Malagonlong, Lipa City, Batangas: Historical Data - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore Malagonlong, Lipa City, Batangas: Historical Data - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore

Malagonlong, Lipa City, Batangas: Historical Data

Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the barrio of Malagonlong in the City of Lipa, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.
Historical Data

PART I – History

The barrio of Malagonlong, with its two sitios namely Pinagong and Pulo, is popularly and officially known as “MALAGONLONG.” This barrio lies in the southern part of Lipa, which is more or less than five kilometers from the poblacion. Farming, weaving, sewing and other household industries abound in the barrio.


MALAGONLONG – A long time ago, several families from some unknown places came to live in the region. Unfortunately, they selected a place which is far from a brook for their place to live in. They had great difficulty in securing water for home use. This was particularly true during the dry season. Time rolled on and the number of people increased. The need for a good source of water supply became more and more felt.

One day, the people of the community had a meeting. They agreed to transfer their community to a place which is nearer to a brook. Once agreed upon, they began moving and settled in a place which was near a brook. The fertility of the soil and the favorable location of the community attracted the attention of other settlers so that it did not take long before that time and the place became more thickly settled. The naming of the barrio was finally decided. Many names were suggested but none of them seemed to suit the people. In one of the meetings which was held in order to decide the naming of the barrio, a meeting which was held under a tree near a brook, an idea came to the mind of a person attending the meeting. Inspired by the sound of the brook as it flowed along its stony bed, which according to them was “lagong-long nang lagong-long,” it was finally decided to name their barrio “MALAGONLONG” which was derived from the sound made by the brook which has from that time to date given the barrio an abundant supply of water.

PINAGONG – This is one of the sitios of Malagonlong. This place got its name from the topography of the region which resembles the back of a turtle.

PULO – This is another sitio of Malagonlong. The name “Pulo” was derived from [a] group of trees that once grew in it as well as from the few houses that were scattered therein.


A complete account of the barrio’s establishment could not be found. However, it was known that several families came to live in this place sometime during the eighteenth century. Most of the first inhabitants belonged to the families of Estolano, Mantuano, Mosca, Aguila and Gonzales. In addition to others who came later, the original

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families by intermarriages grew in number. Later, in the year 1887, a Barangay form of government was established. Mr. Doroteo Estolano was appointed as the first Cabeza de Barangay.

Name Years
 1.  Doroteo Estolano 1887-1890
 2.  Gavino Cuenca 1890-1897
 3.  Celestino Aguila 1897-1900
 4.  Doroteo Estolano 1902-1904
 5.  Severo Gonzales 1904-1907
 6.  Gavino Cuenca 1907-1910
 7.  Jose Aguila 1910-1913
 8.  Agapito Samonte 1913-1916
 9.  Esteban Samonte 1916-1919
10. Francisco Mantuano 1919-1922
11. Domingo Solis 1922-1928
12. Benito Mantuano 1928-1934
13. Juan Mantuano 1934-1939
14. Faustino Mantuano 1939-1944
15. Abdon Samonte 1944-1946
16. Furtonato [Fortunato?] Estolano 1946-date

A. During the Spanish Occupation:
Throughout these long years of Spanish Occupation, the people of Malagonlong led simple lives which were devoted to farming, [the] planting of trees, and raising animals. Household industries like sewing, weaving, and raising of chickens and pigs were also found. They were very religious and law-abiding people. The following are some of the facts and incidents that happened during the Spanish Regime:
1. The establishment of the barangay form of government in 1887 with Mr. Doroteo Estolano as the first Cabeza.
2. Continued indoctrination of the people of the barrio in the Christian faith.
3. Education of the people was conducted by private teachers. Reading, Writing, the fundamentals of Arithmetic, and the learning of the Rosary were among the subjects taught. The parents of the pupils paid the teachers during the time their children were at school.
4. Forced labor of the male adult inhabitants in the construction of roads, bridges, and churches.
5. Participation of the barrio folks in the Philippine Revolution – The people of the barrio of Malagonlong formed a local troop known as “Voluntario.” On one occasion, this troop went to the town of Lipa to fight against the Spaniards. In the fight that ensued, many Spanish soldiers were killed. Not one of the voluntarios was killed in the encounter.

