San Fernando and Santiago (formerly Payapa), Malvar, Batangas: Historical Data Part I - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore San Fernando and Santiago (formerly Payapa), Malvar, Batangas: Historical Data Part I - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore

San Fernando and Santiago (formerly Payapa), Malvar, Batangas: Historical Data Part I

Historical Data graphic
Historical data from the National Library of the Philippines.



Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the barrios of San Fernando and Santiago (formerly called Payapa) in the Municipality of Malvar, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.

[Cover page.]


(Formerly called Payapa)


Submitted by:



[p. 1]

Part One: History

1. Present official name of the barrio.
a. Santiago
b. San Fernando
2. Popular name of the barrio, present and past, derivation and meanings of these barrios’ names.
a. Past – Payapa
b. Present – Santiago (Payapang Burol or Ibabao)
San Fernando (Payapang Labak)
c. The name Payapa was derived from the name of a tree called Payapang Balete which grew on the bank of a ravine. Under the enormous growth of this tree was a big flat stone where the chiefs of the different groups of Filipino “tulisanes” met to settle peacefully and amicably their intramural conflicts. Payapa means “peace.”
d. At present, the old barrio of Payapa is comprised of two barrios, namely: Santiago and San Fernando. The former is named in honor of “Cabesang” Santiago Lantin and the latter in honor of “Cabesang” Fernando Manalo. Both were prominent men during their time. Despite the official names of these barrios, many people still call Santiago “Payapang Burol” or “Ibabao” and San Fernando “Payapang Labak.” These present popular names are derived from the topography of these places.
e. No sitios are included within the territorial jurisdiction of the aforementioned barrios.
3. Date of establishment.
The two barrios, namely Santiago and San Fernando, were established on January 1, 1919.
4. Original families:
a. Lantin
b. Manalao
c. Aguilera
d. Viaje
e. Reyes
f. Torres
g. Garcia
h. Laydea [Laydia?]
5. List of tenientes from the earliest time to date.
a. Spanish time –
1. Santiago Lantin
2. Fernando Manalo
3. Manuel Lantin
4. Evaresto Manalo
5.  Lorenzo Lantin

[p. 2]

(Continuation of No. 5)
b. American period up to 1919.
1. Claro Lat
2. Felisito Laja
3. Tomas Lantin
4. Genaro Aguilera
5. Marcelo Reyes
c. From the establishment of the municipality of Malvar to date:
A. Barrio of Santiago –
1.  Dionisio Maralit 4.  Victor Lantin
2.  Teodoro Bautista 5.  Santiago Manalo
3.  Teodoro Hernandez 6.  Ambrocio Terenal

B. Barrio of San Fernando –
1. Evaristo Lantin
2. Roman Viaje
3. Lorenzo Torres
4. Paulo Aguilera
5. Jose Lantin
6. Juanario Tolentino
7. Francisco Torres
6. Story of old barrios or sitios within the jurisdiction that are now depopulated or extinct.
7. Data on historical sites, structures, buildings, old ruins, etc.
8. Important facts, incidents or events that took place.
a. During the Spanish occupation –
1. Economic – The barrio of Payapa became one of the coffee granaries of the town of Lipa.
2. Despite the lack of religious freedom, many people worshipped Dr. Jose Rizal. They were called “Iko.” Another religious sect called “Kolorum,” which meant “magbubundok,” worshipped the mountain with the belief that God was in it.
3. Incidents – In most of the visits of the “Guardia Civil” and the Spanish “Casadores,” the inhabitants were forced to give chickens, eggs, fruits, and sometimes pigs. Any person seen by them (Guardia Civil and Casadores) on the way was commanded to carry their personal belongings. No one could refuse for fear of inhuman punishment.
4. Personalities – A “Cabeza” named Felisito Laja sold many parcels of land just to cover up the amount of tribute that his barrio mates filed to give. He died poor with but with an honorable life.
b. During the American occupation to World War II.

