Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the barrio of San Martin in the Municipality of San Luis, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.
HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE of the BARRIO
PART ONE – HISTORY
The present official name of the barrio is San Martin.
Its present name was derived from the patron saint of Taal. That name was the choice of the barrio people with the influence of the parish priest of the poblacion.
Though the official name is San Martin, it has other popular names. By the people outside of the municipality, it is called Calumpang though a barrio by the latter name is another one. It is said that when the first settlement was made in this region by the earliest settlers, there grew a very big and old calumpang tree. Hence, the settlement was named after the tree. In the course of this, the population increased and the settled areas expanded. In the organization, several barrios were born – Calumpang, Tunggal, Sta. Monica, and Durungao. Later on, a new one came into being and this was San Martin. All the barrios are still popular by the name of Calumpang.
Manggahan is one of the sitios comprising San Martin, but the barrio is popular by that name also.
This barrio is composed of three sitios – Bagong Karsada (Pook), Manggahan, and Puguan. Bagong Karsada, meaning new road, was originally called Pook at its founding. Then, there were few houses which were built in a group away from the neighboring sitios and barrios. It was connected by a narrow trail only with the barrio of Tunggal. A road was built southward from Manggahan passing through the eastern part of the sitio. Its inhabitants moved their dwellings along the new road. The sitio then got its new name Bagong Karsada. Manggahan is so called because this sitio is located among several big mango trees that grew in a group. Puguan means a place of “pugo” or quails. The man who first settled there was fond of catching quails, so that the neighbors referred to him his name was connected with “pugo.” His descendants got the same name ever since and the sitio they founded has been called Puguan.
The exact date of the organization of the barrio could not be reckoned by any of the old folks in the barrio interviewed. No records could be found in the municipal government nor in the church. It is presumed that the barrio with its present name was born when “Capitan” Juan Huerto was the alcalde of the town. The birth of the barrio led to the construction of the new road so that the three sitios composing it were connected together.
The following were the original families in the barrio:
Hernandez and Maulion families in the sitio of Bagong Karsada (Pook);
Hernandez and Malapitan families in Manggahan and Chavez family in Puguan.
Family names in the barrio other than the original ones at present are the result of intermarriages with men from other places.
The tenientes of the barrio from the time of its organization to date are as follows:
(2) Mr. Angel Cipres
(3) Mr. Doroteo Maulion
(2) Mr. Santiago Hernandez
(3) Mr. Agapito Carandang
(4) Mr. Jacinto Armedilla
(5) Mr. Ramon Hernandez
(6) Mr. Sixto Carandang
(2) Mr. Ramon Hernandez (same as above)
(2) Mr. Florentino Hernandez
The old sitio of Pook from which Bagong Karsada originated was for a time depopulated because the houses were moved along the new road. However, as new families sprang up, the houses increased so that most of them were built on the old site of Pook. The population has not increased very much because of the adventurous nature of the younger generation. Many of them emigrated to other places either to farm as to engage in business. Those who left prospered economically.
So far, Sulok or Kay Tambaco in the jurisdiction of the barrio is of some historical significance. It was made a camp of the Revolutionary Forces during the Filipino-American War. Lt. Bernardo Magsino was its commanding officer. At the same time, the revolutionists had another camp in Buyuan in the jurisdiction of Calumpang under Capt. Mariano Aseron. The superior officer who had jurisdiction over the two camps were Colonel Ramon Atienza and Major Aguido Cabrera.
Changes were brought about in the lives of the people in the barrio during the American Occupation. The traditions, customs, practices and other folkways stated heretofore under the space for Folkways have [been] disregarded little by little because of the influence of the American administration. The establishment of schools in barrios, even if one has not been established in this barrio, thus making education popular, together with the many freedoms enjoyed by the people, have affected greatly the lives of the people, especially socially and economically. The young generation has the opportunity to attend schools and acquire the most needed education. As a result of this, illiteracy in the barrio is found only among adults. Many new ways of life were acquired.
While agriculture remained to be the chief means of livelihood among the majority of the people, they resorted to other means to improve their lot. Trading and embroidery have become important. The traders of the barrio, like those of their neighboring barrios, reach all parts of the Philippines to peddle their goods. Some of them have settled down in places where they have found good prospects for their businesses. Many of them have succeeded. Embroidery has become the home industry of the women. It has contributed to stabilize the family budget.