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Mr. Tomas Umali Commander
Mr. Faustino Luz Captain
Mr. Generoso Saludo Lieutenant
Mr. Nicolas Laylo Sergeant
B. During the American Occupation up to World War II:
1. The same troop that fought against the Spaniards during the Spanish-Filipino War fought against the Americans.
2. During the year 1901, the people of the barrio were assembled in the barrio of Bolbok. This was done by the Americans when they enforced their policy of zonification in order to facilitate their mopping up operations against the Filipino insurgents. During this period, which lasted for about six months, the people suffered great hardships. Several persons died in the concentration, properties were destroyed and industries were paralyzed.
3. During the period of American occupation, the people lived peacefully. In the meantime, the people learned the American ways of life. Little by little, the barrio progressed.
4. During the Japanese occupation (from January, 1942 to April 1945), the people of the barrio experienced great hardships. Among the things that happened during the period were the following:
a. General shortage of food and materials for clothing.
b. Extreme fear of the Japanese occupation troops.
c. Forced labor in the Japanese military camps.
d. The barrio was raided twice by the Japanese.
1. September, 1944 – Five men were killed in this raid. One of them was Mr. Faustino Estolano, the barrio lieutenant at that time.
2. February 1945 – In this raid, forty persons were killed. The barrio suffered the greatest loss during this raid. All the properties of the people were confiscated and after this, all the houses except three were burned.
3. According to reliable information, not less than sixty persons were killed in this barrio during the Japanese occupation.
4. From February to April 1944, the people of the barrio evacuated to some places of safety. The time was the most critical period in the history of the barrio.
5. The barrio was liberated in the middle of April, 1945. The people returned to their homes to begin a new life. They suffered great losses but they were very thankful that the war was over.

C. Means of Accomplishments Towards Rehabilitation and Reconstruction following World War II:
1. From the ashes and remains of their former homes, the people began to make temporary shelters.
2. The people revived the industries that were paralyzed during the Japanese Occupation. A great majority of the people resumed their farm work, some engaged in commerce, and still others devoted their times in developing household industries.

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3. Better homes were constructed as the year rolled on. Some were erected out of personal funds while others were aided by the Philippine War Damage Commission.
4. The public schools for complete primary grades were reopened in 1947.
5. The rapid development of the citrus industry can be noted.
6. Today, many of the inhabitants of the barrio go to other places to trade. By degrees, the condition of the barrio rose from the ruins and ashes of war so that at present, it will be safe to say that the barrio has attained its prewar level in economic and industrial sides.


Traditions, Customs and Practices in Domestic and Social Life

BIRTHS – As Filipinos, the people of Malagonlong are true to the traditions of their forefathers. Hospitality, neighborliness, patience, and perseverance are among their inherited traits. However, they have customs and traditions that are unique and different from their Filipino brothers. Some of them are enumerated below:

a. Regarding Birth –
1. The birth of a child is a great joy to the family concerned. Sometimes, the prosperity and misfortunes encountered by the family are attributed to the birth of a particular child.
2. A woman on the family way has some practices. Among them are:
a. She usually wears a strip of white cloth known as “bigkis” around her waist in the belief that this will prevent internal hemorrhage.
b. A month or two before delivering, she consults a midwife locally known as “hilot” to examine the baby’s position and by feeling the mother’s pulse to tell the exact date of delivery.
c. Delivery is usually attended by the hilot. Only in serious cases will a doctor be called to attend to the delivery.
3. Practices and Customs Regarding Birth –
a. A newly-born baby is watched, particularly at night, until he is christened. Sometimes, branches of trees with thorns are placed under the house. These things are done in order that some malignant spirits like the tiyanak and aswang will not have a chance to get the newly-born child.
b. Drinks made by boiling the leaves and barks of some trees are given to the nursing mother.
c. For nine days, either in the morning or the afternoon, the hilot will massage the abdomen of the mother. This is done in order that the uterus will return to its normal position. Sometimes, a stone about the size of a little coconut will be heated. Then, it will be covered with some kinds of leaves and cloth and placed on the abdomen of the mother.
d. Three weeks after delivery, the mother will be bathed. Water boiled with the leaves and some bark of trees supposed to have medicinal values are used for the purpose.

