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January 4, 2018

Bukal, Taysan, Batangas: Historical Data

Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the barrio of Bukal in the Municipality of Taysan, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.





HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF BUKAL










[Sgd.] Juan Montalbo

[Sgd.] Maxima V. Bandoja

[p. 1]

HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF BUKAL

PART I

The present official name of the barrio is bukal.

The popular name of the barrio present and past is Bukal.

Bukal means a source of water. This word Bukal was derived from the spring in the river where people got water for their home consumption. There are two sitios within the territorial jurisdiction of the barrio, namely Balindes and Pulo ng Simon. Bukas was established in the year 1861.

Original Families.
1. Evaristo Mayo
2. Agaton Bianzon
3. Silvino Favorito
4. Juanito Luancing
5. Joaquin Bianzon
6. Francisco Escala
7. Herminigildo Tagle
8. Anaceto Villena
9. Simon Cuartero
10. Jose Perea
Tenientes from the Earliest Time to Date.
1. Miguel Vibura
2. Francisco Escala
3. Silvino Favorito
4. Antero Carag
5. Vicente Favorito
6. Rosalio Bianzon
7. Ceriaco Luancing
8. Segundo Bianzon
9. Quintin Balila
10. Victoriano Bianzon
11. Pedro Perea
12. Crisanto Masalonga
13. Mariano Luancing
14. Eufemio Perea
15. Marcelo Escala
The early settlers of Bukal [were] composed of several families settled or living not so far away from the spring in the river between San Marcelino and Bukal, which lies in the southern part of the barrio. This river in the southern part of the barrio is a connection of the river called Mahanadiong, which lies in the eastern part of the poblacion of Taysan. The people who live in this barrio get water from the spring for their home consumption. They suffered hardships in getting water for cooking food and washing dishes, because there was no well yet during that time. They did not know yet to make

[p. 2]

or dig it in the ground. As the people increased after a few years, the old folks called a meeting and planned to establish a barrio. They agreed to give [the barrio] the name of Bukal. Since that time until the present, the barrio has been called Bukal and [it] became the official name. The sitio of Balindes, which is in the northern part of the barrio, derived its name from the road which is slanted toward the center of the barrio. The sitio of Pulo ng Simon, which lies in the northwestern part of the barrio, derived its name from the name of Simon, who was the oldest man and almost the owner of the whole land in the sitio.

Data on historical sites, structures, buildings, old ruins, etc. - - - - None.

Important facts, incidents or events that took place:

(a) During the Spanish occupation - - - - None.

(b) During the American occupation to World War II:

When the Americans won against the Filipinos during the revolutionary government, many Filipinos, especially Macabebes, joined the American forces to campaign peace and order. Then, the Americans with the Macabebes came to Taysan. The Macabebes went to the barrio of Bukal and burned all the houses in that place.

(c) During and after World War II - - - - None.





(a) Destruction of lives, properties and institutions during wars, especially in 1896-1900 and 1941-1945:

There was none except only all the houses were burned in this place during 1896-1900.

(b) Measures and accomplishments toward rehabilitation and reconstruction following World War II - - - None.

[p. 3]

PART II

Birth

When the woman feels she will give birth, she calls a midwife to assist her. After the baby is born, the midwife does all she can to take care of the baby and the mother. The baby is kneaded for one week while the mother is kneaded for two weeks. In the first week, the mother is kneaded twice a week while in the second, once a week. After two weeks, the mother takes a bath and the kneading ends. At night, many people in the neighborhood houses go there to see them. Some people stay until morning without sleeping to enjoy and watch them. They play there juego de frenda, teresite, or sonca. They do this for about a week. In the first birth, the parents of the baby’s mother choose the padrino or godfather while in the second birth, the parents of the child are allowed to choose.

Baptism

In christening the baby, the parents of [the] well-to-do prepare food to eat for the day. They invite their neighbors and other people in the barrio. They carry the baby to town to [be] baptized in the Catholic Church. After baptizing, they go home to the barrio. On this day, many people are gathered attending the christening. There are dances, songs and drinking of wine. They stay there until four o’clock in the afternoon.

[p. 4]

Courtship

In courtship, the young man visits the girl every night whom he loves. He helps the work in the home of the girl [for] one to three years. Then the parents of the girl favor him, they tell him to come with his parents to talk about the marriage of their children. In this talk, the parents of the boy prepare food to eat. They talk [of] the “bigay kaya” or donation. Sometimes, the “bigay kaya” is land, money, jewelries or animals. They talk also about the wedding and the date to marry. In this wedding, the parents of [the] well-to-do kill [a] cow and pig for the wedding.

