl’s house and, as soon as he crosses the threshold, goes down on his knees, crosses his arms over his chest and, head bowed in [a] sign of respect, meekly says these words, “Mano po.”

The father or mother answers him, “Kaawaan ka ng Panginoong Diyos. Tindig ka, at umupo.” The father or mother calls for the maiden to offer the visitor cigarettes. She does so. The young people speak at first of things not pertaining to love or marriage until the psychological moment comes during which the young man, trembling, says in a low voice, “Kung mamarapatin ………………,” which is permission to ask her hand in marriage.

The maiden’s answer is that he ask palay from her parents, which means consent on her own part. The young man then starts bringing firewood and water to the maiden’s house. This is called “Pagpapakilala.” After seven days of work, the girl’s parents send for the parents of the young man for the purpose of settling the conditions and preparations for the marriage.

Then, the talk is about the “bilang” or “bigay kaya,” the dowry, which may be given in kind or in money, the girl’s parents explaining that the only purpose of the dowry is to give the new couple something to start with. If the young man’s parents believe the “bilang” is excessive, they say so frankly, “Hindi po naming kaya.” (We cannot afford it.)

If the terms are agreeable to both parties, the next step is done. It is known as the “pamulungan,” when the parents and friends of the young man go to the girl’s house with some foods to eat. After the “pamulungan,” it is the young man’s duty to visit the relatives and announce to them the day of the wedding and to request them not to fail to come to the bride’s house on that day.

e. Death and Burial

When a member of the family dies, all the relatives and kin of the family will be notified of the death. The family, together with their sympathizers and friends, stay awake the whole night. Prayers are said for the soul of the departed.

Burial will take place the next day. Some men prepare the grave for the dead. Before the burial, the dead is brought to the church to receive his last blessing. Then the dead is taken to the cemetery. The coffin is opened and prayers are said again for his soul. Before burial, the members of the immediate family kiss the hand of the deceased or lift the hand to their forehead. They mourn for the dead.

[p. 13]

f. Visits

Filipino pagans of the past had their religious beliefs and customs. They made visits to one another, especially to their gods. Their visits had more bearing with their religious practices, and they still have connection with some present day practices.

The early Filipinos believed in a powerful god whom the Tagalog natives of Luzon called Bathala; and the Visayans, Laon. They believed that this god was the creator of all things and the giver of life; and they offered sacrifices to him whenever they asked for anything. Necessarily, they had to visit their god when they made this offering.

They worshipped animals and birds, as did the Egyptians of the ancient times; and the sun and the moon, as did the Assyrians. The Tagalogs worshipped a blue bird as large as the turtle dove which they called Tigmamanukin, and to which they attributed the divinity of Bathala. They worshipped the crow and called in maylupa, signifying master of the earth. They held the crocodile in the greatest veneration, and whenever they saw one in the water, they cried out in all sujection not to harm them, and sought to appease it by throwing a portion of anything they carried. There was no old tree to which they did not attribute divine honors, and it was sacrilege to even think of cutting it under any consideration. Even the very rocks, crags, reefs, and points along the rivers and seashores were adored, and sacrifices made to them. Hence, to accomplish their worships and sacrifices, they had to go to the very places where their worships and sacrifices could be effected.

The natives also adored idols, which each one inherited from his ancestors. The Visayans called these idols Diwata; the Tagalogs, anitos; and they were said to be agents of their most powerful god. Of these idols, some had jurisdiction over the mountains and open country, and permission was asked for them to go thither. Others had jurisdiction over their farms and plantations, and these were commended to them, so that they might prove fruitful. Besides praying to these gods of the plantations, the natives placed sacrificial offerings of food in their farms for the anitos to eat, in the belief that they would be given more favors. There was an anito of the sea to whom they commended their fisheries and navigations, and an anito of the house, whose favor they implored whenever an infant was born. Among their gods, they also reckoned all those who were devoured by crocodiles, or who were killed by lightning, or those who perished by the sword. They believed that the souls of these people ascended to the heavens and that they were taken by Bathala, or Laon, to serve him.

[p. 14]

g. Festivity and Punishment

The natives were fond of holding festivities. They got together frequently, making those different gatherings occasions of their rejoicings. In marriage ceremonies, at the birth of a child, at one’s birthday, on the occasion of the fourth day, the ninth day, and the one year anniversary of one’s death, they made merriment, singing and dancing native music. In all those merrymaking, they did not fail to drink the tuba, their native wine. Without this tuba, no merriment was complete.

One rare occasions, which the whole tribe attended and celebrated, was the victory over their enemies. Marching together, the people in the village sang their war songs, the Kuomintang, and danced their favorite Kutangkutang. Thereafter, in every house, there was rejoicing and all the members of the upper class were in the datu’s house for the victory celebration.

The natives inflicted severe punishments for those who perpetrated a heinous crime. A wrong act was a great offense to the community. The criminal was ostracized from the society and his act was dealt with according to the gravity of his offense. There were many examples of inflicting penalty. If the value of the thing stolen was not too much, the thief thereof was tied on the ant hill; if the stolen good was quite valuable, he was not only tied but also beaten heavily, thereby suffering much. A person committing a serious misdemeanor and did not confess was tortured. The torture system was horrible. He was immersed in water and was not lifted until he told the truth. The process was not stopped until a confession was elicited. Sometimes, he did not make a confession. Usually, on that occasion, he met his death by remaining silent. The Filipinos of old, as shown by the different instances in its old history, devise different ways and means of inflicting the penalty. This penalty usually depended upon the offense. If the crime was serious, the punishment was also serious; and if it was light, the punishment was also light.

[p. 15]

Myths, legends, beliefs, superstitions

The Origin of Man
(A Legend)

At the beginning, there was nothing but sky and water. The water, irritated by a blue bird called Tigmamanukin, rose so high that it menaced the sky with its waves. Bathala, the creator, the architect, to appease Tigmamanukin, cast giant rocks into the water, and these later became the islands. In one of these rocks, the bird passed to rest.

The union of land and sea produced the bamboo, a segment of which came to rest at the feet of Tigmamanukin. The bird, full of curiosity, pecked at the cane and broke the bamboo. Great was his surprise to see from one internode emerge the first man, and from another, the first woman. The man, upon beholding the woman in all her fairness, said, “Ba!” from which the word babae, meaning woman, was derived.