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B. BAPTISM – The naming of the child is done in two ways, namely:
1. The “buhos” system or naming the child in the house of the parents by any person in the community or even a member of the family.
2. Baptism done in the church usually solemnized by the priest. This is regarded as the real baptism, a thing which is necessary in order to make the child a real Christian.
In both cases, a godmother or godfather as the sex of the child may be is selected to act as the baby’s sponsor. These sponsors are selected by the baby’s parents. The following are considered in their selection:
a. Reputation and influence of the person to be selected.
b. Relationship to the family.
c. Financial and social standing in the community.

The Baptismal services as done by the priest:
1. Baptism is done in the church.
2. The sponsor holds the baby. In the meantime, the priest will say his prayers touching the baby in various parts of the body and doing something which are required of the church.
3. The baby will be named in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. Water is poured on the head of the baby as he is being named.
4. Lastly, the priest performing the ceremony will advise the sponsor regarding his responsibility to help in the proper upliftment of the child. During this time, the sponsor is holding a lighted candle.

When the baptismal ceremony is over, the child is taken back home. Usually, a party is given in his honor. The kind of party is determined by the ability of the parents to finance the occasion. Food and drinks are served in the party. Sometimes, the party is very expensive not only on the part of the parents by also to the sponsors who usually spend much for regalos and for the gift called “pakimkim” which is given to the child.

COURTSHIP – In the old days, the method of courting a lady was very different from that of today. In many cases during that time, the young men and young women were married without their mutual agreement. The parents alone selected the mates of their children without giving due consideration to the persons concerned. Once the parents of both parties agreed to join their children in wedlock, they will have to follow whether or not they loved each other. However, there were some cases in which the following method of courtship was followed:

1. The young man went to the house of the lady at night for a visit. This visit should never be later than eight o’clock at night. During this visit, the young man should follow some established customs. Among them were the following:
a. His visit should be announced to the people of the family. This announcement was made in the form of a low coughing known as “tighim” which was to be done downstairs. The young man could go up only when permission was granted.
b. Proper greeting particularly to the parents of the lady

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This was done by saying polite expressions as “Mano po” or “Magandang gabi po” to the old members of the family. In some cases, this sign of respect was done by kneeling. A blessing as “Salamat, kaawaan ka ng Diyos” – Thanks, God bless you – in English would be given to the visitor who was then welcomed and given a seat. Oftentimes during the visits, the young man and the young woman had no opportunity to talk with each other for either the father or the mother of the lady entertained the visitor.

During these regular visits, the parents of the lady studied the behavior and the fine qualities of the young man. Information about his family, social standing and economic aspects were gathered to serve as the basis for their approval or otherwise. If they were found to be favorable to the lady’s parents, the young man would be lucky. If not, he would have to stop and look for another lady.

2. In spite of the many obstacles that laid between the young man and the lady to come to an understanding, they often came to an agreement. This could be made by the use of sign language through the medium of fans and handkerchiefs. Sometimes, this could be attained by conversations done in the absence of the parents. Washing clothes in the brook, harvesting rice, and attending parties were among the opportunities that gave rise to these occasions.

3. Rendering services and doing favors to the lady loved and her parents and relatives is another way of courting during the old days.

Courting nowadays is very much different in some respects from the way it was done long ago. [In] The present day, parents are more liberal. They give their children the liberty to choose their life mates. Their only function is to give advice and reminders. Once they are given, they believe that their duties as parents are accomplished. Permission for the marriage is almost always granted whenever a child reveals his or her engagement. Courting at present is done in one or all of the following ways:

1. By sending love letters.
2. Night visits – The old customs are followed but the lady and the young man have the liberty to talk. The parents stay away.
3. Conversations [are] done in any place and at any time opportunity for them arises.
4. Rendering services to win the favor and approval of the lady as well as the parents.

As it was in the past, the present day customs in arranging for the marriages are the following:
1. Introducing or “Pakilala.” Firewood and water will be taken to the house of the lady. This shows that the young man is telling the parents of the lady that he desires to have their daughter for marriage. From this time, the young man will serve in the household of the lady.