It was one day in September 1944 when an artillery company of the Japanese arrived and made camp in Calumpang. The soldiers surveyed the vicinity as far as Durungao Hill. They moved their camp to the hill.
They occupied the school building in Santa Monica. The big houses in the barrio, in Durungao and Bagong Karsada in San Martin were also used as quarters. They started the fortification of the hill. Roads, dugouts, and tunnels were constructed. The manpower among the inhabitants was utilized. Materials needed that were available, like timber, lumber, iron roofing, wires, etc. were commandeered. The trees which the inhabitants valued were cut down. The wire fences were collected. The rice, cassava and other products of the farmers were confiscated. There were cases when the soldiers, without the knowledge of their officers, god the chickens, eggs and crops of the people. The activities and crops of the people were very much affected.
The fortification was badly completed when the Liberation Forces arrived. In the morning of February 9, 1945, they bombarded the fortifications, making considerable damage. The communication line connecting it with the main Japanese position in Makulot Hill was cut. The defenders of the hill were demoralized because of the damage. They dispersed and tried to escape in groups of different directions. The newcomers took over and the place was liberated. The only work that remained was to clear the ravines and jungles of Japanese stragglers. On Feb. 4, 1945, a group of these stragglers were sighted in Tulo, [a] sitio of Bagong Karsada. The guerrillas, with the help of the Americans, liquidated them. In the ravine in Paho, the boundary of San Martin and San Antonio, there was another encounter. Five stragglers were killed. There was no casualty on the other side. In the same place, one Melecio Cipres of Sitio Puguan fought single-handed a lone Japanese straggler. The latter was killed.
In spite of the events, the barrio was spared from much destruction. The people were very grateful. The rehabilitation and reconstruction of the barrio were undertaken. Normalcy was restored. In December, 1949, a grand barrio fiesta was held as thanksgiving. Through the joint management of Miss Maria Magnaye and Mr. Meliton Hernandez of the young generation, with the wholehearted cooperation of all, the affair was an eventful one. It was the first and only one ever held in the barrio.
After the defeat of the Revolutionary Forces in the region by the Americans in the early part of 1901, the people in the barrio were ordered to go to the poblacion in order to map out the remaining dissidents who might be hiding. During this time, some innocent natives who remained in the barrio were tortured by the Macabebes who had joined the American Forces in fighting the Revolutionists. The rice and other foods found hidden it he barrio were sometimes burned.
In connection with the war in 1941-1945, few barrio residents were killed. They were innocent civilians who were suspected to [be] members of the guerrilla organizations. Some valuable trees were cut down and used in the fortification in Durungao. Some wire fences and iron roofing materials were commandeered [and] some farms were destroyed; food was confiscated by the Japanese soldiers; and some personal effects were located. Life was very much affected. The prime commodities became scarce. The farmers raised cassava and used it as the staple food. Many people resorted to have woven sinamay for clothing. The Taiwan Company, a Japanese government sponsored company, engaged the people in the region in the raising of cotton. In this project, every piece of land under cultivation was used. All the able-bodied members of the farmers’ families were forced to work in the plantations. All the production was sold to the company at a controlled price. The project caused the decrease of food crop production. Untold sufferings were experienced during the Japanese Occupation.
Immediately after liberation in 1945, the work on rehabilitation and reconstruction went underway. The farmers went to the farm, making the best out of the work animals and the seeds spored [?] during the Japanese Occupation. The peddlers of the barrio went on plying their trade. Schools opened and the children went to school. The U.S. Army made Batangas an army base and depot. This proved to be a blessing to the people, including those of the barrio. It helped very much for the rapid rehabilitation and reconstruction because the liberated inhabitants found employment as laborers, guards, or clerks. Business went to its peak so that businessmen, farmers, and manufacturers were all benefited. Everything like articles, embroidery, native food, etc. sold like hotcakes to the G.I.s. In a short time, there was normalcy in the lives of the people.