The woman, no less admiring the man’s vigor and beauty, exclaimed, “La!” from which the word lalake, meaning male.

The two, amazed and awed at the beauty of creation, together said, “Ha!” From these joint syllables, the word “Bathala,” meaning god, creator of all, was formed.

Now seeing the woman refused to unite herself with the man, alleging that they were brothers, Bathala forced the union by causing a strong earthquake. Only in this manner was the first woman united to the first man, and the earth was populated.

The Moon and the Stars

Once upon a time, a young woman named Maria went out to pound rice. She took off her gold chain of beads and the silver comb from her hair and hung them for safety on the sky, which at that time was close to the ground.

Maria started to pound the rice, but whenever she raised her pestle, it hit the sky. Finally, she raised the pestle so high that it struck the sky a hard blow.

As soon as that happened, the sky began to rise. Maria wept as she watched it rising higher and higher in the air, carrying with it her comb and her beads.

Maria never recovered her possessions; for the silver comb was changed to the moon, while the gold chain broke apart and the scattered beads became the stars.

[p. 16]

Legend of Dalaga

Daga, which means virgin, was a lovely maiden, the much beloved daughter of Maguinoo. Having fallen in love with the Sun, she consecrated to him her virginity. One warm day, Daga took a bath in a secluded spring, afterwards going to sleep under the shade of some bamboo canes. Here, a ray from the Sun descended and made love to her. She conceived, and although a virgin, gave birth to a boy amidst the singing of the birds. When Daga’s father learned what had happened, he sent her out of his house. Then, in great rage, he inscribed La, the symbol of the male, in the middle of her name, Daga, as a sign of her dishonor.

Daga, or now dalaga, full of sorrow, returned to her son to clasp him tightly in her arms. As night fell, she placed him among the leaves and the flowers that he might sleep. The sampaguitas opened their petals to suckle the newly born babe.

Sometime after this, the maiden returned to the house of her parents. Her innocence and virginity now acknowledged, her father once more set her to sit at his table.

From then on, the maiden was known by the name Dalaga. Her mother sent for her grandchild, and embraced him in her arms. But an eagle snatched him up, losing itself among the mountain peaks. The child thus grew up in the wilderness. When he grew up, he became a good leader.


1. When a pregnant mother cuts her hair, she will give birth to a hairless baby.

2. It is not good to leave the house when someone is still eating. Bad luck may come on the way.

3. Putting plates one over another when there is a dead person is bad. Other members of the family may die.

4. It is good to plant bananas after eating a heavy meal so that the bunches will be big.

5. It is good to plant fruit-bearing crops on the first day after the full moon so that the plants will continuously bear fruit. On this day, the sun and the moon are first seen both in the sky.

6. It is not good to cut fingernails at night or on Fridays.

7. It is not good to begin a certain piece of work or activity on Tuesday or Friday as it is bound to fail.

[p. 17]

8. A black cat, a lizard, a rat, or a snake seen crossing the way is a sign of bad luck and one should not continue his journey.

9. If the bride puts her wedding trousseau before the date of the wedding, bad luck will befall her.

10. When one’s foot hits an object soon after coming down the stairs, there will be danger on the way.

11. When dogs howl in melancholy tones at night, ill fate will befall someone in the neighborhood.

12. When a married woman eats twin bananas, she will give birth to twins.

13. When one dreams that one of his teeth fell, somebody in the family will die.

14. When a comet appears in the sky, war or famine is coming.

15. When a girl has white spots on her fingernails, she is not a constant lover.

16. When a cat wipes its face, a visitor is coming.

17. When a young girl sings before a stove or fire, she will marry a widower.

18. When a hen cackles at midnight, an unmarried woman is giving birth to a bastard child.

19. In building a new house, the owner puts coins as one-peso, fifty-centavo, [or] twenty-centavo pieces while erecting the posts of the house. The coins are placed at the base of the posts.

20. When a wife is on the family way, the husband should not mend the floor of his house or other parts of it which need hammering or tying, because the wife will meet hardship in delivery.


1. Most Filipinos believe in sorcery and magic charms. Among these sorcerers are the “Aswang” who assumes the form of a dog, cat, bird, or other animal and eats human flesh; the “Manggagaway” who injures people by his devilish power; the “Mangkukulam” who causes people to die or to be sick; the “Patianak” who sucks the entrails of the babies by means of his elongated proboscis; and the “Tigbalang,” who takes various forms to deceive his victims. They believe in the magic powers of certain charms or amulets, notably the “Anting-anting,” a universal amulet of the Filipinos against iron weapons, and the “Gayuma,” a love charm of the Tagalogs.

2. They are believers of auguries and divination.

3. They believe and practice palmistry and card-playing (Baraja) to foretell fortunes.

4. They have oracles and soothsayers who can foretell the future and interpret both bad and good omens.

[p. 18]


There are several kinds of dances found in Lipa City. They had some cultural significance and they revealed the temperament of our people. Prior to the coming of the Spaniards, Lipa was already noted for its aristocracy and pomp and this had much to do with the songs, dances and rhythms of our folks. Our customs and traditions gave rise to variations in the manner of executing the dances, dance steps, and arm movements. Among the famous dances are the “Lanceros” and the “Rigodon.” These two dances were introduced by Louis XIII’s court and were later brought by the Spaniards to the Philippines. They have been adopted locally in our big balls during the town fiestas. As told by the old folks, the dancers were in pairs selected from well-to-do families of the city. The dancers were dressed in satin and brocade with glittering jewelries. Men wore “barong Tagalog” with diamond buttons and their shoes were also studded with diamonds. These revealed the richness and aristocracy of “Villa de Lipa.” We have also the “Cariñosa,” handed down from generation to generation; the “Subli,” a dance in honor of our patron saint or the Holy Cross; the “Bati,” a dance of cultural significance performed by the blooming damsels of aristocratic families to give entertainment to Spanish officials. The “Pandango,” which originated during the pre-Magellan days, was also practiced by our ancestors, and up to the present time, this dance is common among our rural folks. This dance was performed by newlyweds, friends and relatives of the bridegroom or by the father of the bridegroom.