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2. Fixing the terms of the marriage called “Bulungan.” The parents of the lady will call for the parents of the young man. The terms of the marriage are revealed for the consideration and approval of the parents of the young man. Among these terms are the following:
a. Dowries – These are in the forms of money, a parcel of land, work animals, a house to be repaired or constructed, or any other things that the whims and caprices of the lady and her parents may think about.
b. The kind of wedding party to be given. In almost all cases, the parents of the bride-to-be desires a wedding party that is big enough for all those who will be attending to be served and fed to their satisfaction.
c. The date of the wedding is fixed. The kind of wedding ceremony is also agreed upon.

When the terms are favorable to the young man’s side, the marriage is continued. If not, the young man will have to quit no matter [if] he likes it or not. However, there are cases when the lovers elope because of the inability of the young man to abide by the terms of the Bulungan. In some cases, neither the dowry nor the wedding party is asked by the lady’s parents. The responsibility for the marriage and all the prerequisites for the same are given to the parents of [the] bridegroom-to-be.

When all the terms agreed upon in the bulungan are fulfilled to the satisfaction of the lady’s parents, the wedding ceremony will be done. The ceremony is done by any of the following: the priest, the pastor, or the justice of the peace. After applying for the marriage license and making the necessary contract with the approval of the parents of both parties, then all is set for the celebration. In the majority of cases, the ceremony is done by the priest or the pastor for according to the belief of the people of the barrio, the marriage will not be binding and lasting unless it is performed by the apostle of God.

The following steps are followed in the marriage:
1. Filing the necessary application and making the marriage contract in the Office of the Local Civil Registrar.
2. Marriage intentions will be recorded in the book of the church where the marriage will be solemnized.
3. In the case of the Catholic Church, the marriage intentions will be announced to the public. This announcement is usually done after the High Mass for three consecutive Sundays.
4. If no claim or opposition to the marriage is filed, the marriage will be done in the morning of Monday after the third announcement is done.
5. The marriage ceremony is done according to the procedure of the church officiating it.

There are times when there is no need for announcing the marriage. This is called “Disposada” in which case the marriage ceremony is done in any day of the week but it is commonly celebrated on either Thursday or Saturday. It must be understood that all the expenses incurred during the procedure will be borne by the parents of the bridegroom.

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THE WEDDING PARTY – A party called “Baysanan” or “Kasalan” is given in the house of the bride. Friends and relatives of the bride are invited. They are supposed to be the guests of the bridegroom and his relatives and, therefore, are to be accorded the services that are due to them.

The wedding party is usually a happy occasion. There are dancing and singing aside from the rare food and drinks that are served to the visitors. After the party, the bride will transfer to the house of the bridegroom. Sometimes, the bridegroom is allowed to go with the bride while there are cases when the parents of the bride object to this practice, in which case the groom is left behind. But you may be sure that the groom will follow his bride sooner or later. Sometime after the wedding, the newlyweds will live with the parents of either side. Then they will have a house of their own.

DEATH – The death of a person is a great loss to his family. It is believed that when a person dies, his soul separates from the body, that it will go to heaven or hell. The dead body is regarded as sacred. Below are the common practices and customs relative to the disposal of the dead:
a. Burial – The dead is usually buried within twenty-four hours from the time of his death. In some instances, the body is embalmed for a desired length of time after which the burial takes place. Before burying, the body is dressed in his finest clothes. It is placed in wooden coffins and then taken to church for the last ceremonial rites. That toll of the church bells often announces the parking of a soul. From the church, the body is taken to the cemetery for burial. The kind of interment varies according to the ability of the family of the deceased to pay for the services of the rites. It is the custom of the people of the barrio to join the interment. This is done in order to show their love for the dead as well as their sympathy to the bereaved family of the deceased.

Ceremonies Given to the Dead:
1. Mourning – This lasts for a period of nine months or a year. Black clothes are worn during the period of mourning.
2. A nine-day novena – Prayers are said for nine consecutive days. These prayers which are said in the evening at the house of the dead are done for the salvation and quiet repose of the soul of the person who died.
3. Fourth-day Service – A midday prayer is said. People of the barrio come to the house of the dead to join in the ceremony. Food is served to all those who come.
4. Ninth-day Service – Same activity as in the fourth day.

During this period of nine days, aids in the form of money which are called “Pakandila” are given to the widow and orphans of the deceased as a sign of sympathy and help to them.