Mr. Sixto Carandang, ex-Barrio Lieutenant of San Martin
Mr. Ramon Hernandez, ex-Barrio Lieutenant of San Martin
Mr. Doroteo Cilindro, Ex-Barrio Lieutenant of Calumpang
Other old folks of San Martin and Calumpang
|[Sgd.] GREGORIO V. CILINDRO
|[Sgd.] JACINTA G. CILINDRO
PART TWO – FOLKWAYS
Traditions, Customs and Practices>
The traditions, customs and practices of our ancestors are disappearing or beginning to disappear in the lives of the people of the barrio.
In Domestic and Social Life
Courtesy. Calling “tao po” or the house owner’s name before entering somebody’s house.
Saying “makikiraan po” or “ulin po,” bending the body forward with right hand extended in front when passing in front of an elder or a group of elders.
Making calls or visits to neighbors. The host does not fail to offer cigarettes, buyo or other things to callers.
Cooperation. In the repair and improvement of the barrio road, tuklong, or any barrio enterprises, every family is represented by a laborer to help.
Voluntary work is given by the neighbors in plowing, harvesting, repairing, or building houses, etc.
When a party is given in the barrio, folks help in the work. They also give tawid or help in the form of money, food, or drinks. Everybody in the barrio is invited to such a feast.
Hospitality. Strangers seeking shelter are always welcome in every home. They are all entertained during their stay. The host feels it his moral obligation to make them safe and secure while under his roof.
The expectant mother does not eat twin bananas for fear of giving birth to twins.
After Birth. Firecrackers or any kind of fireworks are exploded. A chicken is killed and everybody in the home has a feast. Wine or other drinks are offered to neighbors who visit. The new mother is offered different things to eat during the first meal.
The Hilot and the Salag. The “hilot” midwife, with the help of the salag, male attendant, attends during delivery. The midwife continues to attend until the mother is given her first bath which is done one month after delivery. She massages the young mother morning and afternoon. She heats the mother with a red hot stone enclosed in the leaves of kampupot. She bathes the mother and the baby.
The First Bath. In giving the first bath to both mother and baby, warm water is used. It is prepared by boiling roots, barks and leaves of several medicinal plants. For the baby’s first bath, silver coins and flowers are put in the medicated water.
The parents select the sponsor of the baby for baptism. When several babies are baptized, the sponsor hurries to get first to the church door.
Usually, a party is given in connection with the baptism where good food and hot drinks are served. Both the sponsors and parents invite the neighbors and friends. The party lasts the whole day.
In Courtship and Marriage
During the early days, the parents chose the life partner of their children so that sometimes with the man having made no mention of his love to his new wife, their marriage was solemnized. Cases were rare when a young man expressed his love to the woman he loved. His love was made known through
the services he and his parents rendered in the young woman’s household. Sometimes, a third party talked to the parents of the young woman. Even to this day, there are instances when this old custom is observed. The following are done when the love is acceptable.
“Pakilala.” The parents of the young pay a visit to the house of the girl with some nice things to eat.
“Pakulasyon.” On Christmas Eve or on the eve of any religious feast, meat and other good things to eat are sent to the house of the girl.
Paisda. Some big fishes, usually tambakol, are taken to the house of the girl. They are pieced and distributed to the kin of the girl’s parents.
Patubig. Water, like fish, is distributed to the kin of the giril.
Pakahoy. A very large bundle of firewood made up of mature madre cacao, chopped into pieces one and a half meters long each, the bundle usually one meter in diameter, is taken to the house of the girl and placed beside the house with one end on top. It is kept for years.
The “paisda,” “patubig,” and “pakahoy” are done at the same time.
“Bulungan.” After all the above-mentioned practices are done, the parents of the girl send for the parents of the young man. They ([the] young man’s parents) prepare a good meal, good for many persons, inform their kin and their neighbors and feast on the food brought. The marriage is then arranged. Both parties agree on the following:
b. The amount to be given for the wedding dress and other wedding apparel of the bride-to-be.
c. The wedding party.
d. The sponsors for the wedding.
e. The dower. It may be in the form of real property, money, or animals. It belongs to the new couple. This dower is given to the parents of the bridegroom. (The expenses are shouldered by the parents of the bridegroom.)
The “Baysanan” or Wedding Party. The wedding is celebrated with pomp. Chickens, pigs, goats, and cow are slaughtered. The people of the barrio and neighboring barrios and all the kin of the bride are invited. It lasts until dinner is served on the wedding day. The food that remains either cooked or uncooked are shared equally by the parents of both parties.
