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January 2, 2018

San Andres, Bauan, Batangas: Historical Data

Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the barrio of San Andres, Bauan, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.

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HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF SAN ANDRES

Part I – History

1. Present official name of the barrio - - San Andres

2. Popular name of the barrio - - - - - - - - San Andres
a. Present - - - - - San Andres
b. Past - - - - - - San Andres

Derivation of San Andres

San Andres is located between the barrios of Bolo and Apalay. The name of the barrio originated from the oldest man in the community which is very memorial with the name Andres. From that time on, strangers who came from this place and neighboring barrios have called it San Andres. Nearly all the people here are very religious, the facts show that there are many priests in this barrio. When the first school was established, it was named San Andres. The shape of the village has a great resemblance to a parallelogram. It is a lowland and sandy place. The size is more or less fifty hectares, thickly populated. Around one thousand nine hundred twenty-six people in number live in this village. According to the government census, this community has two hundred eighty-seven homes.

Names of Sitios
Balanga Talisay
San Luis Balete
3. Date of establishment - - During the Spanish occupation

4. Original families:
Medrano family Dolor family
Hernandez family Buensalida family
Cadevida family Daite family
5. List of tenientes from earliest time to date:

1. Cabeza Peru Medrano
2. Cabeza Imong Medrano
3. Cabeza Isaac Buensalida
4. Teniente Roque Medrano
5. Teniente Policarpio Medrano
6. Teniente Braulio Hernandez
7. Eusebio Medrano

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8. Teniente Agapito Pasia

6. Story of old barrio or sitios within the territorial jurisdiction that are now depopulated or extinct.

All parts of the whole barrio are now thickly populated. There is no part of the barrio that is now depopulated or extinct.

7. Data on historical sites, structures, buildings, old ruins, etc. – None

8. Important facts, incidents, or events that took place:

a. During the Spanish Occupation:

1. Appointments of cabeza or cabezas in the said barrio.
2. The cabezas assigned persons to teach the people the proper ways of learning a little about Arithmetic, Reading and Writing in Tagalog. They used cartillas, trisajios and Kastila as their basic readers. In writing, they used the feather of the chickens and sticks and leaves of trees as their paper and pen.
3. During the Spanish regime, the Spaniards were very strict in dealing with the people. So they could exercise much of their freedom. When the people heard that the Americans would come, they evacuated to the neighboring barrios for fear they might be maltreated and their properties confiscated, and their lives harmed.

b. American Occupation to World War II

1. During the American Occupation, the people from the barrios were ordered to go to town for a period of one month to be confined in the town. Then the Americans, together with the Macabebes, came to the barrio to search for some rebels. They burned the houses of those suspected families as rebels. The Macabebes made some abuses to the people of the barrio by confiscating their money and properties. They also abused the women without the knowledge of the Americans.

2. As soon as the Americans arrived, they built schools made of light materials as nipa, cogon, bamboo, etc.

3. The sending of children to school was made compulsory. The Americans supplied the children with papers, pencils, and books so that the parents

[p. 3]

of the children might be encouraged to send their children to school. The people are Catholic up to the present time.

4. During this period, they changed the name of cabeza to teniente as heads of the barrios. The name teniente as the head of the barrio remains up to the present time.

c. During and After World War II

1. During this period, the people in the barrio evacuated to different places. Most of the people went to Mindoro for fear of the Japanese attack, especially because it is along the seashore.

2. The Japanese lived in some of the houses of the barrio. They got food and the boats from the people. They used the boats as a means of transportation from one place to another. There was destruction of property. Those people who did not evacuate could hardly support their living and they depended only on little food that they could get.

3. When the Americans came, the people killed some of the Japanese that were hiding in some places in the barrio.

4. Some of the people were able to have some firearms that were left by the Japanese.

The religion was Catholic up to the present time.

5. When the Americans came, many camps were built. Steamships anchored in our harbor. Bars for amusements of the American soldiers were established. Buying and selling flourished, thus this barrio progressed and the standard of living of the people became high. Many men were employed as guards, foremen, checkers, typists, and tent boys.

9. Destruction of lives, properties and institutions during wars, especially in 1941-1945.

1. There were lives that were lost in Bataan for they fought against the Japanese. After liberation, the bereaved families were pensioned by the government. They were very much benefited.

2. Twelve natives of the barrio were lost. Nobody can tell what was the cause of their deaths, whether they were punished by the Japanese or by the guerrillas

[p. 4]

during the war. These persons were taking the evacuees to Mindoro, but unfortunately, they did not come back and we did not know what happened to them.

3. During the Japanese Occupation, destruction of properties of the people, especially the boats, pigs, hens, and others were taken by the Japanese. At the arrival of the Americans, they selected the rice fields, near the western bamboo groves, to be reconstructed into roads. So, they used tractors to cover the rice fields with earth, stone and sand. On it, they built their camps and tents.

b. Measures and Accomplishments toward rehabilitation and reconstruction following World War II.

