January 2, 2018

Santa Maria, Bauan, Batangas: Historical Data

Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the barrio of Santa Maria, Bauan, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.

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HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF THE BARRIO STA. MARIA

PART I – HISTORY

1. Present official name of the barrio - - - Sta. Maria

2. Popular name of the barrio:

a. Present – Sta. Maria
b. Past – Munting Tubig
c. Sitios:
1.  Wawa 3.  Munting Tubig
2.  Balangutan 4.  Patugo
3. Date of establishment:

It was established during the Spanish Regime.

4. Original Families:
a.  Mariano Caguete h.  Mariano Agina
b.  Narciso Caguete i.  Saturnino Dalinao
c.  Evaristo Sandoval j.  Silvestre Calinao
d.  Cirilo Panopio k.  Fermin Dinglasan
e.  Doroteo Salcedo l.  Feliciano Dingnasan
f.  Cipriano Corona m.  Lucas Silang
g.  Roman Medrano
5. List of tenientes from earliest time to date:
a.  Agapito Azucena h.  Jose Panopio
b.  Doroteo Villanueva i.  Modesto Villanueva
c.  Alberto Calinao j.  Agaton Calinao
d.  Feliciano Dinglasan k.  Juan Villanueva
e.  Saturnino Calinao l.  Deogracias Mendoza
f.  Aliburyo Cordero m.  Pedro Calinao
g.  Cirilo Panopio n.  Deogracias Mendoza
6. Story of old barrios or sitios within the jurisdiction that are now depopulated or extinct: None.

STA. MARIA

Sta. Maria is the westernmost barrio of Bauan that lies along the coast of Batangas Bay. Formerly, this was called Munting Tubig. Few people lived in this place. The barrio was covered with forest. In Wawa, there were only twenty homes with only about fifty inhabitants living. In Balangutan, there were

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only six houses and ten persons. In Munting-Tubig, there were only seven houses with fifteen inhabitants. In Patugo, there were only three houses with six people living. As years passed, the population increased. Many houses were built.

During the Spanish times, there were no roads and bridges. People went to town walking, or riding on horseback, and sometimes by boat. In was in 1927 after the great flood that roads and bridges were built. The main street before was in front of Modesto Villanueva’s house near the seashore. The funniest thing was that during those years, only the cabezas could pass on this road.

The people during those times were engaged in fishing and farming. They sold their things in the market so early in the morning for their means of transportation was walking. Since no good roads were built during those days, they had to pass along the seashore. There were no schools during that time. In order that their children could acquire [a] little education, the children were sent to town.

When the Americans arrived, roads had been built and bridges had been constructed. The living condition of the people was improved. People from other places resided here and, thus, the population of the barrio increased. The means of transportation were developed from one place to another. After five years, there were already 300 homes and inhabitants totaled 1,000.

7. Data on historical sites, structures, buildings, old ruins, etc.

It was in the year 1900, after the Spanish-American War, that the first school was built. This was made of nipa. It was near the seashore in Balangutan. They had only Grades I and II. Alibaryo Cordero from the town worked for the establishment of this school. At the same time, he was the barrio lieutenant.

The second school was built through the influence and leadership of Modesto Villanueva who was at the same time the barrio lieutenant at that time. The school was then transferred near his house because he was also the one who donated an adequate school site.

Later on, this school was rebuilt in 1920. The same person worked for the establishment of a newer and better school. This school was able to accommodate pupils from Grades I-IV until the Japanese came. When the American

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liberation forces were about to come, the Japanese destroyed this building in the year 1944. The Japanese got all the materials to be used as shelter in their hiding places.

Then the liberation came in 1945. The school was transferred to Munting Tubig. Here, the site was enough. The barrio people contributed and raised funds for the construction of this new school. Each contributed the amount of ten pesos (₱10.00). The newly constructed school during the liberation was made of nipa and it cost about four hundred pesos (₱400.00). Since the new school building was made of light materials, it did not last long.