[p. 3]

(Continuation of No. 8, letter b)

1. Incidents –
(a) The Filipino “Insurrectos” ambushed American soldiers at the southern outskirt of Payapa. The American soldiers retaliated by burning all houses in the place where it occurred.
(b) The American soldiers searched the houses of the inhabitants for firearms and hiding “Insurrectos.”
(c) To spare the lives of the barrio people from the crossfires of the American soldiers and the Filipino “Insurrectos,” the American officers ordered all the people to assemble at a safety zone in Lipa. After several weeks, these people were released and ordered to return to their homes.
2. Economics –
(a) The old trail leading to the towns of Lipa to the south and Tanauan to the north was widened and levelled. Later, it was paved with stones and sand. Lastly, the road was asphalted and classified as a first-class road.
(b) More virgin lands were cultivated and planted to a variety of crops.
(c) The introduction of the calesas made the conveyance of the people and market products to the towns faster and more economical.
3. Political –
(a) Barrio lieutenants were free from paying cedula tax. They were also given the privilege to apprehend offenders and culprits and to hold meetings relative to the enforcement of municipal ordinances and national law.
4. Educational –
(a) In 1917, some houses in the barrio were rented purposely to house the school children. The pupils were provided with books, pencils, slates, crayolas, etc.
(b) The first public school building erected in the barrio was only a two-room building. It was erected in 1926. In 1957, another room was annexed to it.
5. Religious –
(a) Many chapels were built in the barrio. The barrio folks used them for “Flores de Mayo.”

[p. 4]

(Continuation of No. 8, letter b)

(b) Many people were affiliated with different religious sects. The people enjoyed the freedom of worship.
6. Personalities –
(a) The only person from Payapa who became one of the Vice-Presidents of Malvar was Mr. Tomas Lantin. The erection of the only public school in the barrio was due largely to his sincere and honest efforts.
(b) Among the municipal councilors from Payapa, Mr. Jose Manalo and Mr. Maximino Aguilera were the first to be included in the list.
c. During and after World War II
1. The Japanese occupation – Important facts:
(a) In June 1942, the public school in the barrio was opened. The pupils were taught Niponggo and the National Language. The medium of instruction used was also English but all literary pieces pertaining to the Americans were excluded.
(b) The people of the barrio were divided into different groups. Each group was under a leader called “Cabo.” The “Cabos” were held responsible for the collection of foodstuff for the Japanese and also for getting male persons the Japanese need to work in the cotton plantations and in the auxiliary air bases.
(c) Hundreds of coconut trees were cut down for trunks only. These were used as supports of the Japanese air shelters and hiding places in the ground.
(d) In January, 1944, the Japanese Kempetai and soldiers commandeered many of the horses, cattle, calesas, bull carts, and sewing machines of the barrio folks.
(e) Guerrilla units were organized to help carry out the national resistance movement against the Japanese and also to protect the people from the molestation of bandits and fake guerrillas.
(f) Guerrilla suspects in the community were given the most inhuman punishments by the Japanese soldiers. Others were brought to other places and killed.
(g) The scarcity of food in the barrio forced the people to overlook personal hygiene and [the] proper upkeep of their homes.

[p. 5]

(Continuation of No. 8, letter c)

(h) Weaving of abaca and sinamay was revived. Age-old native looms were used. Many people wore clothings made of abaca and sinamay.
(i) Sometime in March, 1945, many young women were taken to a concentration camp in sitio Sulok, Lipa, to mend the torn clothes of the retreating Japanese soldiers. No one could tell what happened to them.
2. Incidents –
(a) Guerrilla soldiers under Captain Carandang ambushed Japanese trucks. Destruction of lives of soldiers, ammunition, food supplies, uniforms, etc. was great.
(b) Some Japanese soldiers on patrol were wiped out by some guerrilla soldiers. Japs who arrived later burned the school building. The house of Mr. Lorenzo Torres was included.
2. After World War II –
(a) In May 1950, public school buildings were rehabilitated.
(b) The primary school of Payapa became a complete elementary in 1949.
(c) Three artesian wells were constructed in 1952. The difficulty of the barrio folks in securing safe drinking water was greatly minimized.
(d) The people learned to apply fertilizers to their fields and farms extensively. The increased production of various crops greatly improved the standard of living of the people.
(e) The people observed the barrio fiesta annually. Such has not been observed before.
9. Destruction of lives, properties and institutions during wars, especially in 1896-1900 and 1941-1945.
(a) The houses of the barrio folks in the southern part of Papaya were razed to the ground when the Filipino “insurrectos” ambushed the American soldiers.
(b) Sometime in March 1945, the school building and the house of Lorenzo Torres were burned by the Japanese soldiers.
(c) During the years 1944 and 1945, hundreds of coconut trees were cut down by the Japanese soldiers. Staple foods of the people were commandeered. [The] Same was done to the people’s burden animals.


Notes and references:
Transcribed from “History and Cultural Life of the Barrios (San Fernando and Santiago, formerly Payapa),” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.
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