January 2, 2018

Ibaan, Batangas: Historical Data

Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the Municipality of Ibaan, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.

[Cover page.]



HISTORICAL DATA


OF


IBAAN

[p. 1]

II. HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF THE TOWN - - I B A A N

19. Present official name of the town – Ibaan

20. Former name, meaning and derivation –

Formerly, this town was a barrio and a part of Batangas, the capital of the province. Prior to 1800, the first settlement was established in Matala, now a barrio four kilometers from the location of the present town. Not long after in 1817, efforts were made to transfer the town to the present site. In 1827, a provisional church was completed and blessed. Fifteen years after in 1832, the town was formally separated from the municipality of Batangas. The principalia was organized and the Governadorcillo, Cabeza de Barangay and other members exercised their powers and duties.

Meaning and derivation - -

Just how Ibaan happened to be called is so simple. It was said by local historians that in the childhood of mankind, this place was heavily forested by “Iba” trees. The “Iba” tree is very similar in structure to “Calamias,” only it bears rounded fruits in clusters, unlike the latter which bears oblong ones. The early settlers derived “Ibaan” from the specie “Iba.”

21. Date of establishment – 1747

22. Name and Status of the Founders –

a. Don Francisco de Mercado – Governadorcillo

b. Don Anacleto Montalbo – Governadorcillo

This was in the year 1747 to 1751.

