Testimony of Lorenzo Leynes on Japanese Atrocities Committed in Bauan, Batangas in 1945 - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore Testimony of Lorenzo Leynes on Japanese Atrocities Committed in Bauan, Batangas in 1945 - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore

Testimony of Lorenzo Leynes on Japanese Atrocities Committed in Bauan, Batangas in 1945

This page contains the testimony of Lorenzo Leynes on Japanese atrocities committed in the town of Bauan, Batangas in 1945. This particular transcription is from his testimony in U.S.A. v Shumpei Hagino, et. al. The pages contained herein are now declassified and were part of compiled documentation1 of war crimes trials conducted by the United States Military Commission after the conclusion of World War II. This transcription has been corrected for grammar where necessary by Batangas History, Culture and Folklore. The pagination is as it was contained in the original document for citation purposes.

[p. 97]


witness for the prosecution, being first duly sworn, testified as follows:



Q State your name.
A My name is Lorenzo M. Leynes.
Q What is your citizenship?
A I am a Filipino citizen.
Q Were you present in the town of Bauan on February 28, 1945?
A Yes, sir, I was actually present with my family during the said date, February 28, 1945.
Q Do you recall any incident that occurred at that time between Japanese soldiers and Filipino residents of that city or town?
A Yes, sir, it was a very horrible incident that my family and comrades had suffered in that ill-fated death on February 28, 1945.
Q What time of the day did you first notice anything unusual?
A It was immediately after 7:30 when I just finished my breakfast with my family, when I heard a town crier mentioning in Tagalog: (the witness announced in Tagalog — “All citizens come to the church to meet Captain Hagino.”)

MR. GUTHRIE: You may continue.

A It was that very morning about 7:30 when I just finished breakfast with my family, the town crier announced to the people that all men and women including

[p. 98]

everybody, even the children, must be present at the meeting inside the church at 8:00 that date. So, after knowing the announcement, I dressed up my four children, they were just running from one year old to eight years old, and with my family, we contemplated to skip [from context, what the witness was probably saying was really “escape”] knowing that I had in my mind, there was something very unusual to happen. So, I advised my neighbors to act quickly because of that thing in my mind which I had that something unusual might happen. So afterwards, we took a small bag of clothes and started walking to the place where we wished to skip.
Q Mr. Leynes, I’ll interrupt you and ask you to talk a little slower, as the reporter has to take down everything you say and if you talk too fast, the reporter cannot do that. So, I will ask you to talk just a little bit slower, will you do that?
A Yes, sir. Upon reaching the place where we wished to skip on the way to the market place of Bauan, we first went to my mother’s home. My mother’s home is not very far from my own. My mother was no longer there and I met my three brothers who were still waiting there and I told them to come with me so they could help my children in their walking. Then, as we approached the market place, we were apprehended by five Japanese soldiers at the point of fixed bayonets. So, feeling we might be harmed, I surrendered and took my family back to my home. Upon reaching home, and also with my brothers, I told my wife to prepare something for my children so that when we were inside the church, so they would have something to eat.

[p. 99]

I prepared a small thermos bottle and brought with us ten eggs for the children, ten fresh eggs for the children. As we tried walking to the church, I could see, and I could recall until now, that men and women including blind, incapable to walk and everybody sick, with malaria, the most horrible things I had ever seen with the poor crying and some were going to the church. Upon reaching the church, we found that there were already many civilians inside. We were not too late because I think it was around almost 8:00 in the morning. It did not take long and when we were all inside the church, I think we were around 2,000 civilians including men and women and children inside the church, and afterwards, the parish priest of Bauan made a little ceremony. He made the ceremony in Tagalog like this: (Witness started to speak in Tagalog.) —

MR. MORRISON: If the Court please, I don’t see what bearing this ceremony has on this at all.

[p. 100]

COLONEL HAMBY: The Commission doesn’t care about that. We just want to hear from you what the Japs did.

MR. MORRISON: Objection, sir. I want to go on record as —

THE WITNESS: My offering will be more vivid if I tell it this way. It will be more concise.

MR. MORRISON: I renew my objection, sir. The Court has already ruled.

THE WITNESS: So far, I am giving you the particulars.

MR. GUTHRIE: What was the next thing that happened after the priest had said his sermon?