The dances mentioned above are characterized by the modesty and refinement of Maria Clara. There is little bodily contact. The most common contact is joining hands. These dances reveal the high culture of Lipa even before the coming of the Spaniards. They have the peculiar combination of Spanish and oriental movements. Our contact with the Spaniards for more than three centuries influenced our music, songs, and dances. As a result, most of our dances lost their natural texture and absorbed some of the western influence.

The Kundiman was common in the days of old. Formerly, it was a war song, but now it has become a love song. It is characterized by sadness and lament. Its tender appealing quality makes it a very appropriate expression of love. The music reminds us of the music of Malaya from where our great, great grandparents came. It best reveals the characteristics of our people, their sorrows, their romantic nature, and their tenderness. This song is typically Filipino and it is very distinct from any other song of the same type in the world. It has been said that the Kundiman is the Filipino contribution to world music.

Other songs brought here by the Spaniards, but which are still in existence, are the following:

[p. 19]

1. Las Orielas de Pasig
2. Viaje Rodondo
3. Duo de la Africa
4. Duo de Corona
5. La Trompeta
6. El Paypay
7. Pascual Baylon
8. Mi Ultimo Mals
9. Anillo de Hierro
10. Las Rutas
11. Maria Clara

Some songs which were composed by our local composers during the American Regime and which are still popular today are:

1. Amor
2. Sa Dakong Sikatan
3. Bayan Ko
4. Nasaan Ka Irog
5. Madaling Araw
6. Anak ng Dalita
7. Kundiman ni Abdon

A favorite amusement of the past was the “Orijinal.” This was a favorite pastime. It was usually performed in gatherings and reunions. It is similar to our operetta of today. Several persons took part in reading the “Orijinal.” Sometimes, passages were sung with action, instead of being recited.

Cockfighting is a common game in Lipa played by our men of all classes. The game originated from the Mexicans. The rooster was perfected already by the Spaniards. Other amusements are the “sungka,” the “sipa,” which was inherited from the Spaniards, and the “supo.” Later, other forms of games were played by our ancestors.

We also have the “Juego de Frenda,” inherited from the Spaniards’ loyalty in entertaining guests at parties, and “Juego de Anillo,” a game of rivalry performed in connection with fiesta celebrations. Other popular games among the children are the “Santapayanan”; “Hungkoy,” with a bolo, the defeated one to act as a servant; the “Himbabao,” which resembles our “Hide and Seek.” We also have the “Pata,” played by the old and young in rural districts. These games and amusements still exist and are practiced by the people of Lipa.

[p. 20]


 1.  May ulo, walang tiyan
      May leeg, walang bayawang.
 2.  Sa init ay sumasaya,
       Sa lamig ay nalalanta.
 3.  Iisa ang kinuha
      Ang natira ay dalawa.
 4.  Buto't balat
       Nguni't lumilipad.
 5.  Takbo roon, takbo rito
       Hindi makaalis sa tayong ito.
 6.  Hayan na, hayan na
       Hindi mo nakikita.
 7.  Hinila ko ang yantok
      Nagdilim ang bundok.
 8.  Malalim kung bawasan,
      Mababaw kung dagdagan.
 9.  Naligo ang kapitan,
       Hindi nabasa ang tiyan.
10. Tinaga ko sa gubat,
       Sa bahay umiiyak.
11. May puno walang sanga,
      May dahon walang bunga.
12. Nakaluluto'y walang init,
      Umaaso kahit malamig.
13. Walang ngipin, walang panga,
      Mainit ang hininga.
14. Aso kong puti,
      Inutusay ko'y hindi na umuwi.

16. May tatlong dalagang nagsimba,
      Berde ang suot ng una,
      Puti ang pangalwa, pangatlo ay pula,
      Nguni't nang magsilabas sila,
      Ay pare-parehong mapula.
17. Baboy ko sa kaingin
      Tumataba'y walang kain.
18. Munting tampipi,
       Puno ng salapi.
19. Buka kung hapon,
      Kung umaga'y lulon.
20. Tangnan mo ang buntot ko
      At sisisid ako.
21. Itapon ang laman,
      Balat ang pinagyaman.
22. Aling mabuting retrato,
       Kuhang-kuha ang mukha mo?
23. Isang batalyong sundalo,
      Iisa ang kabo.
24. Bunga na, namumunga pa.
25. Matanda na ang puno,
       Hindi pa naliligo.
26. Hindi hayop, hindi tao
      Tatlo ang ulo.
27. Ate ko, ate mo,
      Ate ng lahat ng tao.
28. Lumalakad ang bangka,
       Ang piloto'y nakahiga.
29. Tubig na pinagpala,
       Walang makakuha kundi bata.
30. May alaga akong hayop,
      Malaki pa ang mata kaysa tuhod.
[p. 21]

31. Alin sa mga ibon
      Ang di makadapo sa kahoy?
32. Maputing parang busilak
      Kalihim ko sa pagliyag.
33. Heto na si amain
      Nagbibili ng hangin.
34. Gintong binalot sa pilak
      Pilak na binalot sa balat.
35. May katawan ay walang mukha,
      Walang mata'y lumuluha.
36. Isang pinggan,
      Laganap sa buong bayan.
37. Mataas kung nakaupo,
      Mababa kung nakatayo.
38. Hindi hayop, hindi tao,
      Nguni't takbo ng takbo.
39. Iisa ang pinasukan,
      Tatlo ang nilabasan.
40. Lumalakad, walang paa,
      Tumatangis, walang mata.
41. Aling kahoy sa gubat
      Ang nagsasanga'y walang ugat.
42. Puno'y layu-layo,
      Dulo'y tagpu-tagpo.
43. Malayo pa ang sibat,
      Nganga na ang sugat.
44. Heto na ang magkapatid,
      Nag-uunahang pumanhik.
45. Nang wala pang ginto,
      Ay doon nagpalalo
      Nang magka-ginto
      Ay doon sumuko.
46. Dalawang bolang sinulid,
      Umaabot hanggang langit.