23. Names of persons who held leading official positions in the community, with the dates of their terms.

Governadorcillo and Mayors
 1.  Don Bernardo Rafael 1832
 2.  Don Alfonso Vilela 1833
 3.  Don Valentin Arias 1834
 4.  Don Julian Perez 1835
 5.  Don Juan Caringal 1836
 6.  Don Saturnino de la Cruz 1837
 7.  Don Bernabe Roxas 1838
 8.  Don Geronimo Montalbo 1839
 9.  Don Carlos Suarez 1840
10. Don Valentin de Chavez 1841
11. Don Saturnino de los Reyes 1842
12. Don Melecio Guerra 1843
13. Don Cristobal Tejada 1844
14. Don Florentino Guerra 1845
15. Don Antonio Roxas 1946
16. Don Gabriel Gamboa 1947
17. Don Tomas Guerra 1848
18. Don Juan Portugal 1849
19. Don Lucas Medrano 1850
20. Don Clemente Torralba 1851
[p. 2]
21. Don Melecio Guerra 1853
22. Don Mariano Pana 1853
23. Don Vicente Villamin 1854
24. Don Mariano Hernandez 1855
25. Don Fabiano Perez 1856
26. Don Gervacio Bago 1857
27. Don Marcos de los Reyes 1858
28. Don Geronimo Montalbo 1859
29. Don Valentin Arias 1860
30. Don Roman Caringal 1862
31. Don Anastacio Medrano 1863
32. Don Baltazar Caringal 1865
33. Don Roman Caringal 1867
34. Don Herminigildo Duarte 1869
35. Don Mariano Valdez 1870
36. Don Cristobal Tejada 1873
37. Don Cenon Caringal 1874
38. Don Gelacio Aleta 1875
39. Don Angel Perez 1878
40. Don Saturnino Ramos 1880
41. Don Rafael Reyes 1882
42. Don Severino Mercado 1884
43. Don Roman Baruel 1886
44. Don Vicente Roxas 1888
45. Don Gervacio Beltran 1890
46. Don Celedonio Reyes 1891
47. Don Domingo Yabyabin 1892
48. Don Justo Suanes 1894
49. Don Juan Eleosida 1896
50. Don Baltazar Ramirez 1898
51. Sr. Isabelo Guerra 1901
52. Sr. Francisco Quinio 1904
53. St. Mateo Ilustre 1906
54. Sr. Juan Macatangay 1908
55. Sr. Saturnino Lopez 1910
56. Sr. Joaquin Trillanes 1913
57. Sr. Martin Montalbo 1916
58. Sr. Antonino Yabyabin 1919
59. Sr. Cayetano de Castro 1923
60. Sr. Cayetano de Castro 1925
61. Sr. Juan Macatangay 1926
62. Sr. Joaquin Trillanes 1927
63. Sr. Juan Mactangay 1930
64. Sr. Aurelio Hernandez 1935
65. Sr. Miguel Mercado 1938
66. Sr. Santiago Yabyabin 1944
67. Sr. Quentin Hernandez
68. Sr. Tomas Altamirano
69. Sr. Miguel Mercado
70. Sr. Juan T. Mercado 1944-present
CURA PARROCCO OR PARISH PRIEST
 1.  P. Esteban Flores 1832-37
 2.  P. Marcos Anton 1837-43
 3.  P. Andres Dias 1843-45
 4.  P. Vicente Iturralde 1845
 5.  P. Jacinto Masangkay 1845-48
 6.  P. Martin Madlanbayan 1848
 7.  P. Pedro Cuesta 1848-49
 8.  P. Martin Madlanbayan 1849-50
 9.  P. Paulino Palacios 1850-52
10. P. Martin Madlanbayan 1853
[p. 3]
11. Manuel Diaz Gonzales 1854-62
12. Leoncio C. Mercado 1862-65
13. Alvaro Calleja 1865
14. Bruno Laredo 1865-70
15. Braulio Enriquez 1870-71
16. Guillermo Cuevas 1871-72
17. Francisco Rosales 1872-73
18. Vicente Maril 1873-84
19. Mariano Ilagan 1884
20. Anastacio C. Cruz 1884-85
21. Moises Santos 1885
22. Anastacio Cruz 1885-86
23. Tomas Agudo 1886-91
24. Francisco Alvarez 1891-97
25. Jose Alonzo 1897-98
26. Adriano Aranas 1898-99
27. Lucino Reyes 1899-1900
28. Cecilio Punzalan 1900-01
29. Julio Villavicencio 1901
30. Miguel Catala 1901-02
31. Pablo Dizon 1902-11
32. Ciriaco de Castro 1911
33. Juan Van Fagen 1911
34. Nicolas Ruytes 1911-13
35. Juan Zegera 1913-15
36. Raymundo Esquivel 1915
37. Eugenio Gaerlone 1915-18
38. Ernesto Fornaca 1918-38
39. Jose Visintainer 1938-41
40. Guidoi Collati 1941-53
List of Justices of the Peace – Ibaan
 1.  Canuto Perez 1888
 2.  Juan Magnaye
 3.  Eugenio Perez
 4.  Vicente Roxas
 5.  Francisco Quinio 1901
 6.  Mateo Ilustre 1902-06
 7.  Juan Reyes
 8.  Joaquin Trililanes
 9.  Susano Montalbo
10. Lorenzo Visconde
11. Jose M. Manguiat
12. Diego Arenas Present
Chiefs of Police
 1.  Amato Buendia 1900-03
 2.  Santiago Torralba 1903-05
 3.  Aurelio Hernandez 1905
 4.  Alejandro Reyes
 5.  Mateo Ilustre
 6.  German Guerra
 7.  Aurelio Hernandez 1911-15
 8.  German Guerra 1915-16
 9.  Aurelio Hernandez 1916-28
10. Andres Ilustre 1928
11. Tomas Semira 1929
12. Pedro de Castro
13. Jose Portus 1952-present
[p. 4]

Municipal Treasurers –

From the year 1899 to 1901, Mr. Jose Mercado Medrano Jr. and Mr. Martin Montalbo, who were both cabezas de barangay at that time, were designated by Gen. M. Malvar as collectors of voluntary contributions of the people for the support of the Phil. Revolutionary forces – “insurrectos.”

1. Telesforo Semira
2. Alejandro Lacsamana
3. Gregorio Sarsozo
4. Catalino Bautista
5. Daniel Torralba
6. Juan Abjelina
7. Ponciano Roxas
8. Ceferino Hernandez
9. Leandro C. Gonda – present treasurer

Vice-Presidents
 1.  Juan Macatangay 1901-03
 2.  Martin Montalbo 1904-07
 3.  Flaviano Torralba 1908-09
 4.  Antonino Yabyabin 1910-12
 5.  Martin Montalbo 1913-15
 6.  Dalmacio Mercado 1916-18
 7.  Florentino Andal 1919-21
 8.  Juan Macatangay 1922-24
 9.  Paulo Pasia 1925-27
10. Jose Marasigan 1928-31
11. German Guerra 1932-34
12. Lucas Semira 1935-37
13. Andres P. Ilustre 1938-40
14. Tomas P. Altamirano 1941
15. Santiago Yabyabin 1942-44
16. Macario Medrano 1946
17. Sixto Guerra 1947-50
18. Hugo Mercado 1950-51
19. Andres P. Ilustre 1951-present



24. Data on historical sites, structures, buildings, etc.

Historical Structures – The Baptismal Dome of the Catholic Church dating more than a century as of 1938.