A We prayed. Everybody prayed so that we might be relieved of anything that would come. Then, it did not take long and Hagino himself, with a bunch of Japanese soldiers, arrived in the church. They immediately ordered the men, the women and the children, to leave the church and all of us men were left inside the church. I had with me two brothers and four cousins. Then, we were told to line up by Hagino, upon the order of Hagino through Watanabe. This was in Tagalog like this. (Witness stated the order in Tagalog.)

After falling in line inside the church, with our hands up, we were searched of everything that we had. My wristwatch and my ring, too valuable for me —

MR. MORRISON: Objected to. There is no charge of looting, if the Commission please, in this case. I

[p. 101]

believe what was taken from this man is irrelevant and immaterial. There is absolutely no charge that any of the accused did any looting whatsoever.

MR. GUTHRIE: If the Commission, please, the testimony relates to the res justae and is a part of the crime, not the main part, but the circumstances surrounding the commission of the crime. I don’t content for one minute that we have charged or alleged in any Specification any looting, but it is the circumstances in connection with the main crime which we have charged here of killing and permitting the killing of the victims.

COLONEL HAMBY: The prosecutor will please question the witness on the Specifications.

MR. GUTHRIE: Yes, sir.

Q After you had been searched by the Japanese soldiers, what did you see or hear?
A While I was in the process of searching [he meant “being searched”] and everyone of us at the point of a bayonet —

MR. MORRISON: Objected to.

MR. GUTHRIE: Confine your answer to the time after the search, please.

A After the search, we were told to sit down. Then, we were counted by seats.
Q I will interrupt you. Who told you to sit down?
A It was an order of Captain Hagino through Watanabe and the mayor.
Q Describe how the order was given.
A Watanabe was with a bunch of officers and soldiers

[p. 102]

and Hagino — I mean, with a bunch of officers and Japanese soldiers with fixed bayonets and the mayor. They were standing just at the back of us a few meters from me.
Q Just a minute, just let me ask the questions and then you answer the questions as I ask them.
A Yes, sir.
Q You say a bunch of officers and Hagino? How many officers?
A I think as far as I can remember, there were three, excluding Hagino.
Q So there were four including Hagino?
A Yes, sir, including Hagino.
Q And which one of those — did all of the officers give orders or did just one of them give orders?
A It was a solo order of Captain Hagino.
Q And when you were seated, what happened?
A When we were seated already and we were advised, after we were advised to sit down —
Q Mr. Leynes, please don’t say “advised.” Say, “Somebody told me to sit down.” Use the words that were used and not your conclusions.
A At the order of Captain Hagino, which was interpreted by Watanabe into Tagalog like this (witness spoke in Tagalog), then after we were seated down, we were counted. We were, I think, as far as I can remember, more than 350 or 320.
Q Who counted you?
A It was the mayor who counted and then it was reported to Hagino. Then, Hagino ordered again, through the mayor

[p. 103]

and he asked in Tagalog (witness spoke in Tagalog).

MR. MORRISON: Excuse me, if the Commission please, I would prefer that this witness speak in English or so that I can understand it. I think it is a handicap.

COLONEL HAMBY: Mr. Leynes, please confine all of your testimony to the English language.

THE WITNESS: Yes, sir, but I am testifying the actual words that I heard in Tagalog during the order of Hagino.

COLONEL HAMBY: Can you translate them into English for us?

THE WITNESS: Yes, sir, he asked in the interpretation in English like this, “Anyone from Manila? Any from San Jose? Anyone from Taal? Anyone from Batangas?” That is all.

MR. GUTHRIE: Who asked that?

A It was asked in Tagalog by the mayor. After these people who were accounted for that they were from other places mentioned, they were told to sit down in a separate place by the order of Hagino again through the mayor and Watanabe. It did not take long and they were accounted for so they were told to sit down in their respective seats as before.
Q Where was Hagino and the three Japanese officers and the mayor and Watanabe during that time?
A They were actually sitting at the back of the church, just at the rear of us, at the center of the rear of us.