5. Sometimes, a 30th or 40th day service is given to the dead.
6. After a period of nine months or probably a year, the period of mourning will end. A nine-day novena precedes this service which is known as the “Babaang Luksa.” At noon of the ninth day of the novena,

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a prayer will be said for the quiet repose of the soul. Again, the people of the barrio will come to join the services. Food will be served after the prayer. From this data, the widows, orphans and relatives of the deceased can wear colored clothing.
7. Masses called “Misa de Requiem” are said from time to time in the belief that in so doing, the soul of the dead will rest in peace.
8. All Souls’ Day, which usually falls on Nov. 2, is set aside to remember the dead. During this day, the people go to the cemetery to visit the graves of their loved ones. Prayers are said, candles are lighted, and wreathes are placed on the graves. These things are done to show their love and respect for the deceased.

VISITS – Visits and family reunions are common. A visitor is welcomed in every home and is received with great hospitality. Family reunions are often done on Christmas Day and on celebrations like birthday parties, wedding parties and anniversaries. These reunions are characterized by great enjoyment and feasting together where foods of different kinds are served.

FESTIVALS – The most common festival is the “Flores de Mayo.” Every day, during the month of May, there is an “Hermana” or “Hermano” who is in charge of the offering of flowers to [the] Virgin Mary. A party is given in the house of the hermana or hermano every afternoon. At night, the people will congregate in the barrio chapel for the flower offering. After the ceremony, there will be fun and merriment. This is the happiest time of the year, particularly to the young men and women. The festival is almost always culminated by the holding of the barrio fiesta.

PUNISHMENT – Minor disputes among the barrio folks are settled within the barrio. The settlement is made in the presence of the barrio lieutenant and some influential men of the barrio. Offenders are punished to the satisfaction of both sides. Major offenses are turned over to the proper authorities. In this case, the punishment that is commensurate with the gravity of the offense committed is given after due process of law is given to the offenders.


(A Legend)

Many, many years ago, the barrio of Malagonlong was party covered with green and tall trees. A little brook that has been flowing in the eastern part of the barrio was quiet because the water flowed quietly and slowly along the grassy beds.

The grass that grew along the banks of the brook was very good food for the animals. As such, many people went there to cut grass. These people often sat down to rest on a big flat stone that was on one side of the brook.

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One day, while a man was cutting grass, he happened to see a beautiful maiden sitting on the stone. She was lovely and beautiful. The man desired to talk with her. To his astonishment, the lady disappeared. The disappearance was so sudden that the man could not tell where she went. Time and again, the man saw the lady but as before, she disappeared from his sight when he tried to talk with her.

At first, he kept this a secret. At last, he lost his patience and revealed the secret to his neighbors. The news spread like wildfire. Many people went to the brook to see the pretty lady on the rock. Many of them testified to the truth of the news. The beauty of the lady filled the hearts of two men who saw her with a desire to catch the lady and have her for their own.

One day, these two men went to the brook to accomplish their plan. Fortunately, they saw the lady. She was sleeping in all her loveliness as she laid on the big flat stone. Slowly and cautiously, the two men went near her. They were about to hold her when the lady woke up. Perceiving their bad intention, she became very angry. She jumped to her feet and kicked the big stone and then disappeared. The big stone made a big rolling sound as it fell on the quiet water of the brook. Much to the astonishment of the two men, the brook which flowed slowly carried the big rock as it flowed. The stone made a great noise as it rolled along the brook’s bed digging the rocks underneath and breaking the banks of the brook as it rolled along. On and on the big stone rolled until it reached bigger bodies of water and finally to the sea.

From that time on, the course of the brook became rugged. Big stones gathered on the bed. Rapids and falls appeared. Because of these, the once quiet brook became noisy as it flowed along its rugged and stony course. The sound made by the break was loud and long so that it could be heard at a great distance. Everybody who happened to pass by the barrio noted the loud noise. Finally, it was decided to name the brook as Malagonlong Brook. True to its name, the brook which had been quiet once upon a time, became very noisy and remain such to this very day.