The natural bridge in barrio Sandalan 2½ kms. from the town.

The natural swimming pool with a large spring near it, deep and wide enough for 20 persons to bathe in it. These two beautiful sceneries of natural beauty are joined together in one place. The natural bridge is said to be the rendezvous and hiding place of the notorious “Igat” and “Pangalang.” “Igat,” one of the leaders of a gang, obtained his name as he could always evade the arrest of the authorities, being slippery, hard to catch like an eel, hence the name “Igat” was given to him. “Pangalang,” another leader of a gang, could always save his men from arrest as he used his person as “Pang-Kalang” (shield) for the others.

[p. 5]

Another structure of historical significance is the natural fall in the barrio of Salaban where a large cave is found at its foot. This is a beautiful natural wall that had been found by constant erosion for ages ago. It is [a] deep straight cut from a precipice by nature. In the year 1902, when General Franklin Bell, then in command of the Division of Southern Luzon, with Headquarters in Batangas, ordered the establishment of military zones by concentrating the villages in the poblacion within a one mile radius, thereby leaving the outlying territory free for military operations, several families who did not like to submit to the American rule entrenched themselves in this natural cotta.

NOTE: From the History of Ibaan in manuscript form by Ex-Mayor Miguel Mercado.

25. Important facts, incidents or events that took place:

a. During the Spanish occupation –

1784 – A chapel was built in the little village of Matala.
1800 – Matala extended as far as the present location of the poblacion, but still a barrio of the town of Batangas.
1801 – The convent in Matala was destroyed by fire.
1805 – The little town was infested heavily by locusts, thus a cavan of rice could hardly by bought for ₱4.00, formerly ₱1.00 only. There was a famine in this period.
1816 – A proposal of building a church in the town was thwarted by other government leaders.
1817 – The building [of] the present church was begun.
1827 – The seat of government was transferred from Matala to the present poblacion.
1832 – Ibaan was officially separated from the town of Batangas. The first appointed kapitan was Don Leonardo Rafael. The church was partly built by Rev. Manuel Guijalbo.
1869 – The church was completed under Rev. Bruno Laredo.
1876 – The two towers of the church were built under Fr. Vicente Maril.
1898 – The last “Kapitan” was Don Baltazar Ramirez, under the Spanish regime. The last priest was Fr. Jose Alonzo.
1896-1900 – Revolutionary Government – Gen. Aguinaldo appointed Juan Eleosida as the “Kapitan,” then [he] was succeeded by Baltazar Ramirez.

b. During the American occupation to World War II

Sept. 20, 1901 – [A] Local election was held by the prominent political leaders of the town. Mr. Isabelo Guerra was elected president and Mr. Juan Macatangay vice-president.
1904 – The first general election was held. Mr. Francisco Quinio was the elected president.
1905 – The epidemic of cholera followed by small pox caused many deaths in the town and barrios.
1917 – An epidemic of influenza broke out. Every member of a family was inflicted. This epidemic caused a great loss of lives.
1918 – Prosperity saved the wretched condition of the people. The price of sugar rose [to] its highest, thus [the] living standard of the people was higher.

[p. 6]

1921 (June) – Intermediate classes were opened. Of course, the primary classes were opened in the early part of the American occupation.
1927 – The Intermediate Building was built.
1928 – The Municipal Building was completed.
1935 (Nov. 15) – The celebration of the inauguration of the Commonwealth of the Philippines.
1937 (Feb.) – The Provincial Eucharistic Congress under Rev. Ernesto Fornaca.