47. Limang magkakapatid
      Laging kabit-kabit.
48. Habang iyong kinakain,
      Lalo kang gugutumin.
49. Naligo si Isko,
      Hindi nabasa ang ulo.
50. Tinaga ko sa puno,
      Sa dulo nagdurugo.
51. Nagsaing si Kapirit,
      Kinain pati anglit.
52. Sa ibabaw ay ararohan,
      Sa ilalim ay batohan.
53. Una'y banal
      Ikalwa'y matakaw,
      Ikatlo'y daldal.
54. Munting hayop-hayopan
      Malinis ang dinaanan.
55. Ang kabayo kong si Alasan,
      Hindi nakain kundi sakyan.
56. Hindi pari, hindi hari
      Nagsusuot ng sari-sari.
57. Pag bata'y C,
      Pag tanda'y D.
58. Putukan ng putukan
      Hindi nagkakarinigan.
59. Alin bunga ang hindi nakakabit sa puno?
60. Alin pera ang hindi magasta
      At hindi maihulog sa alkansiya?
61. May kamay, walang paa,
      May mukha, walang mata.
62. Dalawang kamay,
      Hindi magkapantay.
[p. 22]

63. Nanganak ang Birhen,
      Itinapon ang lampin.
64. Dalawang bola
      Libot ng espada.
65. Baston ni kapitan,
      Hindi malakdawan.
66. Takot ako sa isa,
      Matapang ako sa dalawa.
67. Nang hawak ko ay patay,
      Nang itapon ko'y nabuhay.
68. Hindi madangkal,
      Hindi madipa,
      Pinagtutulungan ng lima.
69. Dumating ang negro,
      Nangamatay ang tao.
70. Tubig sa Balayan,
      Hindi maabot ng ulan.
71. Lumulusang kung tinatabasan,
      Humahaba kung pinuputulan.
72. Pag nakatalikod ay bata,
      Pag nakaharap ay matanda.
73. Siya ko ang sinakyan,
      Hindi ko pa nalalaman.
74. Puno'y bunga, daho'y bunga,
      Bunga'y bunga pa.
75. Naito na si kuya,
      May sunog na baga.
76. Ina'y nakadapa pa,
      Anak ay naka-upo na.
77. Lingos-lingosin,
      Hindi ko mapansin.
78. Tingalain nang tingalain
      Hindi ko abutin.

79. Dalawang kuwarto,
      Labas masok ang multo.
80. Dalawang tindahan,
      Sabay buksan.
81. Isda ko sa Mariveles,
      Nasa loob ang kaliskis.
82. Maitim nang buhay,
      Mapula nang mamatay.
83. Heto na si Sila,
      Bahay niya'y dala-dala.
84. Sa ilalim ay kahoyan,
      Sa ibabaw ay damohan.
85. Hindi ibon, hindi itik,
      Humuhuni kung ibig.
86. Apat na tao,
      Iisa ang sombrero.
87. Bahay ni Ate,
      Iisa ang halige.
88. Pag napitasan
      Luha'y patakan.
89. Dala mo'y dala ka,
      Dala ka pa ng iyong dala.
90. Taba mo, taba ko
      Taba ng lahat ng tao.
91. Ang paa'y apat,
      Hindi makalakad.
92. Kung araw ay patay,
      Kung gabi ay buhay.
93. Walang paa, walang gulong,
      Tumatakbo'y walang nagsusulong.
94. Maliwanag sa dilim,
      Madilim sa liwanag.
[p. 23]

95. Karayom na hindi makatahi,
      Karayom na hindi nakakadiri.
96. Munting palay
      Puno ang buong bahay.
97. Oo nga't alimango,
      Nasa loob ang ulo.
98. Hindi tao, hindi hayop,
      Nagsasalita ng Tagalog.
99. Isang bias na kawayan,
      Puno ng kamatayan.
100. Kung kailan ko pa pinatay,
        Saka humaba ang buhay.
101. Munti man si kumpare,
        Nakakaakyat sa latore.

102. Isang bayabas,
        Pito ang butas.
103. Dahong pinagbungahan,
        Bungang pinagdahonan.
104. May binti, walang hita,
        May balbas, walang baba,
        May mata, walang mukha.
105. Isang Senyora,
        Naka-upo sa tasa.
106. Pagsipot sa maliwanag,
        Kulubot na ang balat.
107. Kulay ginto, hugis puso,
        Mabangong hasmin, masarap kanin.
108. Magkabila ay langit,
        Sa gitna ay tubig.


 1.  Ang hindi maki-ugali
      Walang hitsurang uuwi.
 2.  Wika at batong ihagis
      Hindi na muling babalik.
 3.  Kung ano ang bukang bibig
      Siyang laman ng dibdib.
 4.  Ang tao'y di man mahal
      Bigyan puri't nang kalugdan.
 5.  Pag ang ilog ay magalaw
      Tarukin mo at mababaw.
 6.  Ang galit mo sa ngayon
      Ay bukas mo na ituloy.
 7.  Ang bibig na tikom
      Ligtas na sa lingatong.
 8.  Ang tao bago mangusap
      Tingnan ang likod at harap.

 9.  Ang lumakad ng bigla
      Nasusubong nararapa,
      Ang tumakbo pa kaya
      Ang hindi sumagu-sagupa?
10. Ang taong hindi magpakatao
      Ay hayop ng kapuwa tao.
11. Ang taong maalam mahiya
      Asaha't may pagkadakila.
12. Sa batong pagulong-gulong
      Ang damo'y di sumisibol.
13. Huwag hasuin ang dila
      Sa kapangahang wika
      At kung hindi magagawa
      Ay lalong kahiya-hiya.
14. Kung ano ang taas ng pinanggalingan
      Siya rin ang lalim ng kahuhulugan.
[p. 24]

15. Lumipad ka man ng lumipad
      Sa lupa ka rin papatak.
16. Maghasik ng mabuti
      At nang makaani ng pagmamahal.
17. Kung wala kang itinanim
      Wala ka ring aanihin.
18. Ang laki sa layaw
      Karaniwa'y hubad.
19. Ang marahan kung lumakad
      Hindi lubhang masasaktan.
20. Ang masama sa iyo
      Huwag mong gagawin sa iba.
21. Walang matimtimang birhen
      Sa matiyagang manalangin.
22. Magpakahaba-haba ng procesion
      Sa simbahan din ang urong.
23. Ang ibong maagap,
      Nakakahuli ng uhod.
24. Ang hipong tulog
      Nadadala ng agos.
25. Ang taong maagap
      Daig ang masipag.
26. Ang hindi marunong lumingon sa pinanggalingan
      Ay hindi makakarating sa paruruonan.
27. Pag ikaw ay matipid
      Mayroon kang masusungkit.
28. Bago pahirin ang sa ibang uling
      Ang uling mo muna ang iyong pahirin.
29. Hanggang maliit ang kumot
      Mag-aral mamaluktot.
30. Ang tao ay pantay-pantay
      Sa mata ng Diyos.