In 1948, another school was built. This school was built of materials that came from the Surplus Depot. The incumbent Vice-Mayor Dominador Anis together with the cooperation of some prominent barrio folks worked for the construction of the new school building. This school building remains but it will not last more than two years. This building might collapse because it is made of light materials.

It was in 1950 when the two-room building was constructed. The amount spent for this two-room building came from the War Damage Commission. The school now has a complete elementary.

8. Important facts, incidents or events that took place:

a. During the Spanish Occupation:

During the Spanish Occupation, many of the inhabitants were members of the insurrection. This place became the hiding place of insurrection soldiers.

b. During the American Occupation to World War II:

Since most or nearly all the people of this place lived along the seashore, many people died during the strongest typhoon in the year 1927.

c. During and after World War II:

During World War II, this place was selected as the best place for [the] concentration camp of guerrillas. Guerrilla activities were being held in this place which led to the death of one suspected guerrilla lieutenant, Atty. Marquez.

9. Destruction of lives, properties and institutions during wars, especially in 1896-1900 and 1941-1945.

During the years of Japanese Occupation, the farms which were planted to rice and other foodstuffs were converted to cotton plantations under the command of

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the Japanese Imperial Army.

Properties of the people were being confiscated. Fowls and animals were being taken from the people. Many lives perished on land and others on sea travels.

The school building was burned and materials of good quality were used as their shelter in their hiding places.

b. Measures and accomplishments toward rehabilitation and reconstruction following World War II:

The school which was burned by the Japanese was reconstructed. Now, the new two-room building is used as the permanent building of the school children.

10. Traditions, customs and practices in domestic and social life:

a. Birth – A mother that is going to deliver a child, the father must be present, for according to them, the mother will find difficulty in delivering the child. Also, when somebody is going to summon the midwife, the person requested to call a midwife must not turn his face backward in order to ease the delivering mother.

b. Baptism – As soon as the child is delivered, the parents of the delivering mother should select the one to be the godmother or godfather before the child is brought to the church for [the] baptismal ceremony.

c. Courtship – When a gentleman is going to court a young woman, he must first get the permission of the parents. When there are groups of young men in the house of the lady, the first gentleman who comes first should be given the privilege to sit near the lady. If there are young men sitting on the benches, he must not pass in front of the courtier who came first, there might be troubles.

d. Marriage – When the contract for the marriage of a young man and a young woman was accomplished, the relatives of the woman are given the privilege to eat first at the table. When the wedding party is about to be finished, the bride and the bridegroom are seated on a short table and two plates are place in front of them. The relatives of the bride and bridegroom give the dowries as a means of their first income or earnings. When all the dowries are collected, the whole amount is given to the bride. It is also the custom in this place to separate the bride and bridegroom during their first night of sleep. It is only after the next day that the bridegroom can go to the house where the wife is.

e. Death – When somebody dies in this place, it is the custom of the near neighbors to give all the help

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they could give in the form of service or money. During the night, all the relatives together with the neighbors will go to the house of the dead and offer their prayers. Some spend the whole night without sleeping in the belief that if they will not watch the body of the dead, he might be taken by some spirit without their noticing. Some activities are being performed in the form of jokes, programs, or plays. After the dead body has been buried, all the relatives must wear black color as [a] sign of respect and condolence. All the relatives do not cook any leafy vegetables because they think that it will be difficult for the dead body to reach heaven.

f. Festivals – The common festivals which are being observed throughout the barrios in the municipality of Bauan are also being observed in this barrio. It is the custom in this barrio to observe the (PISTA SA NAYON). Here, the people celebrate the Patron Saint “Mahal na Poon Santa Cruz” once every year or more. In this place, all the people from the wealthiest to the humblest contribute for the celebration. They prepare food for all the visitors since it is their belief that no calamities will ever occur during the period.