Preparation is begun several days before the wedding day. On the day before the wedding, all things to be used are taken to the house of the bride. The animals are slaughtered. A “sabit” or gift, usually one-fourth of a slaughtered pig with other things to eat, is sent to the sponsors for the wedding and the godparents of the bride. The hapunan, supper, is served on this day.
Young men and women of the barrio are invited as a special group to attend during the marriage ceremony. The wedding clothes are made complete with some silver coins placed inside the shoes of the bride and groom. On the return of the new couple from the church, raw rice is thrown over them.
Before the guests leave the party, there is the sabugan or betting. The kin and parents of both parties, their godparents, and sponsors give gifts to the new couple. The kin of the bride give theirs to the groom and those of the groom to the bride. The one giving the sabog is offered cigarettes in return. The sabog belongs to the new couple.
The “Lipatan.” It takes place after the sabugan. The bride, with the party of the groom, goes to the home of her husband, leaving the latter behind. He follows her the day after. As the bride leaves, a pot or any other utensil is thrown from the house to break it. It is believed that when it would not break, the new couple will be childless. The party is over.
In Death and Burial. When someone dies, the neighborhood comes and prays for his soul. In the night, there is “puyatan.” A group of people keep watch over the dead the whole night. The people of the barrio attend the funeral. As the dead is carried away from the house, the windows are closed. Those in funeral attendance do not look behind.
A novena is offered beginning with the first night after death. There is a rite on the fourth day, “apatan,” and another rite on the eighth, “waluhan,” after death. On the first anniversary of the death, another rite, “babaan,” is celebrated. The bereaved family goes in mourning for a year. Women practice it by wearing black. The family of the deceased hold “ondrasan” on All Souls Day in memory of the dead. Each commemoration is preceded by a novena, nine nights of prayers offered for the dead.
As the people of the barrio are rabid Roman Catholics, most festivals they hold are religious in nature. The grand barrio fiesta they held once was given in honor of Saint Martin, the barrio patron saint. During Lent, reading of the “Passion” of Christ in a singing way is a custom. Often, a “pabasa,” with participants selected and invited from other barrios, is held. The affair lasts a whole day or more. During the Holy Week, “tumbukan” is usually practiced. It is a contest by two groups who are well-versed in the “Passion.” A group recited in a singing way with a question to be answered by the other group in the same manner.
They celebrate a flower festival in May. It is locally called “alayan.” St. John’s Day is also celebrated by the barrio folks. [unclear word] lasts until noon. All Saints Day and All Souls Day are celebrated for two days. Groups of children during the first night and of adults during the second night go around singing from house to house begging for alms. During the Christmas season, carolers go about the barrio asking for money as presents.
In Punishments. It is said that the common punishment given for minor offences settled by the cabezas during the Spanish rule was by beating. The offenders received the punishments without rancor.
Miscellaneous. The padasal is a very common practice in the barrio. The people of the barrio are invited to prayer, rosary. It is given in connection with the following:
b. To celebrate the birthday of a child in the family.
c. Thanksgiving after a successful honest business and the like.
A rosary held in the tuklong or along the barrio road when asking for rain is practiced by the barrio folks.
Myths and Legends. The story often told by the old folks of the barrio to children is about a witch which once lived in the old calumpang tree from which the name of the earliest settlement founded in the place originated. They called the witch “Angitay” or Mariang Ilaya. Mariang Ilaya is the counterpart of Mariang Makiling in Rizal’s own story. The folks will tell many incidents where Angitay would play jokes on night travelers
by misleading them. They would also tell that the witch sometimes befriended the horses of farmers; that she used to provide those animal friends with grass.
Beliefs, Interpretations, and Superstitions.
Of these, there are many. The following are popular:
1. Attributing diseases or sickness to spirits and to witches who are believed to be capable of inflicting pain.
2. If a hog grunts or a dog howls at night, somebody will die or there will be an epidemic.
3. When a mother dies, her children are made to step across the open grave so that her spirit will not visit them.
4. If a rooster crows at night, it signifies that it will win in the fight the following day.
5. If a cat, while facing the door, wipes its face with one of its paws, a visitor will come; but while facing a corner, it will rain.