31. Ang dasal ay isang paraan
      Ng pakikipag-usap sa Diyos.
32. Sa paghahangad ng isang dakot
      Ang nawala'y isang salop.
33. Ang bayaning masugatan
      Ay nag-iibayo ang tapang.
34. Ang lihim na katapangan
      Ay siyang pinakikinabangan.
35. Walang mayama't ginhawa
      Na di nanghingi sa iba.
36. Kahit maraha't mainam
      Daig ang masamang dalian.
37. Kung ano ang kabataan
      Siya ang katandaan.
38. Ang magandang asal
      Ay kaban ng yaman.
39. Ang pag-ilag sa kaaway
      Siyang katapangang tunay.
40. Ang dalaga kung magaslaw
      Parang asing nakahanay.
41. Ang dalagang nagpopormal
      Sa kanyang kalagayan
      Hindi pagpapahamakan
      Nino mang walang pitagan.
42. Walang matiyagang lalaki
      Sa tumatakbong babae.
43. Ang mahinhing dalaga
      Sa kilos nakikilala.
[p. 25]

44. Kapag bukas ang kaban,
      Nagkakasala banal man.
45. Ang nanggaling sa magaling
      Sumama ma'y gagaling din.
46. Kung ano ang kulay ng langit
      Siya rin ang kulay ng tubig.
47. Ang matapat na aruga
      Ay ang higpit at alaga.
48. Kung saan nadapa'y
      Doon babangon.
49. Ang ulam na tinangay ng aso'y
      Nalawayan na.
50. Ang marahang pangungusap
      Sa puso'y nakakalunas.
51. Ang salitang matamis
      Sa puso'y nakaaakit.

52. Sumalubong ka na sa lasing
      Huwag lamang sa bagong gising
53. Madali ang maging tao
      Mahirap ang magpakatao.
54. Nakikilala mo ang taong mabait,
      Sa kilos ng kamay at sabi ng bibig.
55. Di man magsabi't magbadya
      Sa lagay nakikilala.
56. Ang tunay na pag-anyaya
      Dimadamayan ng hila.
57. Pagdating sa guhit
      Ay di ka lalampas.
58. Iba ang kalasti ng bakal
      Sa kalasti ng pinggan.
59. Ang lalaking tunay na matapang
      Di natatakot sa pana-panaan.
60. Ingatan ang iyong bahaw
      Ang aso ay matakaw.
[p. 26]


Our forefathers had various methods of measuring time. The most common was by listening to the crow of the rooster. The first crow was at about ten o’clock in the evening, and that was the time for the people to go to bed. The crowing went on at intervals of one hour. The last crow was at about four o’clock in the morning. This marked the time for getting up and preparing for work in the middle.

Another method of telling time was by hearing the singing of the hornbill. Usually, the first singing of this bird was between nine and ten o’clock at night. This was followed by another singing at about twelve o’clock midnight. The last singing, the time for our farmers to get up, was between three or four o’clock in the morning.

A third method was by looking at the different positions of the evening and the morning stars. When people saw that the evening star in the west was about 45 degrees, commonly expressed as “hampas tikin,” the time was between nine and ten o’clock in the evening, time for them to retire and go to sleep. When they saw the morning in the east at about 45 degrees, also expressed as “hampas tikin,” it was their time to get up and get ready to begin their work.

The most common method of telling the time during the day was by looking at the different positions of the sun during clear days. When they saw the sun rising, they presumed the time to be six o’clock. When they saw the sun at about 45 degrees in the east, expressed as “Ang araw ay hampas tikin,” it was about nine o’clock. When the sun was overhead, they said that the time was already twelve o’clock, time for them to stop their work and eat. When the sun was 45 degrees in the west, also expressed as “Ang araw ay hampas tikin,” this was about three o’clock in the afternoon. The setting of the sun signified six o’clock in the afternoon, time for the people to stop their work.

Aside from these ancient methods of telling time, our forefathers had also their own method of telling the different kinds of weather that they would have throughout the whole year. During the first 24 days of January, they could easily tell the kind of weather that they would have for the year by means of their common method called “bilangan and balis.” By using the “bilangan” method, they determined the kind of weather for each month from January to December. Each day from January 1 to 12 represented a month from January to December, respectively. The weather on January 1 represented the weather for the month of January; that of January 2 for February; that of January 3for March; that of January 4 for April, etc. During the next 12 days, i.e. from January 13 to 24,

[p. 27]

they used the “balis” method which was a reverse of the “bilangan.” January 13 represented the month of December; January 14, November; January 15, October; January 16, September; etc. Because of these methods, they could easily predict the kind of weather that they would have for each month of the coming year.


The Legendary Origin of Taal Lake

The Taal Lake region, with its river, lake, caves, hill, and mountains, which constitutes on of the wonderful garden spots in the orient for being rich in its scenic beauty, abounds in legends and traditions. It is the Batangas Olympus of legendary heroes. Here, Gay Leynes and Don Pablo Maralit became widely known for their fame. Here, too, the traditions as to the origin of Taal Lake, Taal Volcano and the town of Lipa have been handed down from mouth to mouth by the old people. They are fictitious tales which have several modifications from many successions of generations. Nevertheless, they have still survived with their own charms.

As to the origin of the Lake, the story says that in one of the thick forests of Batangas province lived a fairy. She used to walk alone. In one of these walks, she met the giant demon named Taal. Taal immediately fell in love with her. Soon, he asked for her hand in marriage. Afraid of the demon’s ugliness, she told him that she had vowed to remain single. No longer able to stand before him, she ran away. The giant ran after her to the cave where she hid herself. There, she called the aid of Divine mercy to liberate her from her captor. The gods of the cave heard her prayer. As Taal failed in his love pursuit, he became angrier with the nymph. Instead of continuing his romantic enterprise, he became revengeful. His love turned into hatred. He began to conceive of destructive things. He dug the path leading to the cave where he knew the nymph was. So, water rushed in from every side of the cave, forming into a lake. Thus, the famous Taal Lake, known the world over, was named after him.