g. Punishments – Although the barrio of Sta. Maria belongs to one or two clans, yet punishments are also imposed on the wrongdoers. The punishments given to the guilty persons are as follows:

1. The guilty person is being segregated from the family.
2. They are given hard manual labor.



11. Myths, legends, beliefs, interpretations, superstitions:

a. Beliefs and Superstitions:

1. The spirit of the dead only does not die with the body but goes somewhere.

2. It is believed that we can be cured of tuberculosis by drinking the blood of the dog.

3. To save a dog-like victim from certain death or lunacy, the part bitten is wiped with the brain of the dog.

4. The first rain of May is used for washing the skin and ridding it of prickly heat, dandruff, etc.

5. To cure baldheadedness, the hairless one catches a lot of house flies, crushes them and rubs them against his gleaming parts and it is believed that their hair will grow on it.

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6. People believe that if a very young child suddenly develops fever without any apparent reason, that child has been frightened by something that adults cannot see, or that a stranger has taken a fancy to the child and wants to take it from the parents. It is believed that the cure for such a situation is known as “tawas.”

7. The first rain of May, if drunk, is the best cure for stomach troubles.

8. Seeds of vegetables are wrapped in pieces of paper and inserted between the eaves of the house to prevent weevils.

9. It is believed that boils are caused by sitting on pillows or cushions.

10. Bottles or pots are suspended from trellises for ampalaya, upo, patola, and other vegetables so as to bring good to the plants.

11. To maintain prosperity, one who has just built a new house, the owner must fill a pot with lugaw in which has been mixed some mongo. The tightly seal the pot. This is suspended from the ceiling and supposedly attracts [luck?] into the house.

12. A palm leaf [that] has been blessed during Palm Sunday, when placed inside the house, it will divert lightning and other destructive elements from the house.

13. Doors must not face each other or else they will bring bad luck.

14. Transferring residence or occupying a new house must always be done when the moon is getting larger not when it is smaller.

15. To bring good luck to a new house, money is placed under the post of the house. This is to be done secretly.

16. Most house owners want their stairways to face the east. At any rate, the stairway must never face the west. This is founded on [the] belief that since it is in the east that the sun rises, a house whose stairway faces that direction will be blessed with good luck.

17. In planting a banana, one should not look up the plant. If he does, the banana will grow very tall before it bears fruit.

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18. One should not point at a budding or fruiting tree or fruit will not develop.

19. A conceiving woman who develops a strong liking for the fruit of a certain tree will cause that tree to be sterile, that is, it will not bear fruit thereafter.

12. POPULAR SONGS, GAMES AND AMUSEMENTS:
a.  Harana ni Boanerjes d.  Awit ng Pulubi
b.  Alavina e.  Lumilim ka Angge
c.  Camia Flower f.  Bahay Kubo
13. Puzzles and Riddles:

a. Dalawang tindahan, sabay buksan – mata
b. Buhok ng pari hindi mawahi – tubig
c. Bahay ng senyora libot ng espada – pinya
d. Bahay ng hukom libot ng kanyon – papaya
e. Isang princesa nakaupo sa tasa – kasoy
f. Isang munting bakuran sari-sari ang nadaan – bibig
g. Alin dito sa mundo nasa labas ang buto – kasoy
h. Pagtanda naglilislis, pag bata’y nagtatapis – kawayan
i. Dalawang magkapatid, tig-isa ng silid – mata
j. Bahay ni kiring-kiring butas-butas ang dingding – bakid
k. Isang biging palay sikip sa buong bahay – ilaw
l. Ito ito na may sunong na baga – tandang
m. Ako’y nagtanim ng granada sa puno ng laguerta, pitong puno, pitong bunga, at pitong pare ang nanguha – Pitong Sakramento
n. Walang kampit, walang itak, gumagawa ng bahay ng ipit – gagamba
o. Lumalakad walang paa, lumalakad walang pluma – pluma
p. Limang magkakapatid, tig-iisa ng silid – kuko ng kamay
q. Mataas ang ibinitin kay sa pagbibitinan – saranggula
r. Mahaba kung nakaupo, maigsi kung nakatayo – aso
s. Nang bayaan ay nabuhay, nang hawaka’y namatay – dahong makahiya
t. Iisa ang hitsura, marami ang pangalan niya – palay
u. Kung hipuin ay malamig, usok ang paligid – yelo
v. Nakalatag kung gabi, kung araw nakatabi – banig
w. Gumagapang pa ang ina, ang anak ay umuupo na – kalabasa
x. Magtag-ulan magtag-init, hanggang tuhod ang bayakis – manok
y. Ang paa’y apat, hindi naman nakakalakad – la mesa
z. Munting tampipi, punong-puno ng salapi – sili
A. Baboy ko sa pulo, balahibo’y pako – langka
B. Matanda na ang nuno hindi pa naliligo – pusa
C. Aling ina ang sumususo sa anak – dagat
D. Tinaga ko sa puno, sa dulo nagdurugo – gumamela
E. Na ito na o ito na hindi pa nakikita – hangin
F. Dalawang biyas na kawayan mauna’t mahuli – paa ng tao
G. Nagsaing si Hudas, kinuha ang hugas, itinapon ang bigas – gatas ng niyog

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H. Hugis puso, kulay ginto, mabango kung amuyin, masarap kung kanin – mangga
I. Umupo si maitim, sinulot ni pula, nang lumaon ay kumara-kara – sinsing
J. Hindi pa natatalupan, nanganganinag na ang laman – kamatsili
K. Di madangkal, di madipa, pinagtutulungan ng lima – karayom
L. May puno walang sanga, may dahon walang bunga – sandok
M. Ako’y may kaibigan, kasama ko saan man, mapatubig hindi nalulunod, mapaapo’y hindi nasusunog – anino
N. Hindi hari, hindi pari nagdadamit ng sari-sari – sampayan

14. PROVERBS AND SAYINGS:

1. Malakas ang bulong kay sa sigaw.
2. May taynga ang lupa, may pakpak ang balita
3. Walang lihim na di mahahayag din.
4. Ang bibig na tikom, ligtas sa linggaton.
5. Sa bibig nahuhuli ang isda, ang tao ay sa salita.
6. Ang taong mahirap na laging tahimik, daig ang mayamang laging nasa panganib.
7. Kung anong puno’y siyang bunga.
8. Ang pangako kong makaliban, tupdin ma’y wala nang linamnam.
9. Aanhin pa ang damo kung patay na ang kabayo.
10. Ang tao’y kung magwiwika, ang mga sinabi’y dapat isagawa.
11. Bago ka pumahid ng sa ibang uling, ang iyo muna ang iyong pahirin.
12. Sino ma’t palamara, sa biyaya’y huag kang aasa.
13. Ang sino mang magdaraya ay di magkakamit ng biyaya.
14. Ano man ang gagawin, makasampo munang iisipin.
15. Ang palalong walang toto, api saan pumatungo.
16. Walang matalim na hasa, pag sa buto tumama.
17. Tuso man ang matsin, napaglalamangan din.
18. Ang biyayang handog, mabisang panghimok.
19. Ang taong mapaghili sa kayamanan at ari, hindi luluwat at sa hirap lulugami.
20. Walang mabuting di may kapintasan, walang masamang di may kapurihan.
21. Hindi nakikita ang butas ng palakol, nguni’t nakikita ang butas ng karayom.
22. Pag ika’y lumura ng paitaas, sa mukha mo rin ang patak.
23. Sa aral na matimyas, walang lugod na malalasap.
24. Ang kuwarta man ay kuliro, itago mo’y iyan ay iyo.
25. Ang mga gawi pagkabata, dala hanggang tumanda.

15. METHODS OF MEASURING TIME, SPECIAL CALENDAR:

During the old days in the barrio of Sta. Maria, watches were not used, but instead they used the position of the sun, the shadow of the trees, the rays of the sun that entered the houses, and the crowing of the cock at midnight.