6. When the fire in a stove sings, a visitor will come.
7. If a woman sings while cooking, she will marry a widower.
8. If on a journey, one meets a snake, he will be lucky; but a lizard, he will have bad luck.
9. The appearance of a comet foretells troubles.
10. Whatever is done on New Year’s Day is likely to prevail throughout the year.
11. If thirteen persons sit on the table, one of them will die.
12. If the first born is a boy, it will be a sign of good luck.
13. If you dream that your teeth have fallen, somebody among your kin will die.
14. If you spars [?] money through the window or pay your debts at night, you will be poor.
15. If a boy is not [missing word] while one is on an errand, it is a sign of good luck if a girl, it means bad luck.
16. Leaving the house while someone is eating means bad luck.
17. The fear of eating twin bananas for fear of having twins.
18. If an owl enters a town, famine is coming.
19. If you swear a mouse, they will eat your clothes or other belongings.
20. Wearing beads of certain seeds, trunks, etc. to escape [diseases?] borne from spirits, witches, and other evils.
21. The dislike of people to take a bath in the period of the new moon or on Fridays.
22. Not cutting fingernails on days with “r” or Martes, Miyerkules, and Biyernes.
23. Not sleeping with wet hair for fear of getting blind or [becoming a] lunatic.
24. Burning the seeds of the fruit or a bit of any food that has caused stomach ache and then eating the pulverized burned seeds or food as treatment.
Origin of the World, Land, Mountains and Caves, etc.
It is the popular belief of the old folks in the barrio that the world and the natural phenomena in it are creations of one powerful God. They believe that an eclipse occurs when the “laho” devours either the sun or the moon as the case may be. They also believe that the occurrences of earthquakes, lightning, and thunder is the will of God so that during the occurrence of any of these phenomena, they pray to God to appease Him and to spare them from danger. They believe that Adam was the first human creation of God and Eve, the first woman, was made of his ribs caused to be a living human being to give Adam comfort and [be] his life companion. From those first man and woman sprang up the whole human race.
Sickness. The barrio folks believe that there are certain sicknesses caused by evil spirits, witches, etc. and that such sicknesses are not curable by modern medicine. A chant, bulong, or oracion can drive away the evil and “gahoy” are ailments caused by certain persons affected by
the evil and make the sick well. They believe that the “gaway,” “atupiling,” and “gahoy” are ailments caused by certain persons affected but immune to these diseases. Their saliva cures the sufferers instantly.
Witchcraft, Magic, and Divination, Etc.
The barrio folks believe in witches like the “tigbalang,” “aswang,” “mangkukulam,” and “patianak.”
The “tigbalang” may appear as a pretty young woman or an ugly old one. It likens itself to a person familiar to the one to whom it appears. It has the power to mislead anybody it plays a joke [on].
The “aswang” is believed to be a person who has the power to transform himself to a certain animal like a dog, cat, etc. He is fond of the liver of a sick or a dead person. He steals the liver when the person is left in the dark or when the person is not guarded.
The “mangkukulam” is believed to be a person sick with a certain malady. Because of the sickness, he is forced to wander at night. He is noticed because of the flames, it is said, that appear on his fingernails. Though harmless, his appearance causes fear.
The “patianak” is believed to be the spirit of any immature birth or who died after birth without being baptized and buried out of the cemetery, say side of the ravine. It appears crying in the late afternoon or in the evening, especially when it is rainy. If it cries near a house where someone is pregnant, it is believed that the expectant mother will have a difficult delivery. To drive him away, a firebrand is thrown where it cries.
Popular Songs and Dances
Some songs and dances popular among the old folks are the “awits,” “corridos,” “sabalan,” “subli,” “kutang,” and “fandango.” “Awits” and “corridos” are stories in verses given in songs. The “sabalan” and “kutang” are sung with the accompaniment of the guitar, “rabil” or violin, or “cordion.” The “subli” and the “fandango” are dances with songs to the accompaniment of musical instruments. The “barimbao” and “tugtugan” made of a joint piece of bamboo are some musical instruments used by the old folks in their day.
Popular Games: Games played by the old folks are the “gurumay,” playing tops “trumpong pasil,” riding on stilts “tayakad,” hide and seek “taguan,” hawk and chick “lawin-lawinan,” basin-basinan, “alaalabaduhan,” flying kites of cacao leaves, “supo” using “bayag-kambing” or lumbang seeds, “pata” and fencing “eskrima.”