The origin of the name of the volcano is a continuation [of] the same story. The nymph remained in her hiding place. She was still worried and fearful for her safety. But, from her kneeling position, she stood up to see if she was safe. She looked around her, trying to see if she could escape. Around her, she saw nothing but water. She then felt that her longing to reach her home was doomed. However, she did not lose her faith in the power and mercy of the goddesses of the cave. She prayed to them, pinning her only hope in them. Her strong faith was at last

[p. 28]

rewarded. When she was attempting to escape, one of the goddesses went to her aid. She transformed herself into a banca and asked the nymph to embark. They crossed the lake and reached the shore. Upon landing, she was seen by the revengeful giant, Taal. This time, the kind goddess ran again to her help. The captor became diable [disabled?] in his pursuit. He became angrier, more desperate. Dreadfully, he executed his destructive plan. He burned the hill which he could not ascend, hoping that by so doing, he could terminate the life of the lady he loved. People said that this was the cause of the eruption, the first eruption of Taal Volcano.


It is a general belief throughout the islands that God oftentimes descends to earth posing as a beggar to test the kindness of man. This brings to our minds the role played by the old man, a beggar in the most beautiful masterpiece of Philippine folklore, the Adarna bird. God simply wants to reward the charitable and to punish the avaricious. It is said that a beggar knocked at the door of a rich man. He asked for alms. He was not given nor was he even heard. He went to another house. There, he met a charitable man. Being a recipient of charity, the beggar could not be grateful to the kind man. Before he left the house, he promised to protect the man. Immediately after he had gone, the whole town was burned. Only one house remained, the house of the man who gave alms. Thus, the charitable man was rewarded.

The aforementioned story is similar to the legend of the origin of Sampaloc Lake in Laguna. The lake sprung up because a beggar was not given a fruit.


A maiden, as radiant as the sun, brown as her native soil, had remained in her house to take care of her paralytic father. One morning, she went to the orchard as was her daily wont, to work on the little garden and the young fruit trees. Hereupon, a Spanish soldier came and attempted to violate her. She resisted him. There ensued a close scuffle. Then, with the knife with which she had been cleaning her garden, the “Dalaga” killed him that wanted to give her dishonor.

At this juncture, a platoon of Spanish soldiers called Cazadores arrived. Upon seeing the bloody scene and, in its midst, a dead comrade, they discharged their muskets against the valiant Dalaga, wounding her fatally.

The maiden then laboriously tried to drag herself to the nearby river where her mother was washing clothes. But being without strength, she died on the way. Before expiring, however, she wrote with her blood at the edge of her white petticoat the following words: “I die pure.”

[p. 29]

When the townspeople learned of the incident, they went to the garden where it had occurred. There, they found the soil turned red, read with blood. From then on, the place became known as the Red Earth (Tierra Roja). Women of the locality who have to go on long trips to distant places, or who merely want to preserve themselves in their traditional purity, ask for aid from Tierra Roja. They gather from it a handful of soil and, diluting it in water, drink the mixture in small draughts. Then, they feel brave in the defense of their honor.


Once upon a time, in the barrio of Antipolo, there lived a man named Pablo Anting. He was so called because, through his anting-anting, he had many interesting adventures.

Ablong anting fell in love with a young beautiful lady of the same barrio. During that time, it was the old custom to require the suitor to serve the girl’s parents during the period of courtship. One day, while Pablo was in the house of his beloved, the father of the girl told him to cut some bamboo to be used in the construction of their proposed home. He did as he was told without hesitation. He went to the bamboo grove to cut the bamboo. To the surprise of the girl’s father, he saw Pablo cutting the bamboo as if he was cutting grass. He found, too, that he had left long joints on the ground.

“Pablo,” he said, “will you please cut the bamboo shorter on the ground?” After saying this, the girl’s father went to the house.

Without a word but only a nod, Pablo sheathed his bolo and began to pull up the bamboo as if he was pulling grass. After he had finished clearing the bamboo joints, he went home to get a carabao to haul the bamboo. He tied the bamboo by the hundred and hitched the carabao to the yoke. Because the load was very heavy, the carabao could not give it a lift. Quick-tempered and powerful, Ablong Anting tied the feet of the animal and loaded it on the raft. He pulled the raft by himself until it was brought to the girl’s house.

(A Folktale)

One day, a stranger came into a barrio. He became thirsty, but he could not find water. Searching a little further, he saw a coconut grove. He went there to get some young coconuts and to get water from the nuts to quench his thirst, but he could not climb the tree. Instead, he took hold of the trunk and bent it to get the fruit. He opened the nuts by hammering them with his fist. When he was also told to gather some ripe coconuts for making copra, he just bent the trunk of the tree to get the nuts.

[p. 30]

It was the old habit of the old folks to chew “buyo.” Even young people today are chewing this delicacy of “buyo” and betel nut, lime and tobacco. This stranger was seen picking betel nuts for his “buyo” by bending the tree as he had done with the coconut tree.

(A Filipino Folktale)

Once upon a time, there lived a farmer. Every year, when all his fields had been planted to rice, he took his carabao near a bamboo grove. There, every day, he fed the carabao with four bundles of grass and four buckets of water.

One morning, the farmer thought, “I am wasting too much time in cutting grass and in carrying water for my carabao. Perhaps, I could teach my carabao not to eat and drink. That would save me working very hard. Then, I would spend my time in the village drinking wine. What a wonderful thing that would be, a carabao that neither eats nor drinks.”

The following day, he began to teach the carabao the trick of neither drinking nor eating. Instead of the usual four bundles of grass, he fed the animal with only two. He also gave the carabao only two buckets of water.

The carabao ate the grass quickly and drank the water, and then he turned to his master for more. But the farmer shook his head and said, “That is enough for today, my friend. I am going to teach you a wonderful trick.”

The next day, the farmer gave the carabao only one bundle of grass and a bucket of water. The carabao gobbled up the grass because he was very hungry, and he drank the water swiftly because he was very thirsty. Then, he looked at his master to ask for more. But the farmer shook his head and said, “That is enough for today, sir! I am going to train you so that you will neither eat nor drink.”