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Some kinds of birds signified the different times of the night and day. Some kinds of plants opened their buds at ten o’clock in the morning, the acacia trees and leaves that bloomed between night and day. The appearance of the stars in the morning and the evening stars, the dippers and also the Ark of Noah signified the different hours of the night.

The methods of measuring time during the previous days were somewhat primitive, but since civilization continues its progress, these methods of measuring time now in this barrio was little by little disappearing in the minds of the barrio folks and they are not used in general.

16. Folktales:

PUNO NG BALETE SA NAYON NG STA. MARIA

May isang puno ng balete sa tabi ng dagat sa nayon ng Sta. Maria. Itong baliteng ito’y naging isang kapulungan ng mga tao sa nayong ito. Mayroong nagsasabi na ang punong ito ay pinamamahayan ng isang maligno. Dahil dito’y walang makapangahas na dumaan at mangahoy sa lugal na iyon. Ayon sa sabi ng matatanda’y magkakasakit daw ang taong dumaan doon o kaya’y batiin ang nasabing puno. Marami rin ang nagsasabi na ang taong mangahoy sa lugal na iyon ay masasaktan ng wala sino mang napalo. Kaya’t ang lugal na ito’y pinagkatakutan ng lahat ng tao sa lugal na ito.

Isang araw ay mayroong matapang na lalaki na nangahas na umakyat sa nasabing puno ng balete. Ang matapang na lalakeng umakyat na siya’y nahulog dahil sa wari niya’y may nagtulak sa kanya. Siya ay nagtamo ng maraming sugat sa katawan. Mayroon ding nagbabalita na mayroon ding nahulog na babae.

Dahil sa maraming mga pangyayaring ang sino mang mangahas o dumaan o umakyat sa puno ng baleteng ito ay nagkakasakuna, ay maraming tao ang takot magdaan ditto o mangahas hanggang sa ngayon.

ANG DWENDE SA BUNDOK NG STA. MARIA

Isang matandang lalake sa nayong ito ang nagkukuwento tungkol sa mga dwende ng bundok. Sinasabi sa gabing tahimik na madilim na madilim na walang buwan ay siya ay nakakatanaw ng maliliit na tao sa bundok na kung tawagin niya ay mga dwende.

Sinabi rin ng matandang ito na kung tahimik ang mga gabi’y nakakapakinig siya ng mga kalansing ng bakal

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sa bundok na iyon. Mayroon daw doon na nahuhukay nag into sa bundok na iyon, ngunit walang taong makapangahas na pumaraon. Sinasabi rin ng matandang ito na kung tahimik na tahimik ang gabi ay napapakinggan ang taginting ng salaping ginto. Ayon daw sa matatanda ay mayroon isang matandang-matandang enkantado na nagtatanod sa maraming salaping gintong ito sa bundok na iyon. Doon ay maliwanag na maliwanag kong gabing walang buwan ni bituin.

Sa gitna ng gabi na maliwanag na maliwanag ang buwan lahat ay tahimik na tahimik ay nakikita niya ang mga maliliit na taong may dalang tambol at gitara. Mayroon dalang trumpeta at silindron na nag-aawitan at sumasayaw sa kanilang tapat. Ang mga dwendent ito’y mababait at sila’y naghaharana sa magagandang dalagang nakikita nila. Ngunit isang araw ay mayroon taong hinabol ang dwende. Nagkatakbuhan sila at ang iba pa’y nasaktan at napilayan. Sila’y nagtago ng mahigpit sa ilalim ng bundok na iyon. Kaya mula noon ay wala na tayong nakikitang dwende sa pook na iyon.

Prepared by all teachers of
Sta. Maria Elem. School

CONRADO DIMAUNAHAN
Head Teacher

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Notes and references:
Transcribed from “History and Cultural Life of the Barrio Sta. Maria” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.

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