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BELIEFS – The people of Malagonlong believed that:
1. There is a God who created all things on earth.
2. Every person has a soul. That the soul parts from the body when a person dies and that the soul goes to either heaven or hell depending upon the person’s actuations when he was living.
3. There is another life hereafter.
4. Ghosts and other spirits, though unseen by mortal eyes, wander on earth to tempt and lure people.
5. Magic and divinations work wonders.
6. Miracles are outward manifestations of the powers and spirits of those from which these miracles emanate.
7. Talismans of some sort are still useful to the owners.

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SUPERSTITIONS – The following are some of the most common superstitious beliefs of the people of Malagonlong:

1. When a lady sings while cooking, she will marry a widower.
2. When a black butterfly hovers around you at night, a near relative of yours met some misfortunes or perhaps died.
3. A horseshoe seen on your left side while walking through a crossroad will bring you good luck.
4. Crickets singing in the house at night foretell the coming of the visitors.
5. When a lizard crosses your way, it will be better for you not to continue on your journey or trip for bad luck will befall you.
6. When a child combs his or her hair at night, the parent will be sick or probably die.
7. When a farmer has a haircut on the day he planted his seeds or palay, the palay will not grow well.
8. A comet seen in the sky foretells good or bad times depending upon the position of its tail.
9. When the veil of the persons who are being married falls, it is a sign that the mates will face hardships in the course of their married life.
10. When many fireflies are found fluttering in a tree at night, some ghosts of malignant spirits are wandering in the neighborhood of the gree.

a. Songs:
Native kundimans.
Lullabies sung by mothers as they put their babies to sleep.
The young people are fond of modern song hits.

b. Games and Amusements –
Native dances like fandango, abaruray and subli.
Huego de anillo and huego de prenda.
Outdoor games like catching fish, quails and other birds.
Different kinds of card games.

1. It is round, white, and full of gold. – egg.
2. It has a face and two hands. It tells the time. – clock.
3. Its trousers are folded to the knees, be it a sunny or rainy day. – chicken.
4. My sister’s house has only one post. – umbrella.
5. It has no root and no stem yet it is always blooming. – stars.
6. It carries its house wherever it goes. – turtle.
7. It has many eyes but it cannot see. – pineapple.
8. A grain of palay that fills all the room. – lamp.
9. What is it that goes to a place without moving. – road.
10. My aunt gave birth. The baby came out from her side. – corn.

1. An early bird catches the worm.
2. A barking dog seldom bites.

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3. Slow but sure goes far in a day.
4. Bend the tree while it is young.
5. He who never looks back at his starting place,
Will never reach his destination.
6. A person can be judged by his words and actions.
7. The water is deep when it is quiet.
8. Don’t leave for tomorrow what you can do today.
9. Like is like a wheel that goes up and down.
10. Drop by drop wears away the stone.

The time is measured in terms of seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, years, etc. Calendars are used to tell dates. Clocks, watches and radio announcements are used to tell the particular time of the day. In the absence of these modern methods of telling time, the people use the following to remind them of the particular time of the day:
a. The Sun:
The rising of the sun suggests 6 o’clock in the morning.
When the sun is overhead, it is 12 o’clock noon.
The setting of the sun suggests 6 o’clock in the evening.
b. The chickens are also used to tell time:
The crowing of roosters suggests various times at night.
Roosting time for the chickens suggests 6 o’clock in the evening.
The time when the hens lay eggs suggests the time between 9 and 10 o’clock in the morning.
c. By the use of flowers:
The opening of the flowers of the patola denotes 4 o’clock in the afternoon.
d. Expressions denoting time:
Disperas – two o’clock in the afternoon.
Hampas tikin and araw – About three o’clock in the afternoon.
Tanghaling tapat – twelve o’clock noon.
Hatinggabi – twelve o’clock at night, midnight.
Madaling araw – four o’clock in the morning, dawn.
Bukang-liwayway – sunrise.
Takip-silim - sunset.

NOTE: No record whatsoever is available in the community. The facts and materials used in this manuscript are gathered through interviews and conversations with the eldest persons of the barrio.

1. Mr. Pedro Estolano and Miss Inocencia Andal, both teachers of Malagonlong Barrio School, for the gathering of data.
2. Mr. Simeon S. Metica, Head Teacher of Adya-Cumba Region of which Malagonlong is a part, for the compilation of the data and preparing them in manuscript form.

Notes and references:
Transcribed from “History and Cultural Life of Malagonlong” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.
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