On the third day, the farmer gave his carabao only half a bundle of grass and half a bucket of water. By this time, the carabao was very weak because of hunger and thirst. After he had eaten the grass and drunk the water, he did not feel strong enough to look at his master. The man saw this and said, “My good carabao is about to learn the wonderful trick! I must be a very wise man for I can teach an animal something that no one has ever taught before. I think that instead of being a farmer, I should be a teacher.”

On the fourth day, the farmer went to visit his carabao with a few of his friends. “I want to show you a wonderful thing,” he said. “My carabao will soon learn neither to eat nor drink.” They found the carabao lying on the ground, and he was so weak now that he did not even look at them to ask for some grass and water. Then, the farmer shouted,

[p. 31]

“Hurrah! My carabao no longer cares for food and drink. He has learned the most wonderful trick in the whole world. How nice it will be in rice-planting time. My carabao will only work and work without eating or drinking.”

But when the foolish farmer and his friends returned to see the carabao on the following day, the poor animal lay dead near the bamboo grove. “What a foolish carabao!” said the farmer. “Why did he die just when he learned not to eat nor drink?”

(A Filipino Folktale)

One morning, when Aunt Guinampang visited her garden, she found out that somebody had been stealing her ginger. She looked here and there, but not even the footprints of the thief did she find.

So, after supper, Aunt Guinampang and her husband sat by the window to watch for the thief. In a little while, they heard someone in the garden say, “Ah, how hot in the mouth is the ginger of Aunt Guinampang.”

“Listen!” whispered Aunt Guinampang to her husband.

“Ah, how hot in the mouth,” came the voice again, “is the ginger of Aunt Guinampang.”

“Did you hear it?” she asked.

“I heard it, alright,” replied her husband.

“Well, go down and catch the thief,” said she.

But he replied, “How can I, an old man with weak eyes, catch the thief in the dark? I better wait till tomorrow.”

The next day, the old man went to the garden. He looked among the stems of the ginger, he looked under the banana plants, and he looked in the grass. But he did not find the thief. “There is no one here, wife,” he told Aunt Guinampang.

When night came again, the old couple sat by the window to listen. Soon, they heard the voice saying, “Ah, how hot in the mouth is the ginger of Aunt Guinampang.”

“There is the thief again,” she said. “Go down and catch him before he gets away.”

“I better wait till tomorrow,” replied her husband.

Next morning, the old man went back to the garden to look for the thief. He looked among the stalks of ginger, he rolled the stones and the fallen branches of the trees, and he parted the grass and shrubs.

[p. 32]

But he did not see anyone there. At last, when he grew tired, he sat on an old coconut shell which lay face down in a corner of the garden.

By and by, he heard a soft voice say, “Hoo, old man!”

“Who is that?” the old man asked.

“Hoo, old man!” repeated the voice.

The old man searched the garden once more, but he found no one. However, when he sat down on the coconut shell to rest again, the voice came back.

“Humph!” the old man said, “this is strange. The voice sounds very near, and yet I cannot find who it is.” Then, he picked up the coconut shell on which he sat. Imagine how surprised he was to find that what he thought was a coconut shell was a tortoise. He did not know that he was sitting on the very thief he had been looking for. “At last,” he said, “I have you. Repent for your sins, for I shall place you in a rice mortar and pound you to death with a pestle.”

“Oho!” laughed the tortoise, “pounding is not new to me. Look at my abdomen. If I had not been pounded in a mortar so many times before, my abdomen would not be as flat as it is now. And yet I am still alive to keep on stealing Aunt Guinampang’s hot ginger. Do not pound me if you know what is good for your wife’s ginger.”

“Then,” the old man said, “since I cannot kill you by pounding you, I shall cut you to pieces.”

“Oho!” laughed the tortoise, “you will be making a mistake if you do that. I have been cut to many pieces and yet I am still alive to keep on stealing Aunt Guinampang’s hot ginger.”

“What proof can you give that you have been cut to pieces before?” asked the old man.

The tortoise pointed at his back and belly. “Can you see the big scars all over my body?” he asked. “You will agree that my scars are many. And yet I am still alive to keep on stealing Aunt Guinampang’s ginger.”

“In that case,” said the old man, “I shall roast your alive.”

“Go ahead if you want to roast me alive,” replied the tortoise. “But I must confess that roasting is the last thing that will kill me. I have gone through so many roastings that now roasting, to me, is sweeter than life itself.”

“Can you give me proof that you have been roasted before?” asked the old man.

“Answer me this first,” asked the tortoise, “what color has the roasted crab?”

“A roasted crab is red, of course,” said the old man.

[p. 33]

“Good,” said the tortoise. “Now look at my shell,” he continued. “What color is it?”

“It is red in some parts,” replied the man. “But you are not a crab.”

“I am the crab’s cousin,” said the tortoise. “How do you still think you should waste your time in trying to kill me by roasting me alive?” asked the tortoise.

“Well, I shall do this, then,” answered the man. If you cannot be killed by being pounded flat, by being cut to pieces, or yet by being roasted alive, you should be killed by drowning in the river. Confess your sins now,” the man added, “for I am going to throw you into the water.”

The tortoise started to weep. “Oh please, good Uncle,” he said, “have pity upon me, a helpless little tortoise. Please do not throw me into the river.”

“Confess your sins and prepare to die!” repeated the man firmly.

“Pound me flat in the mortar, or cut me to pieces with a bolo, or roast me alive in a roaring fire, but please do not throw me into the river because I shall surely die. I do not know how to swim.”

“Have you confessed your sins?” insisted the old man.

“Please, good Uncle.”

“That is enough!” the old man as he swung his arm and threw the tortoise into the river. “Now Guinampang,” he called to his wife as he watched the tortoise sink in the water, “your ginger plants will never be stolen again. The thief is dead. He is . . . . .” He had not finished speaking when he saw the tortoise raise his head above the water.

“Ha-ha-ha-ha! Ha-ha-ha-ha!” said the tortoise. “So you think you have drowned me, don’t you? Foolish man! If you knew what was good for your wife’s ginger, you should have pounded me in the mortar, or cut me to pieces with a bolo, or roasted me alive. You should have done almost everything except throwing me in the water, for the water is my home.”

(A Filipino Folktale)

Honsai was a poor boy who wandered from place to place and lived by his wits. One day, he met Sabandar, a man who loved nothing but idleness and pleasure. Sabandar called Honsai and said, “Be my slave and I will teach you the ways of the world.”