Marriage

When the two parties agreed to marry their children, they choose the padrinos. Then, they go to town with their children to register their marriage in the Catholic Church. The boy and girl are announced by the priest for three Sundays during the mass. On the third Sunday, they all go to town to marry on the next day. After the marriage of the couple has been solemnized, they go home to the barrio. On this day, many people are gathered at the home of the girl attending the wedding. There are dances, especially rigodon, subli, telibio, abaruray, etc. There are also songs and guitar to enjoy [entertain] the people. After the people have eaten, the couple sell some things such as bread, cigarettes, suman, kalamay and wine to have money. This custom is called “sabugan” [in] which relatives and friends of the two parties donate money, jewelry, land, or animals. After this, the girl will be taken to [the] home of the boy, while the boy stays for one day at the home of his wife.

[p. 5]

Death

At the death [of someone], many people go to the house of the dead. They contribute a certain amount of money for candles. Some people of the neighboring houses stay until morning without sleeping to watch and to enjoy [the writer probably means “console”] the members of the family. They read the book of [the] Passion of our Jesus Christ. Other people play teresite, that is, playing cards. If the dead is a member of a well-to-do family, he or she is put in the coffin while the poor is just wrapped in a mat.

Burial

On this day, [a] pig or cow is killed for food to eat. The dead is carried to town to be solemnized in the Catholic Church. Many people in the community go to attend the burial. If the dead is a member of a well-to-do family, he or she is assisted [accompanied] by the priest and a band of music till the cemetery. The dead is buried into a pantheon or monument while the grave of the poor is just a hole dug in the ground. At the fourth, ninth and fortieth days and after a year has elapsed, food is prepared to be eaten by the people who gather at the home of the deceased. The people pray to God for the salvation of his soul in Hell or Purgatory.



Visits

Every year on All Saints’ Day, some people go to the cemetery to visit the graves of their dead, but many people in the community do not go and just prepare food to eat and then pray for the salvation of the souls.

Festivals

Every year in the month of May, there is Novena in the barrio. The people in the community build a chapel like a camarine [?] where people gather here every night to hold a Nove-

[p. 6]

na. The altar with a Virgin is decorated with flowers. Many people in the community attend the Novena. After the Novena, there are dances, especially subli, telivio, abaruray and others to enjoy [entertain] the people. There are also songs and guitar, besides a drum. At the end of the month, there is a great festival. People in the community voluntarily contribute either money, rice, and chickens for the feast. When there is much collection, food is prepared to eat and the priest is summoned to hold a mass in the chapel of the barrio. On this day, the people in the community do not work but attend the mass. They wear their pretty clothes and jewelries. After the mass, there are juego de anillo and games. In the evening, there is a procession of the Virgin with the ladies of well dressed [?]. After the procession, there are folk dances, especially subli, abaruray, telivio and rigodon. There are also songs and guitar to enjoy [entertain] the people. At midnight, the people eat food. They stay there until morning to enjoy themselves.

Punishment

If someone makes a minor crime in the community, he is taken to the Teniente del Barrio for punishment. The punishment is just wept [?] by him. If someone makes a serious crime, he is taken to the town for investigation and [a] court trial. If he is found guilty, he is imprisoned in the jail for several years or for life imprisonment.

[p. 7]

Myths, Legends, Beliefs, Interpretations, Superstitions

Origin of the World

The world was a Divine Creation. It originated from darkness.

Land

God was not contented that the whole world was totally water. Water evaporated through God’s will until enough of it was free from water, thus forming the portion called ladn.

Mountains

The elevated part of the land which appeared irregular after the evaporation of water became the mountains.

Caves

Caves were formed as a result of water on the irregular highlands when still covered by water.

Sea

The bodies of water that remained after the formation of land became the sea.

Lakes

Still, God was not contented that all bodies of water were salty, because not all living things thrived in it. So, lakes were formed for the benefit of those things adapted to it.

Rivers

Rivers originated from springs. Water, following the path of least resistance, continued to flow, thus forming rivers.

Plants

The first plants on earth appeared on the place where the skull of Adam was buried. The seeds of these plants were

[p. 8]

brought by the angels from heaven.

Trees

Trees had the same origin as plants.

Animals

All animals that were inside Noah’s Ark during the deluge survived. All these animals were sent forth by God to multiply. This was the origin of animals.