1. There was a great improvement. The construction of a road from San Roque to San Andres was made. So the people of this barrio had an easy means of transporting their fish from one place to another.

2. During liberation, the school was repaired. The Americans who stayed in this place gave help to the school by repairing it. The school site was fenced with wire.

3. There were merchants due to the easy means of transportation. Both male and female sexes could travel from one place to another.

II. Traditions, Customs, and Practices in domestic, social life, birth, baptism, courtship, marriage, death, burial, visits, festivals.

Marriage

[The] Marriage festival is celebrated in the girl’s home. The parents of the boy shoulder all the expenses and responsibilities. The girl’s parents spend nothing. The girl receives [a] dowry, sometimes in land, money, animals, and jewels. There are times when the marriage is postponed, for there is disagreement between the parents of the boy and parents of the girl. After the marriage is over, the girl is taken to the boy’s house. The boy follows the next day. The couple stays at home for four days. They are not allowed to go somewhere.

Death

When someone dies in the house, the rest of the family should not take a bath for four days. They can take a bath after four days, with the belief that the flesh of

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the dead will be removed at once. In case a wife dies, the husband should not peep at the grave for if he does so, he at once sees a wife. When he could not secure at once, he will be very much troubled, and even neglect his work and children. If a husband dies, and the wife does the same, the same thing will happen.

PUNISHMENT

According to old traditions and beliefs, it is not good to punish a child by tying him with a rope to a post or wall of the house, for when he grows old, will be imprisoned.

COURTSHIP

A boy courting a lady brings wood, water and helps at all the works at home. If the girl likes him, he will not be questioned, but if the girl does not like him, she will tell her mother to tell the boy to stop helping them or stop bringing water, or wood to their home. The boy who is admired by the girl continues to help at the girl’s home. Later, the parents of the girl will call the parents of the boy to talk about the marriage.



BAPTISM

A newly-born baby should be baptized at once, otherwise some sort of anitos will take him or play with him, thus making the baby sick. The godmother or godfather of the baby selected should be the one who possesses good characteristics, for according to the belief, the boy inherits from him or her.

11. Myths, Legends, Beliefs, Interpretations, Superstitions, Origin of the World, land, mountains, and other natural phenomena:

A. Why the Crow is Black
It is said that long ago, Bathala was the god of the land, and Dumagat of the sea. Bathala had a number of pets. Of them all, he liked best was the crow and the dove. At that time, both of these birds had sweet voices and beautiful plumage.

One day, Dumagat came to Bathala and complained. He said that Bathala’s people had been stealing fish and should be punished for it. Bathala listened to his complaint, but he refused to punish the people. The two gods argued the case until they both became angry.

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After Dumagat had gone home, he began to consider what he could do to get even with Bathala. “I shall let the sea flow over the land and destroy people,” he said at last.

So, he opened the gate, and the water rushed in over the fields and towns. Most of the people were drowned, but Bathala and his family were safe in his place with his pets.

After many days, the water came down, and Bathala became anxious to know what the condition of the world was. He sent his favorite messenger, the crow, to find out. As the crow flew about over the world, he saw the bodies of people who had been drowned. He alighted on one of them and began to eat the decaying flesh. All day, Bathala waited at the palace, but the crow did not return. The god became worried and sent the dove to find out what had happened to his first messenger. The dove found the crow eating a dead body and told him that Bathala had sent for him. Together, the two birds flew back to the palace.

When they reached the palace, the dove told Bathala what he had found the crow doing. On hearing what a disgusting thing his favorite bird had done, Bathala became angry and shouted at him. “From this time on, you shall be an angry black bird. You shall lose your beautiful voice. The only sound that you will be able to make will be a harsh cry.”

With his head down, the crow left Bathala’s palace. Since then, all crows have been black and they go about calling in a harsh voice, “Wak,” “wak.”

Legend of the First Bananas

Long ago in the village of Seboan, there lived a beautiful girl named Juana. Her home was near an enchanted cave in which fairies were said to live.

One morning, as she was walking near the cave, she met a young man. He was a stranger, but she stopped and said, “Good morning. May I walk with you?”

As he walked along with Juana, he began to tell her many strange and wonderful things. She was so charmed and pleased with his manner and beautiful language that she soon forgot that they had ever been strangers. He never felt that she was a stranger for he had fallen in love with her at first sight.

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The next morning, they met again. The young man told Juana that he was really a fairy, a fairy prince, who had changed himself into a man.

Then, he told her of the land in which he lived, the land of make-believe. He talked of how wonderful it could be if he could take her there, but he said sadly: “You are not a fairy. No one can live in the land of make-believe except fairies.”

As he turned to leave, he said, “Tonight, I shall see you for the last time.”

That night, he came to say goodbye, but when it was time for him to leave, Juana felt that she could not let him go. She clung to his hands to hold him back. Even while she was holding them, the fairy prince vanished, leaving his hands in her grasp.

Juana was frightened and horrified. What should she do with the hands? “I must hide them,” she said.

So, she ran and buried them in a corner of a garden and put a small stone nearby to mark the place.