c. During and After World War II

1941-Dec. 8 – Outbreak of WWII
1941-Dec. – The seat of government of Batangas Province was transferred to Ibaan. Most neighboring towns and provincial government officials evacuated to Ibaan.
Jan. 31, 1942 – The Japanese Military Force occupied the town.
June, 1942 – Schools under the Japanese government were opened. Niponggo teachers were taught in Manila. Then, Niponggo was included in the school curriculum.
Aug. 8, 1942 – The released prisoners from Capaz came home. The sick soldiers were taken care of in the convent which served as the temporary hospital.
Sept. 15, 1942 – Another batch of released prisoners from Capaz arrived home.
June 1942 – Guerrilla members were solicited by a few guerrilla leaders. The secret meeting was held in one private house in the town.
1943 – Guerrillas were already pursued even to distant barrios. Some were caught and executed because the Filipino spies helped their identification.
Dec. 1944 – The Ibaan Bridge and the Matala Bridge were demolished by the Japanese Military Forces.
Jan. 1945 – An accidental fire caused the loss of three houses in Alicagui.
March 13, 1945 – The liberation of Ibaan.
March 15, 1945 – The American military camp was set up in the school campus. The poblacion and barrios became too crowded because many people from the neighboring towns and Manila evacuated to Ibaan. The living conditions became unsanitary after a few days. The American military government transferred other [people?] to Batangas.
April 5, 1945 – The public schools were opened under the auspices of the PICAO.
July 6, 1945 – Public schools were made [placed] under the Bureau of Public Schools.

[p. 7]

26. Destruction of lives, properties and institutions during wars:

1900-1901 – Epidemics of cholera, small pox and malaria.

1901 – Vaccination was enforced by the American Mil. Force.

Jan. 1942 – Sabang Bridge was demolished by the American Army.

May, 1942 – The church towers were destroyed by a tremendous earthquake.

1943 – [In the] Latter part of the year, local guerrillas were caught and executed.

Dec. 1944 – The Matala Bridge and Ibaan Bridge were demolished by the Japanese Military Force.

B. Measures and accomplishments toward rehabilitation and reconstruction following World War II

Jan. 31, 1947 – The inauguration of the church towers.

Oct. 1949 – Ibaan Bridge was opened to the public (Cost - ₱19,000).

May, 1949 – Matala Bridge was opened to the public (Cost - ₱14,000).

August, 1949 – The repair of the Ibaan Elem. Schools was done.

1950 – Dayapan Bridge was completed (Cost ₱50,000).

1951 – Sabang Bridge was completed (Cost ₱49,990).

References – Manuscript-History of Ibaan-by Miguel Mercado
– Convent Chronicle

Part Two – Folkways

27. Traditions, customs and practices in domestic and social life; birth, baptism, courtship, marriage, death, burial; visits, etc.

Baptism –

When a child is born, the neighbors and relatives keep vigil over the newly born infant until after he is baptized by a priest. The baptism is usually accompanied by merrymaking and feasting that the parents incur debts to feed the whole community.

Courtship and Marriage –

Courtship today is quite a contrast to courtship during the early years. During the early days, a man must be very courteous and respectful when he visits a girl, right after entering the door of the house, he must walk in kneeling position up to the one whom he wants to pay due respect.

Conversation between the girl and the man is very limited because the old folks were watching each other’s moves. When it was already late in the night, the parents would begin to close the windows, meaning that was up;

[p. 8]

It was quite common in those days for a man to be married to a woman he did not love or he did not know because it was the parents who made the arrangements. So when a woman eloped with a man, the parents were very angry because their agreement or compromise did not materialize.

When a woman was set to be married, the groom-to-be usually gave a very big bundle of selected fuel. This bundle was kept under the house and was due after the marriage. That bundle of firewood signified burning love.

A man before marriage undergoes an acid test. He offers his services freely by getting water, helping in daily chores of the household, farming, repairing the house, and etc. And before they are married, the man has already lost pounds of weight. If, however, these services are not done faithfully, the marriage may still be annulled.

Dowries sometimes determine much the success of the proposal of marriage. If a woman does not like the man, she can exact a large amount of dowry or (bigay-kaya) such as hectares of land, money, animals, etc. from the man and even if the latter cannot love [live?] up to her wishes, his love can be spurned.

Death –

It has been the custom of our women to wear black and for men to wear a black band around the arm when one in the family dies. Special evening prayers are said up to the ninth day by the members [of the family] and relatives of the deceased. On the fourth and ninth days, feasts are held. The thirtieth day if a woman, and the fortieth day if a man is also celebrated.