“What will be my duties?” asked Honsai.

“You will carry my sword and my hotel bag, and you will do what I do?” replied Sabandar.

[p. 34]

“I think that will suit me, master,” said Honsai.

The next day, Sabandar decided to visit his sweetheart in Misir. He rode on his horse and Honsai walked behind him holding his master’s sword and hotel bag. When they reached Misir, Sabandar sat beside his sweetheart. Then, Honsai walked to the other side of the lady and sat down near her. At this, Sabandar became very angry and said, “Honsai, slave, depart from here!”

“Master,” replied Honsai, “I am sorry, but I am only following what you told me when I became your slave. You told me to do whatever you do.”

Sabandar saw that his slave had taken his word literally. He felt very much embarrassed, and he said, “Get out of my sight. I shall be your slave before I see your face again.”

When Honsai heard this, an idea occurred to him and he went away. Early the next morning, just before the customary prayers were about to be said, Honsai hurried to the mosque. He walked toward the large jar containing water with which the priests washed their hands and faces before praying. He stuck his head through the mouth of the jar and waited. Soon, the priests came to wash. There, they found Honsai and said, “Get your head out of the jar and do not stand in our way.”

“Pardon me, master,” said Honsai, “but I have to hide my face from my master.”

The priests were in a hurry to begin their prayer and they did not want to quarrel with a slave. So, they sent for Sabandar and he came down with many of his friends. “You fool and rascal!” Sabandar said, “you’re giving trouble to the holy men now, too. Get your stupid head out of that jar.”

“I am very sorry, master,” replied Honsai, his head still inside the jar. “”I am afraid to show you my face.”

“Get out!” insisted Sabandar.

“Be careful in what you say, master, or you will be sorry,” said Honsai.

“Stop blabbering,” ordered Sabandar, “and get your foolish head out of that jar. You are delaying the prayer.”

“I have to hide my face from you, master,” said Honsai.

“Get your head out of the jar,” shouted Sabandar, “or I’ll beat your brain out.”

Then, Honsai pulled his head out of the jar, “Just as you wish, Sabandar,” he said calmly. “And now,” he added, “you shall be my slave.”

“I shall be your what?” said Sabandar.

[p. 35]

“You have become a slave,” said Honsai. “Give me your horse, carry my sword and hotel bag, and follow me.” The people roared with laughter when they heard the slave command his master.

“You fool! You shall pay many times for these insults that you have done to your master,” said Sabandar. “Get out of this mosque and do not smear it with your silky talk. Get out quickly or I’ll have you flogged.”

“Sabandar, I ordered you to keep your mouth shut and obey me,” replied Honsai firmly. “Yesterday, you said that you would become my slave before you see my face again. For your sake, I came to hide my face in this jar. But you forced me to get it out, and so now I had to show my face to you. Therefore, you shall be my slave from now on. Sabandar laughed at him, but Honsai insisted on his point. The case was taken to the old man of the city for decision. After much thought, the old man declared that Honsai was right. So, they ordered his former master to become his slave.


1. Information on books and documents treating of the Philippines and the names of their owners:
Decrees or Documents Possessor
1.  Chronicle of Lipa Jose Alex Katigbak
2.  Decreto Sobre la Villa de Lipa Atty. Gualberto Mayo
3.  Decreto Sobre el Esendo de Lipa Atty. Gualberto Mayo
4.  Decreto por Pio X Mons. Rufino J. Santos
5.  Ang Kasaysayan ng Lipa Mons. Domingo J. Librea and Emiliano Manguiat
2. The names of Filipino authors born or residing in the community, the titles and subjects of their works, whether printed or in manuscript form and their possessors.

Title or Subject of Works : Printed or Manuscript : Possessor
 1.  Cinco Reglas : Printed : T.M. Kalaw Mem. Library
 2.  De Nuestro Moral Antigua : Printed : "
 3.  El Espiritu de la Revolucion : Printed : "
 4.  La Revolucion Filipina : Printed : "
 5.  The Court Martial of Andress Bonifacio : Printed : "
 6.  La Campaña de la Kuomintang : Printed : "
 7.  Dietario Espiritual : Printed : "
 8.  Aide de Camp to Freedom : Manuscript : "
 9.  El Heroé del Tirar : Printed : "
10. Writings of Apolinario Mabini in English : Manuscript : "
[p. 36]

Title or Subject of Works : Printed or Manuscript : Possessor
11. El Ediario Politico de Apolinario Mabini : Printed : TMK Memorial Library
12. Las Cartas Politicas de Apolinario Mabini : Printed : "
13. Epistolario Pilarino : Printed : "
14. Epistolario Rizalino : Printed : "
15. Planes Constitucionales para Islas Filipinas : Printed : "
16. Speeches of President Quezon : Printed : "
17. Mazonaria en Filipinas : Printed : "
18. Teorias Constitucionales : Printed : "
19. Manual Sciencia Politica : Printed : "
20. Five Precepts of Ancient Morality : Printed : "
21. Code of Ethics for Flipinos : Printed : "
Title or Subject of Works : Printed or Manuscript : Possessor
 1.  The Case for the Filipinos : Printed : TMK Memorial Library
 2.  Philippine Government : Printed :
 3.  Development of Philippine Politics : Printed :
Title or Subject of Works : Printed or Manuscript : Possessor
 1.  My Father Was a Great Man : Manuscript :
Title or Subject of Works : Printed or Manuscript : Possessor
 1.  Solo Entre Las Sombras : Printed :
 2.  Civil Code Annotated : Printed :
 3.  Casa de España : Printed :
 4.  Bajo los Cocoteros : Printed :
 5.  La Rota a Damasco : Printed :
 6.  Three Years of Enemy Occupation : Printed :
Title or Subject of Works : Printed or Manuscript : Possessor
 1.  Columnas Volantes de la Federacion Malaya (Treaty on Journalism) : Printed :
 2.  El Vuelo de la Aguila : Printed :
Title or Subject of Works : Printed or Manuscript : Possessor
 1.  Boxer Uprising : Printed :
 2.  Voyage to Taiwan : Printed :
Title or Subject of Works : Printed or Manuscript : Possessor
 1.  Las Caritas : Printed : Mrs. Enrique Laygo

Notes and references:
Transcribed from “History and Cultural Life of the City of Lipa” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.
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