[PHOTOS] Early Archeological Excavations in Calatagan, Batangas - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore [PHOTOS] Early Archeological Excavations in Calatagan, Batangas - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore

[PHOTOS] Early Archeological Excavations in Calatagan, Batangas

Below are photos of the early excavations undertaken in Calatagan under the leadership of the Swedish archeologist Olov Janse. Janse, known for his excavations in Indochina, had the blessings of the Philippine government as well as the Zobels, owners of the hacienda were the excavations sites were located.

The pictures are samples extracted from the 1946 edition of the Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institute, from an article1 written by Janse himself. The captions below are as they appear in the publication.

Penagpatayan (Calatagan), Luzon. Tomb No. 19. Skeleton, on the back, extending north-south, the feet to the south. The skull is missing, being replaced by a dark-green glazed bowl, slightly damaged, adorned outside with a conventionalized lotus pattern. At the feet are placed two light-green glazed bowls with no decoration. Height, 6.2 cm. and 6.6 cm. All three bowls were found in inverted position. (Photograph by O. Janse)

Penagpatayan (Calatagan), Luzon. Tomb No. 18. Skeleton, on the back, extending north-south, the skull to the south. Behind the skull, an eared, pear-shaped earthenware bottle with the neck missing. Height, 9.7 cm. Over the middle region was placed in inverted position a "hole-bottom" dish, diameter, 12.5 cm. Immediately above the knees was a blue and white porcelain dish with waved edged and bottom ridge. In the center are a ch'i-lin and different symbolic signs (fire, clouds, etc.). At the back of the ch'i-lin is a sand spot due to bad baking of the ware. Along the edges are geomatric patterns. Outside, between the bottom ridge and the edge, are dots and curved lines (conventionalized flowers or leaves). Diameter, 17.7 cm. At the right foot was a badly damaged globular earthenware red vase.

Kay Tomas (Calatagan), Luzon. Tomb No. 31. Skeleton in very bad state of preservation, on the back, extending north-south, the skull to the south. At the right arm was placed vertically a blue and cream-colored saucer decorated inside and outside with conventionalized flower patterns. Diameter, 18.2 cm. Over the middle region were placed in inverted position three bowls, two of them broken, white and light blue, decorated along the mouth(outside) with a row of leaves; inside no decoration. Height, 4.8 cm. and 5.2 cm. The third bowl, blue and white, is entirely glazed, even the base and the foot ring. Outside, along the mouth, one horizontal blue line; another around the foot ring. Inside, some blue horizontal lines. Height, 5.4 cm. Above the knees was found a blue and white dish decorated with a "flower in a vase." Above the feet was found, in vertical position, a cream-colored bowl with foot ring and blue-greenish decoration. Inside, in the center, surrounded by a circle, a conventionalized lotus. Outside, along the mouth, groups of oblique lines and few curved ones. Height, 5.2 cm. About half a meter from the right knee was found a native red-ware vase with elongated, vertical impressions. Height, 11 cm.

Skeletons from tombs 1 and 2, Penagpatayan (Calatagan), Luzon, after the funerary deposit had been cleared. The two skeletons, on the back, extending north-south, looking in opposite directions. The limestone ground on both sides of the skeletons is visible in the picture. The tombs contained numerous ceramics.

Part of a skeleton with the skull facing northeast, placed in a bowl. Some skeletal remains, placed close to the skull, give the impression of having been compressed in a container which has not been preserved. The bowl is glazed, adorned outside with misty waved lines. Diameter, 13.5 cm. Kay Tomas (Calatagan), Luzon.

Close to the bowl was found a large, well-preserved blue and cream-colored porcelain dish with a flower design. On the outside, four wheel-shaped flowers with their branches. The dish was in an inverted position. Diameter 26.5 cm. Near the dish was placed a native globular red-ware vase. Height, 14.5 cm.

Penagpatayan (Calatagan), Luzon. Tomb No. 4. Human bones and a small skull, probably that of a child. Over the bones of the thorax was an inverted bowl, and around the bowl fragments of a large native vase of red ware originally inverted to cover the bowl, which was green glazed and undecorated, measuring about 12 cm. in diameter.

Blue and white glazed dish with a ch'i-lin and various symbolic and geometrical patterns. Penagpatayan (Calatagan), Luzon.

Part of a blue and white dish with foot ring as seen from below. Inside, at the bottom, five flowers, leaves and branches inside parallel lines. On the sides, both inside and out, a similar pattern. The space inside the foot ring is glazed. Diameter, 19 cm. Penagpatayan (Calatagan), Luzon. Tomb No. 5

Light, greenish porcelain dish with foot ring. Dark greenish decoration. Inside, a chrysanthemum in a vase. Outside, no decoration. Diameter, 10 cm. Incidental find. Kay Tomas (Calatagan), Luzon.

Glazed blue and white bowl with foot ring, decorated at the bottom inside with shell pattern; outside, a row of artemesia leaves. Height, 6 cm. Kay Tomas (Calatagan), Luzon. Surface find.

"Hole-bottom" saucer decorated with a fish and seaweed patterns. Penagpatayan (Calatagan), Luzon. Tomb No. 7.

Notes and references:
1 “Archeology of the Philippines Islands,” published in the “1946 Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution.
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