[p. 104]

Q And were there also Japanese soldiers in the church?
A Yes, sir, we were actually guarded by Japanese soldiers with fixed bayonets at a distance of two meters from each other.
Q And where were the soldiers stationed in the church?
A They were stationed at the railings and at the center of us.
Q Alright, after you were seated, what happened then?
A Hagino afterwards left with the officers and the soldiers were left inside the church with the mayor.
Q And how long did you remain in the church?
A If the question is asked, “How long we remained until we were sent out,” we stayed there until 12:30.
Q How did you happen to leave the church?
A We happened to leave upon the order of Captain Hagino.
Q What was his order?
A His order, interpreted in English, but it was ordered in Tagalog like this (witness spoke in Tagalog).
Q Wait a minute, just in English.
A I forget. Excuse me. He ordered like this: “Everybody must fall in line. It is the order of Hagino.” This was through the mayor again.
Q But do I understand you to say that Hagino was talking Tagalog or Japanese?
A He was talking in his own language through Watanabe and Watanabe ordered the mayor to tell the people what he said. He ordered in this way, “Everybody must fall

[p. 105]

in line and it must be in 100 for every line.”
Q Let me interrupt. Who is Watanabe?
A Watanabe, he was a Japanese interpreter and he was dressed in civilian clothes when he was inside the church.
Q You were in single lines in hundreds?
A I was very happy then and I told my brothers and cousins to get ready.

MR. MORRISON: Objected to. What he told his brothers is immaterial.

THE WITNESS: I have two brothers actually inside and we were afraid.

MR. GUTHRIE: Wait until the Court rules on this objection, please. If the Court please, I think there is very little damage that the witness can do by hearsay testimony. We will get his testimony a lot faster if we just let him continue and he may bring in some irrelevant or immaterial matters, but I don’t think that there is any danger in it.

MR. MORRISON: If the Commission please, this is a very vital matter for these defendants.

MR. GUTHRIE: Alright, I will take a little longer, but I will get it.

Q You are standing in a single line in hundreds. Were you still at the church at that time?
A Yes, sir.
Q Then what happened to the people in the church? What did they do?
A Everybody rushed for the first 100. I was very

[p. 106]

happy then and I told my brothers to line up so that we could go home because the words of the order of Watanabe was like this, through the order of Hagino — I mean, through Watanabe — was like this, “Everybody must line up in 100 and we have something to do outside, maybe to work.” I was not very sure of the end of the statement.

[p. 107]

Q And then did you leave the church?
A Then we left the church in lines of one hundred and as I passed through the door, I found among — as I got out from the church with the first hundred civilians, I could see Japanese soldiers scattered in the church ground.
Q How many Japanese soldiers did you see in the church yard?
A There were, I think, more than twenty-five Japanese soldiers.
Q Were they armed?
A They were armed with fixed bayonets.
Q Did you see any machine guns?
A There were actually three machine guns as I could see.
Q Were the machine guns emplaced?
A It was handled actually by the soldiers.
Q Where were the machine guns emplaced?
A They were emplaced not very far from each side of us and one on the staircase going to the building of Mr. Bautista.
Q How far from the church was the building of Mr. Bautista?
A The building was about, I think, eighty yards from the church. It is my calculation.
Q Then, as you left the church yard, what happened?
A As we proceeded walking to the house of Mr. Bautista, we were guarded on both sides by [the] fixed bayonets of [the] Japanese soldiers at a distance of two meters each.

[p. 108]

Q And were you then in a single file?
A Yes, sir.
Q Then continue with what happened after that.
A As we started walking in line, we passed through the east staircase of the church ground leading to the street, then to the left door of the first floor of Mr. Bautista’s building.
Q Why did you go from the church to Mr. Bautista’s house?
A It was the order of Captain Hagino.
Q What was the order? A The order —

MR. MORRISON: Objected to unless the witness actually saw and heard Hagino.

THE WITNESS: I actually saw Hagino on the street as there was a bunch of officers and he was still laughing as they looked at us.

MR. MORRISON: Objected to unless the witness understands Japanese or unless Hagino spoke in English.

COLONEL HAMBY: The Law Member will rule.

COLONEL POBLETE: Objection overruled. The witness may answer.

MR. GUTHRIE: He has already answered.

THE WITNESS: When we were already inside the building, I saw a Japanese soldier with [a] fixed bayonet and I Japanese who I think was a non-commissioned officer —.

MR. MORRISON: Objected to what the witness thinks. I ask that the witness testify to what he knows, not as to

[p. 109]

what he thinks he knows.

THE WITNESS: I do not know the officer, but I think he was an officer.

MR. GUTHRIE: Why do you think he was an officer?