Sun

At first, the whole world was very dark. While the “Three Persons” were conversing from where to get light, they heard a voice. This voice instructed them to go to a certain old woman. On their way, they found a crystal stone as big as [a] cacao seed. They picked it up, looked at it, and were surprised to see that [it] was extremely shiny. They put it again on the ground and hit it with the tips of their toes. It was broken into two pieces of equal sizes. They were amazed to see that one half of [the] crystal stone was not only very shiny but gave heat and light to them. This was the origin of the sun.

Moon

The other half of the crystal stone became the moon.

Stars

Stars were created by God as a sort of decoration.

Eclipses

The people’s interpretation and superstitions about eclipses were:

1. When there is an eclipse of the moon, [an] expectant mother will suffer hardships [in] delivery.

2. When there is an eclipse of the sun, something unusual will happen.

[p. 9]

Earthquakes

Earthquakes originate from intense wind under the ground. This wind trying to find an outlet exerts great force, thus causing a great portion of the earth to move and sometimes produces cracks.

Lightning and Thunder

Their interpretation regarding lightning is that when heat and cold oppose one another in [the] atmosphere, it produces light and this becomes lightning. It also produces sound which they call thunder.

Clouds

The first clouds originated from the smoke produced when set [?] burned all the things he offered God.

Rain

The people believe that rain originated from the water drunk by the rainbow from the bodies of water and taken to the atmosphere. The water is being turned into raindrops and when the atmosphere cannot hold it anymore, these drops fall as rain.

Wind

The wind was created by God to give life to all living things.

Storm

That storm originated when the four elements of nature met.

Changes of Climate

The people believe that the changes of climate depend upon the different formation of the planets.

First Man and Woman

The first man was created by God out of soil, given life and named this man Adam. Through God’s will, Adam slept.

[p. 10]

God extracted one of Adam’s ribs, laid it flat at the left side of Adam, given life by Him and this became Eve. Then, God woke Adam up and [he] found the first woman, Eve, beside him.

Birth of Twins or More

Some people said that those who gave birth to twins was through the will of God. Their superstition regarding this was that expectant mothers who used to eat twin bananas or any twin fruits were likely to give birth to twins.

Sickness

People believed that sickness was caused by evil spirits. When someone became ill, they attributed it that it was through the power of the “ingkanto,” “nuno,” “dwinde,” etc.

Witchcraft

The people believed that the “ike,” “aswang,” “mangkukulam” and etc. were a sort of sickness bestowed by God to certain people. When a sick person became seriously ill, they said that the “ike” and the “aswang” visited the sick person.

Magic

Not known to them.

Divination

Same as the practice at present.

Popular Songs and Amusements

A. Songs:
1. Ang Bayan Kong Hirang.
2. Awit (performed by a man and woman), the theme is love.
3. Ang Bayan Kong Pilipinas.

B. Games and Amusements:
1. Tubigan
2. Suong
3. Estokada

[p. 11]

4. Sungka
5. Sipa

Puzzles and Riddles

1. “Ang mga pantas ay marunong, naruroon at nagpupulong, ay hindi rin mayari ang hatol kundi sa pepe tumanong.” (Sulat)

2. “Pinalalayaw-layaw kamukha’y may sakit, kinawiwilihan di naman ibig.” (Pirisuhan)

3. “Kapirasog tosena di mabayaran ang halaga.” (Kamahal-mahalan)

4. “May isang mayamang nalooban, nakuhang lahat ang kayamanan, nguni’t walang nawawala isa man.” (Aklat)

5. “Walang paa’y may kamay, nalumok ng taong buhay.” (Baro)

Proverbs and Sayings

1. “Masilab na ang pook, huwag lamang matanaw ang usok.”

2. “Masdan sa mira at sa gawa magkita.”

3. “Nasa Dios ang awa, nasa tao ang gawa.”

4. “Ang hindi lumingon sa pinanggalingan ay hindi makararating sa paruruonan.”

5. “Magpakapula-pula ng saga, maitim din sa kabila.”

6. “Malakas ang bulong kaysa hiyaw.”

7. “Kung anong bukang bibig, siyang laman ng dibdib.”

8. “Ang tubig na matining, tarukin mo at malalim.”

Methods of Measuring Time
1. Sun
2. Moon
3. Stars
4. Flowers
5. Rooster
6. Birds
7. Crickets

[Sgd.] (Mr.) Juan Montalbo

[Sgd.] (Miss) Maximina V. Bandojo

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Notes and references:
Transcribed from “Historical and Cultural Life of Bukal,” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.

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