Amusements: The songs and games mentioned above make up a great part of the amusements of the old folks. They have parties and “padasals,” too. They have seasonal amusements, besides. Reading the “Passion” of Christ, “tumbukan” during Lent is another one. Pouring water on St. John’s Day is fun. There is “alayan” in May. During All Saints Day and All Souls Day, going from house to house singing and begging alms is an amusement. Singing carols for presents is popular during the Christmas season.
Puzzles and Riddles: Among the puzzles and riddles of the barrio folks, the following are popular.
|1. Isang butil ng palay, sikip ang buong bahay.
|2. Ang baboy ko sa pulo, ang balahibo'y pako.
|3. Ang kalabaw ko sa Maynila, abot dito ang unga.
|4. Pag umaga'y bumbong, pag gabi'y dahon.
|5. Nagsaing si Katungtong, bumulak ay walang gatong.
|6. Ang bahay ni Kaka, hindi ko matingala.
|7. Ang baboy ko sa kaingin, tumataba'y walang pakain.
|8. Ang isinaing ni Kapirit, kinain pati anlit.
|Bayabas na hinog
|9. Kung saan masikip, doon nagpipilit.
|10. Maliit na bundok, hindi madampot.
|11. Isang tingting na matigas, nang ikiskis ay namulaklak.
|Palito ng posporo
|12. Pumutok di naririnig, tumatama'y di masakit.
Proverbs and Sayings: The barrio folks have many proverbs and sayings. The following are popular.
1. Aanhin pa ang damo kung patay na ang kabayo.
2. Malapad ang parang, makitid ang dinulang.
3. Walang matimtimang birhen sa matiyagang manalangin.
4. Masilab na ang pook, huwag lamang ipatanaw ang usok.
5. Hindi uusok nang walang silab.
6. Ang lumalakad ng marahan matinik man ay mababaw.
7. Ang maikli ay nagpuputol, ang mahaba ay nagdudugtong.
8. Nasa Diyos ang awa, nasa tao ang gawa.
9. Nakikita ang butas ng karayom, hindi ang butas ng palakol.
10. Kung tunay na tubo, matamis hanggang dulo.
11. Ang kasipagan ay kapatid ng kayamanan.
12. Ang masikap ay daig ang maagap.
13. Kung pinukol ka ng bato, ang iganti mo ay puto.
14. May taynga ang lupa, may pakpak ang balita.
15. Miminsan man at duro, daig pa ang maikatlo.
16. Paglaki ng anunang, paglaki ng guwang.
17. Ang sakit sa kalingkingan ay tagos sa buong katawan.
18. Ang hampas ng kalabaw, sa kabayo ang latay.
19. Suwihin na nang suwihin, huwag lamang turang saging.
20. Ang hipong tulog ay madadala ng agos.
Methods of Measuring Time: Old folks in the barrio measure time through the rising and setting or rather the position of the sun, the planets and the constellations and through the crowing of the cocks at night. They can also tell time through the opening of flowers or folding of leaves of certain plants. They say that patola flowers open at four o’clock while the orasyon at six in the afternoon. The acacia folds its leaves late in the afternoon.
Special Calendars: They foretell the months of the year that will be sunny or rainy by observing the first twenty-four days of January. They refer to these days for the twelve months of the year in consecutive order from January to December, making one repetition. When a day referring to a certain month is sunny, the month will be sunny but if cloudy or rainy, the month will be rainy. The first occurrence of thunder and lightning tells them that planting season or May is at hand. When the kakawati flowers bloom, Christmas is near. The appearance of migratory birds or of the adult cicada and the changing of monsoons form also their special calendar.
Other Folktales: Other folktales which children hear from the folks of the barrio are “Ang Alamat ng Paskuwa,” “Usapin ng Pugo, Usa, Kuwago, at Hantik,” “Alamat ng Butiki,” “Ang Batang Tamad,” “Ang Hari,” “Kung Bakit ang Daga ay Kinakain ang Ating Dami.”
PART THREE – OTHER INFORMATION
|[Sgd.] Gregorio V. Cilindro
|[Sgd.] (Mrs.) Jacinta G. Cilindro