Early the next morning, she went to the garden to see if anything had happened to the buried hands. Near the stone, she saw a green plant pushing itself up through the soil.

Juana watched it daily and treated it with the greatest of care. Soon, it grew into a tall plant with its fan-like leaves. In a month’s time, some strange looking fruit appeared on it. The fruit grew in rows like clusters of fingers on a hand.

The strange fruit was the first bunch of bananas in the world.

BELIEFS

1. When the clouds go in a southern direction, [a] storm may come soon.

2. It is also said that when we are sleeping and we dream that one of our teeth is pulled [out], it is a sign that a nearby relative of the family will die.

3. Another belief which is also a sign of [a] visitor coming is when we see the cat washing his face in front of the door, together with the hen fighting in the yard.

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4. When a star shines near the moon, someone may elope.

5. Anything that is new must be not be worn in going to the cemetery for it will easily be worn out.

6. When a dog howls at midnight, somebody may die in the neighborhood.

7. When you meet a snake on the way, it is a sign of good luck.

8. When a cow neighs [moos] during New Year’s Eve, it is a sign of plentiful harvest for the coming year.

9. When somebody smells a burning candle, it is a sign that some relatives died at a far distant place.

10. When a lizard enters somebody’s house, it may be bad luck for a family living in it.

11. Never sweep at night for the people thought the Blessed Virgin Mary is taking a walk and her eyes might be hurt.

12. In time of meal when a spoon or fork unholds or falls from the table, it is the expectation of many people that somebody is coming.

13. Popular Songs, Games and Amusements

Songs
1.  Bahay Kubo 5.  Tinikling
2.  Halina't Magsayaw 6.  Leron-leron Sinta
3.  Ang Tapis Mo Inday 7.  Ang Bakya mo Neneng
4.  Paru-parong Bukid
Games
1.  Basketball 5.  Patikubre
2.  Tubigan 6.  Taguan
3.  Indoor Baseball 7.  Luksong Tinik
4.  Huego de Frenda
Amusements
 1.  Sayawan  7.  Swimming
 2.  Serenade  8.  Boating
 3.  Fiesta  9.  Dama, Mahjong
 4.  Reading Liwayway and Tagalog Magazines. 10. Poonan
 5.  Picnics 11. Piko
 6.  Excursion 12. Sungka
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14. PUZZLES AND RIDDLES

1. Naito ito na, may sunog na baga. (Manok)
2. Hinila ko ang bagin, nag-utotan ang matsin. (Kampana)
3. Munting uling nakabitin puera dohat nakakain. (Bignay)
4. Nanganak ang birhen, itinapon ang lampin. (Puso ng saging)
5. Baboy ko sa pulo, ang balahibo’y pako. (Nangka)
6. Bahay ni Kiring-kiring, butas-butas ang dingding. (bakid)
7. Bahay ni kaka, hindi matingala. (Noo)
8. Dalawang magkumpare, mauna’t mahuli. (Paa)
9. Buhok ng pare, hindi mawahe. (Tubig)
10. Lingusin ng lingusin, hindi mo abutin. (Taynga)
11. Dalawang tindahan, sabay buksan. (Mata)
12. Lumalakad ay walang paa, lumuluha ay walang mata. (Pluma)

15. PROVERBS AND SAYINGS

1. Nasa Diyos ang awa, nasa tao ang gawa.
2. Ang kasipagan ay kapatid ng kayamanan.
3. Ang matibay na kalooban lahat ay nagagampanan.
4. Ang hanap sa bula-bula, sa bula-bula rin nawawala.
5. Ang taong matiaga, nagtatamong pala.
6. Kung anong masama sa iyo, huwag mong gawin sa kapwa mo.
7. Walang binhing masama sa mabuting lupa.
8. Kapag may sinuksok ay may titingalain.
9. Ang di magtitiis at magbata [magbatak?] di magkakamit ginhawa.
10. Hanggang maikli ang kumot, mag-aral kang mamaluktot.
11. Liars and thieves are alike.
12. Constant raindrops wear away stones.
13. God gives His grace to men who labor for it.
14. Thrift and savings will help a lot during rainy days.

16. MEASURING TIME

1. People can measure the time by the shadow of trees and other standing objects.
2. By the position of the sun, moon, and stars.
3. By the crow of the roosters at night.
4. When the patola flowers bloom in the afternoon, it is almost four o’clock.
5. Shining and setting of the sun at day and by the moon, stars at night.

Special Calendar

1. After the twelve months of the year have passed, we can count again another twelve months by the days in January.
We can notice in what months there are plenty of rain.

17. Other folk tales - - - - - - - None

18. Information, books and documents treating of the Phil. and the names of the workers. None

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19. The names of Filipino authors born or residing in the community, the titles and subjects of their works, whether printed or in manuscript form, and the names of persons possessing those.

N o n e

Submitted by:

(MRS.) JUANITA C. VILLANUEVA

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Notes and references:
Transcribed from “History and Cultural Life of San Andres” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.

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