A Because he had a saber on his waist while the Japanese soldier was holding a gun, so I presumed that other fellow was an officer.
Q I see. Well, will you step down from the witness stand and approach the defense table and scrutinize the persons sitting there and see if you see the person you have just referred to?
A Yes, sir. (Witness examined all the accused.) This here is Captain Hagino.
Q Well, that isn’t the person you referred to.
A No, I am referring to Captain Hagino.
Q Who was the man you thought was an officer? Let the record show that the witness has just previously pointed to the accused, Hagino.
A I cannot possibly identify the person inside the building. I cannot possibly identify him, but there are two persons here who are familiar to me. I know because I was able —

MR. MORRISON: Objected to.

MR. GUTHRIE: Let him finish.

MR. MORRISON: I don’t know whether these remarks are aside or whether the witness is testifying.

COLONEL HAMBY: The witness is testifying.

MR. GUTHRIE: He is explaining his answer.

[p. 110]

I will ask the question. Do you see anyone in this courtroom, any Japanese in this courtroom at this time, who were present at the time you were just testifying to?

MR. MORRISON: Just a moment, I object because the witness has already said that he saw Hagino in the church and that he was unable to identify any of the other men sitting at the accused table.

COLONEL HAMBY: The Law Member will rule.

COLONEL POBLETE: Objection sustained.

MR. GUTHRIE: Then did you enter the house of Mr. Bautista?

A Yes, sir.
Q And you have testified you were within the first hundred persons?
A Yes, sir.
Q Did they also enter?
A Everybody entered the building.
Q Then what next did you see happen on your side?
A When we were all of us inside the church, the last men that I saw entering the building were the four priests. It did not take long. I was at the center of the group and the officer that I could not identify right now ordered to close the window outside the building because the window was open. The window was defended by bars, wooden bars. Immediately, one of the civilians inside closed the window. At the time of the closing of the window, I moved slowly to the back, to the back rail inside the building, and I was looking for my two brothers

[p. 111]

because —
Q Never mind the reason. Just say what you saw and heard.
A Yes, sir, the room was not too dark and still everybody was visible, still visible. Immediately the door was closed. Everybody was confused; everybody was calling for their fathers, was calling for their brothers and sisters. Everybody screamed and my mind was totally confused as we didn’t know what [was] the next thing to happen. I heard the footsteps of Japanese soldiers upstairs.

MR. MORRISON: Objected to.

COLONEL HAMBY: The Law Member will rule.

COLONEL POBLETE: On what ground?

MR. MORRISON: On the grounds that they could have been someone else’s footsteps.

COLONEL POBLETE: Objection sustained.

MR. GUTHRIE: May the part “Japanese footsteps” be stricken out?

COLONEL HAMBY: Prepare another question.

MR. GUTHRIE: Yes, sir.

Q Describe the interior of the room of Bautista’s house in which you were.
A The room inside — the flooring was made of cement and there was a slight elevation just to the east side of the room.
Q Did you notice the ceiling?
A The ceiling was made of wood, first class wood.
Q And did you notice anything unusual from the ceiling?

[p. 112]

A Just before the door was closed, I noticed three bags, three small bags. The size of them was much like that (indicating).
Q Indicating eighteen inches?
A Attached to the ceiling of the upper floor. One was just not very far from me. It was as far as that place (indicating) and the other was separated horizontally across the ceiling of the building. I did not notice that it was something of an explosive, because so far, we didn’t know what the Japanese would do with us inside the building.
Q Then, after the door was closed, what was the next thing you heard or saw?
A I heard Japanese footsteps upstairs, because before we entered the building, I saw Japanese soldiers on the windows, so I figured they were Japanese soldiers upstairs.
Q Just a minute, I will agree that the words “Japanese footsteps” may be stricken. Did you hear some footsteps?
A There were lots of footsteps upstairs.
Q Then where were the sounds of footsteps coming from?
A They were coming — the footsteps were coming, the sounds of the footsteps were coming from the first floor just above us.
Q Did you hear any words?
A I heard an outside cry of Captain Hagino because Captain Hagino’s voice was familiar to me and he ordered — I heard that in Japanese words — then immediately —.

MR. MORRISON: I will object. The witness

[p. 113]

has stated that he ordered in Japanese words. Unless the witness understands Japanese, I object to the word “ordered.”

COLONEL HAMBY: Objection sustained.

MR. GUTHRIE: Did you hear some words, whether they were Japanese words or any other words spoken by Captain Hagino at that time?

A As far as I could hear the sound of his voice, it was in Japanese words.

COLONEL HAMBY: At this time, the Commission will take a short recess.

(Short recess.)

COLONEL HAMBY: The Commission is in session.