28. Myths, legends, beliefs, interpretations, superstitions, origin of the world, land, mountains and caves, etc.

In ancient times and even up to the present generation, people of this locality have many queer beliefs regarding the different phenomena of nature and associate them with myths, legends, and superstitions; and give these natural phenomena varied interpretations as they affect their daily lives.

The eclipses are believed to have [a] bad effect on the suitors whose proposals to young maidens will meet their doom, as in the case of “Pinaglahuang Pag-ibig;” and to those who are newly-engaged, it means a temporary break as a third person has intervened in the happiness of the two lovers. But to those who have long been engaged, it means an everlasting happiness.

Eartquakes are believed to be the wrath of God. Others believe that it is the meeting of heat and cold under the earth. They do not know that earthquakes of tectonic type are caused by the loosening of huge boulders and falling one after another.

When a setting of eggs has been subjected to an earthquake, they are believed to become infertile. These eggs will either be sold or used in the house.

When a person is walking along the road, and an earthquake occurs, he should stop and hold on something solid or lie down flat on his breast lest he falls down to the ground and become an epileptic person.

[p. 9]

When flashes of lightning are accompanied by thunder, old people say, “Close all the openings or leave them all open.”

Do not go near a door, window, or post, but kneel and pray. Sometimes, the entire family sits around a dish of live charcoal placing dried coconut palm leaves which were blessed by the priest with holy water. The smoke from this gives relief from the fear of lightning and thunderbolts. The old even sprinkle the corners of the house with vinegar. All these ways are believed will save the people inside the house from being struck by lightning and thunderbolts.

When clouds are moving fast, it is believed that a typhoon is brewing somewhere. The rain is believed to have been brought to the sky by the rainbow, and when the load becomes very heavy, the rain falls.

The storms are believed to be God’s wrath upon the many sins of man. The changes of the weather are believed to cause sickness and the changes of the climate are attributed to [the] growing old age of the earth. All other natural phenomena are often attributed to the will of God.

The first man and woman are believed to be Adam and Eve, and the birth of twins or more are taken to bring prosperity to the family.

Sickness is believed to be the result of negligence or the curse of God. In fact, they attribute everything that happens to the will of God. Even good fortune, evil, and calamities are attributed to divinations.

Some people believe that when there is a sick person in the family and the whole flock of chickens cackle at night as if they are frightened, the sick person will die and will not be able to recover.

When dogs howl at night with [a] dreadful sound as if they are sensing some mishaps, it is a sign of [a] bad omen that some calamity may happen in the neighborhood.

Such are the beliefs of the people and their interpretations of the different natural phenomena and other external forces, as they affect their daily lives both physically and psychologically. Even the backward people believe that astronomical forces affect their lives.

From the “History of Ibaan in manuscript form by Ex-Mayor Miguel M. Mercado, Retired School Principal (All Rights Reserved)

29. Popular songs, games and amusements- -

Inday sa Balitaw

Inday sa Balitaw
Kahoy nakahapaw
Sandok nakasuksok
Palyok nakataob
Sini ang na matabang
Kulang sa sampalok

[p. 10]

Mama, Mamang Namamangka

Mama, mamang namamangka
Ipagsakay yaring bata
Pagdating sa Maynila
Ipagpalit sa kutsinta
Ali, aling namamayong
Ipasukob yaring sanggol
Pagdating sa Malabon
Ipagpalit sa bagoong.

Halika na Neneng

Halika na Neneng
Tayo’y manampalok
Dalhin mo ang buslo
Sisidlan ng hinog
Pagdating sa dulo
Lalamba-babayog
Kumapit ka Neneng
Baka ka mahulog

Sitsiritsit Alibangbang

Sit sirit sit alibang bang
Salaginto’t salagubang
Ang babae sa lansangan
Kung gumiri parang tandang

Inday from Balitaw
Inday, from Balitaw
The tree that has fallen
Rice paddle that is hanging
That pot that is inverted
The cooked fish lacking in salt
Also lacking in tamarind.

Mama, Mama Riding in a Banca

Mama, mama riding in a banca
Please let the child ride
When you reach Manila
You may exchange her with rice cakes.
Ali aling holding an umbrella
Let the baby go with you
After reaching Malabon
You may exchange with “bagoong.”