MR. GUTHRIE: Mr. Leynes is the witness who was being examined at the time of the recess. He is warned that he is still under oath. Do you understand that, Mr. Leynes?

THE WITNESS: Yes, sir.

Q After you heard footsteps on the stairs of the Bautista house, what next did you hear or see?
A Immediately after the Japanese footsteps had gone downstairs – two minutes after was an explosion inside the building.
Q Could you tell from what part of the building the explosion came?
A As far as I can remember, right away I saw a point of bright light coming from the bag that was tied above

[p. 114]

the ceiling. Then, a total explosion.
Q I don’t think I quite understand you. Was the bag tied above the ceiling or below?
A This is the ceiling (indicating). It was tied here.
Q The witness indicates that the bag was suspended from the ceiling. And then you heard an explosion and what was the next thing that you recall?
A Then, I fell unconscious. I thought I was dead. After two or three minutes, I found myself unconscious and around me I heard the cries of my comrades. Then, in a little while, while I saw a small break through the concrete walls of the building wherein a civilian right away got out through it and I followed him. It was very timely for when I was just outside of the building, the walls began to fall down and the big foundation of the building began to slip down with falling galvanized irons. I ran as fast as I could, but I stopped at a small hut and there I covered [sought cover?] for three hours.
Q While you were running from the Bautista building to the hut, describe what you saw.
A As I ran to the hut where I covered [sought cover?], I heard agonizing cries of those who were wounded and those who were killed.

MR. MORRISON: I object to all this.

THE WITNESS: I heard those who were being locked in the building, those who were not able to get out.

MR. MORRISON: The witness has already answered.

[p. 115]

Never mind.

MR. GUTHRIE: Continue. What did you see? You have stated what you heard. Now, tell us what you saw.

A I saw the building collapse and a few civilians, badly wounded, totally covered with blood, followed me as I got covered under a small hut. When I found that I, myself, was totally clad in blood, too, I searched my body to see whether I had been wounded or not. Actually, I had been wounded slightly and I can show it to you right now, the wound that I suffered.
Q You have indicated that you had a small wound on the left arm?
A And on this side (indicating). A little scar I suffered on my face and something on my leg, but it is healed now. It is far to be identified.
Q And did you see any Japanese between the time you left the Bautista house and the time you arrived at the hut?
A So far, I did not see any Japanese soldiers.
Q Then what was the first thing you saw after you arrived at the hut? Was the Bautista house within your view from the hut? Could you see the Bautista house from where you were in the hut?
A I could see the house of Bautista.
Q And describe what you saw at that time.
A I saw bit through the small hole where I had been hiding. I could see the men who were badly wounded, rolling and agonizing. They laid down on the wayside, on

[p. 116]

the outside of the building.
Q What else did you see?
A Then, I saw two of my friends coming in to me whose bodies were totally wounded and they could hardly walk, so I told them to come in because there might be some Japanese soldiers who might be able to see us, so we took cover. One of my comrades died inside the hut.
Q What was his name?
A His name was Mr. Gomez. I forgot his family name [likely meant first or given name].
Q Did you see any Japanese at that time?
A Then, after, I heard another explosion when I was already inside the hut.
Q Where did that explosion come from?
A It came from the building also.
Q Then what did you see?
A Then, as we took cover, there were civilians coming, looking for safety, who were not badly wounded. I told them to get inside with me, so we were all inside the house, all of us. We were eight of us who took cover inside the hut.
Q And what else did you see?
A Then after, I think, after five minutes, then I heard the voice of Japanese soldiers in [the] Japanese language.
Q And from what direction were the voices coming?
A It was coming near us.
Q Then what happened?
A As I peeped through a small hole of the house, I saw the Japanese soldiers running after those who were

[p. 117]

badly wounded and sick and they were civilians who were available to be apprehended, who were bayoneted to death.
[The rest of this page in the source document is blank.]

[p. 118]

Q Do you know the names of those two victims?
A Those who were bayoneted to death were part of the civilians who were able to escape from the building after the explosion.
Q Do you know their names?
A So far, I cannot remember their names because when I got out of the hut, I found the total place outside of the building plenty of civilians dead.
Q How many do you think you saw?

MR. MORRISON: Objected as to how many.

MR. GUTHRIE: Alright, how many did you estimate you saw?

A About twenty-five civilians scattered dead.
Q Twenty-five?
A Yes, sir, twenty-five.
Q That was after you left the hut?
A Yes, sir.
Q Were there any Japanese present at the time you left the hut?
A When I left the building, it was [when] the Japanese had started burning the adjoining building where I had been hiding.
Q You say before or after you left the building?
A Actually, when I left the building, I left because I saw the adjoining building was already burning, so to get out from the burning place, I crept and crawled to get into safety.

[p. 119]

Q An how long after the explosion did you see the Japanese burning the Bautista house?
A When I got up in the hut, the building of Bautista was already burning and the adjoining house, where I had been hiding a few minutes, had been burning, too.
Q Where did you go, then, or what did you do?
A Then, I ran and ran along the way that I had been running. I found some civilians lying down crying for water, crying for their brothers and some were actually dying. Some were being pinned to the banana trees. They had been pinned by bayonets of Japanese soldiers. I found a small boy who had escaped also. I think he was around sixteen years old and I told him to run because the Japanese soldiers were searching for those who were able to escape from the dugout.
Q How many dead persons’ bodies did you see while you were running away from the building?
A As far as I could see, I think — I could see only aside from the twenty-five. I suppose that I had seen on the yard near the building on my way, I could see only around ten civilians who were dying, who were apprehended by Japanese soldiers.
Q Did you see any of the victims in the Bautista house say anything just prior to the time it was ignited or during the time it was burning?

MR. MORRISON: Object to. If the Court, please, I don’t see what bearing this has on it.

COLONEL HAMBY: The Law Member will rule.

[p. 120]

COLONEL POBLETE: Objection overruled. The witness may answer.

A When I was still hiding in the hut before the second explosion, I could hear the agonizing cries of those who were inside, still inside the building. It was actually when they were being covered by the very foundation of the building.
Q I am not talking about that time. I am talking about the time when the building was on fire. Could you hear any victims making any utterances?
A So far, when I ran from the place where I had been hiding, I did not pass through the building. I passed on the east side.
Q Wait a minute, just listen to the question and answer the question I have asked you. I don’t want to know whether you were running or I don’t care what you were doing. I just want to know what you heard, what sounds you heard coming from the building while it was burning.
A I heard the agonizing cries of those people who were still there.

MR. GUTHRIE: That is all from this witness.



Q Mr. Leynes, you testified, I believe, that there were three other officers besides Hagino present. Is that true?
A Yes, sir.

[p. 121]

Q Were they superior in rank to Hagino?
A I am not too particular with their ranks because I saw they were officers because they had sabers and insignias on their lapels.
Q Do you know Lieutenant Takemoto?
A I am not aware of Mr. Takemoto. I am after Mr. Hagino.

MR. MORRISON: Will the Commission please instruct the witness to answer my questions?

COLONEL HAMBY: The Commission is of the opinion that the witness answered the question.

MR. MORRISON: But the witness also added something of his own which has nothing to do with it, sir.

COLONEL HAMBY: Proceed with your questions, please.

Q Were you a member of the guerrillas at any time?
A I was a civilian and have never been a member of a guerrilla.
Q Do you know of any guerrilla activity in Bauan?
A So far as I know, I was not informed of any guerrilla activities in Bauan.
Q Do you know of any guerrilla activities near or in the vicinity of Bauan?
A So far as to my knowledge, I have never had any information regarding any activities of guerrilla organizations in Bauan.
Q Did any incident similar to the one that you described occur in Bauan prior to February 28, 1945?

[p. 122]

A There had never been any incident like the horrible think that I have testified ever been made before.
Q Your answer is the negative, is that true?
A There had never been any incident, so I am answering in the negative, sir.
Q About what were the dimensions of the floor of the church, the width and the length?
A The dimensions of the church, sir?
Q Yes, of the floor, the length of the floor and the width of the floor of the inside or the interior.
A So far, I cannot make any calculation. The church is big enough and I think the activities around — so far, I cannot make any calculation.
Q How many would you say the church could accommodate?
A So far as — this is only my estimated calculation — I don’t want to make any calculation.
Q You have no official calculation?
A It is around 5,000. 5,000 civilians.
Q You stated that Hagino was in the church.
A Yes, sir.
Q Will you tell me from what time he remained in the church, that is, giving the time when you first saw him and when you last saw him?
A When I first saw him, it was around 10:30.
Q When you last saw him?
A Around 10:00 when he came there to drive the women and children to separated places from us. That was the first time I saw him.