Come Here Neneng

Come here, come here Neneng
Let us pick tamarind
Carry a basket
Will put the ripe ones
When you reach the top
The branch broke off with a click
Please hold my Neneng dear
Because you might fall.

Sitsirit Sit, Alibang Bang

Sit sirit sit alibang bang
Salaginto and salagubang
The lady of the street
Is walking like a rooster

[p. 11]

MERKADERA
M     Mamimili Magtitinda
Aling Kuwan, inyo yon buksan :  Tanghali na pong tunay,
Ang tampipi dala ninyo iyan :  Hindi pa po nabibilhan
Merkadera, :  Anong ibig, bibili ba kayo
:  ng damit
Oo nga po at siya kong nais :
Kaya dito ay lumapit :
:  Ano kaya ang bibilhin
:  Puti baga o babarahia
:  Pinya't kantong o lastidutin
:  Hali kayo at inyong piliin
:  Ito'y bagong uso gawa ng mga
:  Pilipino.  Tingnan ninyo
:  at pinong-pino. Bagay na
:  bagay sa inyo.
Magkano ito
:  Sampong piso
Mahal naman :  Tawad kayo
Apat na lang :  Ay, naku, naku naman
:  Malulugi sa puhunan
Merkadera, huag kang
magalit sa pagtawad ko
sa damit palibhasa'y
ikaw ay pangit tawaran
pa'y magagalit.
:  Palibhasa'y ikaw ay barat
:  tumawad pa'y hindi sapat
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Buyer Seller
Will you please open the bag :
What you are carrying :  It is already late and until
:  now nobody has bought
:  What do you like.  Are you
Merkadera :  going to buy cloth?
Oh, yes, and that's the reason
why I'm going near you
:  What will you buy
:  White cloth or the cheapest one
:  Cloth woven from piña
:  Please come near and select
:  This one which is the fashion
:  Is made by Filipinos.  It's
:  very becoming to you.
How much is this?
:  It's only ten.
It's very dear.
:  You can have discount.
Four pesos only.
:  Ay, ay, ay, ay, ay, ay
Merkadera please don't get :  I'll be losing very much
angry for my getting it for
four pesos only.  It's because
you are very ugly
[p. 12]

Part Three: Other Information

34. Information on books and documents treating of the Philippines and the names of their owners.
 1.  History of Education in the Phil. Alzona
 2.  Philippine Culture Rodriguez
 3.  The Social Cancer Jose Rizal
 4.  Phil. Social Life and Progress Alip, Capino
 5.  Republic of the Philippines
 6.  Phil. Journal of Commerce
 7.  The Phil. Journal of Agriculture
 8.  Annual Report of the Sec. of Finance
 9.  Annual Report of the Weather Bureau
10. Annual Report of the Nat. Power Corporation
11. Annual Report of the Insurance Commission
12. The Phil. Journalof Animal Industry
13. Census of the Philippines-1948
14. Abstract of the Phil. Statistics
Note: [The] Owner of the books listed from number 5 to 14 is the San Pablo Branch Library of the Phil. National Library.

35. The names of Filipino authors born or residing in the community, the titles and subjects of their works, whether printed or in manuscript form, and the names of the persons possessing them.
Authors Works Form Possessor Place
1.  Miguel M. Mercado The Hhistory of Ibaan Manuscript Author Ibaan
2.  Miguel M. Mercado Ang Aking Aklat ng Pagsasanay Printed Author Ibaan
3.  Edited by Miguel M. Mercado Ang Aking Kasaysayan ng Bibliya Printed Author Ibaan
4.  Miguel M. Mercado Agriculture Education (Article) Printed The Lanao Harvendier Author Ibaan
5.  Miguel M. Mercado Successful Farming Printed Bagong Bayan Author Ibaan
6.  Lorenzo Ilustre (Music) Juan Gutierrez (Words) Song Magandang Araw Manuscript Julia Ilustre Ibaan
7.  Lorenzo Ilustre (Music) Juan Gutierrez (Words) Bayan Masagana Manuscript Clemencia Ilustre Ibaan
* * * * * * * *
* * * * * * * *

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Notes and references:
Transcribed from “History and and Life of the Town – Ibaan” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.

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