[p. 123]

Q And how long did he remain in the church?
A He had been going to and fro with his soldiers and the officers with him.
Q The officers with him.
A Yes, sir.
Q When was the last time you saw him in the church, what time?
A The last time when I saw him was when he was actually laughing.
Q Just tell me about the last time you saw him, not what he was doing at the time you saw him.
A You mean in the church?
Q Yes.
A The last time when I saw him was when he told us to fall in line by hundreds.
Q What time was that?
A It was almost 12:30.
Q Almost 12:30?
A Yes, sir.
Q Do you know who exploded the charge of dynamite?
A Pardon me, please.
Q Do you know who actually exploded the charge of dynamite in the Bautista house?
A So far, there was nobody to explode it except our enemies, except those who wanted to kill us.
Q I mean, by name and rank.
A I do not know anybody.
Q Do you know who was in charge of this expedition?

[p. 124]

A It was Captain Hagino, I suppose, because he was the one ordering, making the orders.
Q You suppose it was?
A Yes, he was actually because he was the one who first made the first order until he made the last order when we left the church.
Q What were the other three officers doing at this time?
A I am not too particular with the officers because they might [have been] assisting Hagino in executing the order.
Q How do you know that they were not giving Hagino orders?
A They were in company with Hagino. That is what I can say.
Q Do you know whether any of those officers were superiors?
A I do not know.
Q Do you know the names of the other officers?
A I do not know.
Q Did you hear of any looting or stealing or robbing of the population by anyone other than the Japanese?
A Before that date, I think a week before that date, I could tell about when a Japanese soldier with a fixed bayonet went to my house.
Q No, I am not talking about [the] Japanese. Do you know of any Filipinos who did any looting or robbing in Bauan or in Batangas?
A So far as in my town, there had never been any looting concerning the Filipinos.

[p. 125]

Q You stated that there were about 2,000 civilians in the church at the time of the meeting?
A Yes, sir.
Q How many people were left when the Japanese ordered women and children to leave?
A I cannot tell until we were accounted for.
Q Do you know approximately how many?
A When the children left and when the women and children left, I do not know how many were left, but we were accounted for by the orders of Hagino when Hagino arrived and ordered.
Q I don’t want to know about any order. I am asking how many, if you know or if you can approximate.
A When the women and children left, I do not know how many we were in the building. We were in the church, I mean.
Q Were those in the church all men?
A Yes, sir.

MR. MORRISON: No further questions.



Q Do you know how many pews were in that church approximately, pews, seats?
A The seats were lined from both sides.
Q How many seats?
A I don’t know how many seats there were. There were plenty of seats.

MR. GUTHRIE: No further questions.

[p. 126]



Q You have identified the accused, Hagino?
A Yes, sir.
Q Are there any other accused present here today who participated in the blowing up of the Bautista house, answer yes or no.
A Yes, sir.
Q Do you know his name?
A I do not know his name, but I think I can remember his face.
Q Go point him out.
A That fellow there (pointing).
Q Is that the fifth one from the right end?
A He is the fifth person from the right end that I counted.

COLONEL HAMBY: Let the record indicate that the witness pointed to the accused, Mogami. Any questions by the commission?


Q What did you see the accused, Mogami, do on that day?
A So far as I am able to recall now that he may be, he was the person, he was the non-commissioned officer actually inside the building of Bautista.
Q Was he inside the building?
A Yes, sir, he was the one ordering us to sit down and stand up and be close to the center. I was at the center and was feeling like this (indicating) so I can remember

[p. 127]

him and identify him as the fellow.
Q Was he on the inside?
A Yes, sir, he had no insignia and he was inside and he was the one ordering us to come near the center of the building, inside the building.
Q Was this man you identified, Mogami, was he in the room when you heard the explosion and saw the flash?
A He was already outside the building because only the civilians were left inside the building.

COLONEL HAMBY: Any other questions by members of the Commission?

MR. GUTHRIE: No redirect.

MR. MORRISON: No questions, sir.

COLONEL HAMBY: The witness is excused.

(Witness excused.)

Manila War Crimes Trial US Army
Photo taken during the war crimes trials in Manila.  Image credit:  U.S. National Archives.

Notes and references:
1 “Excerpts from the Testimony of Lorenzo Leynes in U.S.A. v Shumpei Hagino, et al.,” part of the U.S. Military Commission compilation of war crimes documentation, online at the Internet Archive.
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