Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the barrio of Tubigan the Municipality of Lemery, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.
MUNICIPALITY OF LEMERY
PROVINCE OF BATANGAS
DIVISION OF BATANGAS
DISTRICT OF LEMERY
HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF THE BARRIO OF TUBUAN
PART ONE: HISTORY
Present Official Name of the Barrio
Former Name or Names and Their Meanings or Derivation
In one of the farthest corner of the town of Lemery lies a small barrio named Tubuan. This barrio is slopy, elongated and irregular in form. It is almost bounded on both sides, especially the eastern and western parts of the land, by deep ravines.
Popular Name of the Barrio, Present and Past, Derivation and Meaning of this Name
Since the beginning of the Spanish regime and until the last occupation day of the American Government of the islands, the name Tubuan had not yet been recorded as a barrio but it was included within the territorial jurisdiction of the barrio of Gulod, with the other barrio called Bagong Pook. This place, according to the oldest folks, was inhabited by two or three families. These families stayed temporarily for several months during the “kaingin” period. After planting and harvesting the crops, they would again leave the place.
As years went by, many people from the nearby barrios went there to cultivate more and more number of lots. These again were planted to rice, corn, and other plants. At the close of the Spanish domination, the whole place was totally cultivated and planted to various crops. Many people now began to build temporary houses and care [for] domestic animals. Every year, they raised crops, but the production was poor. This was due, according to the old folks, to the poor method and cultivation; the improper rotation of crops and misplanting to gain harmony with the seasons. As a result of these, they decided to plant another crop which required less efforts to grow. For the sake of experimentation to the suitability of the land for another crop, the people tested the planting of sugarcane which has less manual and animal labor. They observed this crop for two years and found out to be profitable and successful. From that time on, the whole area was planted every year to sugarcane, so that the people from the nearby barrios called the place sugar land or “Tubuan.” From this name, the people in the course of time called the place “Tubuan” until to the present.
Date of Establishment
Tubuan, Lemery, was established way back in the year 1902.
The first three families that settled in Tubuan were the families of Mariano Villalobos, Francisco Galit and Leon Catapang. They are all dead. Only their grandsons are still living.
List of Tenientes from the Earliest Time to Date
The tenientes are considered the leaders or the heads of the barrio. Formerly, [the] teniente was under a cabeza, who [was] looked upon as the governor of today. Since the time of the establishment of Tubuan, Lemery, the tenientes were appointed and changed by the Capitan whose residence was in the town. The first teniente of the barrio was Mariano Villalobos, then succeeded by Leon Catapang. After a long period, he was succeeded by Raymundo Magnaye who held this position for fifteen years until he was succeeded by Garciano Catapang, the teniente at present.
Story of Old Barrio or Sitio within the Jurisdiction that are now Depopulated or Extinct
So far, nothing of its part was depopulated. All [parts of the barrio] are occupied by the inhabitants.
Data on Historical Sites, Structures, Buildings, Old Ruins
Since the establishment of this barrio, Tubuan, the people lived peacefully and decently. There were already houses of regular sizes as well as huts where people lived. The structure that can be traced at present are the foundations or platforms of the several sugar mills that were constructed during the first occupation of the Americans.
Important Facts, Incidents or Events that Took Place
1. During the Spanish Occupation –
During the Spanish rule, the people of the barrio according to them did not meet so much punishments from the hands of the cruel Spaniards. But they witnessed so many instances how the Spaniards bitterly inflicted punishments on the Filipinos, more than what we experienced from the Japanese. The people had not permanent homes. They hid themselves far away in the midst of the nearby mountain, just to free themselves from the torturing hands of the Spaniards, who killed not only the men and women but also innocent children.
2. During the American Occupation –
When the Americans arrived in Lemery, there were some Spanish soldiers in the barrio where heavy fighting was going on. At first, the Spanish soldiers fought with the Americans and the former were defeated. Later on, the Filipino soldiers and the inhabitants fought bravely although they were handicapped in everything. At last, the Filipino soldiers gave up the fight. From that time, the inhabitants won the admiration of the American soldiers. The people built again their houses and lived peacefully and happily. The people were taught [a] little [of the] English language not in public schools but in a private house
under a tutor paid by the populace themselves in the form of money or in the form of commodities such as palay, corn, and other things.
3. During and after World War II –
The prosperous condition of the people of the barrio continued for a lapse of time until the outbreak of World War II when the Japanese controlled the islands. There was a little harmony with the new invaders. But because of the many abuses inflicted among the people of the barrio, they began to flee again to the forest or to the mountain. Most of the men in the barrio, especially the barrio lieutenant, suffered tortures at the cruel hands of the Japanese soldiers. Sometimes, they were taken to the headquarters and investigated them with cruelties. They were grilled very well, especially when they were suspected as guerrillas. They killed many old and young men as well as the innocent children during the latter part of 1944. In February, 1945, the people were liberated by the Americans from the tyrannical rule of the Japanese Imperial Army. How happy the barrio folks were. They had freedom again. They returned to their houses. They began to cultivate the soil and plant different kinds of crops and buildings. The people craved for some improvement in [the] education of their children until on July 1, 1949, they were granted their request. The Grades I and II classes were opened. The classes were held in private houses rented by the government. After two years, the number of pupils increased so that the one teacher was increased to two.
F o l k w a y s
Traditions, Customs and Practices in Domestic and Social Life
1. Birth –
Birth means [a] new seed of [a] human life. A mother in the olden days, like at present, before giving birth, prepared everything. When she was about to give birth, she took a bath every afternoon, walked not very far and consulted the midwife or “hilot” for during that period, the doctor and the nurse were very rare. Sometimes, she took fresh eggs when about to give birth for they believed that eggs gave strength to the pregnant mother. After the delivery and the child was alive, they at once dressed a fat hen as a gift to the child. Then, the child was given a bath and dressed by the “hilot.” After this, drinking of liquor took place.
2. Baptism –
After the delivery of the child, the family would at once have a caucus to decide who would be the godfather or godmother of the child. The date for baptism would be at once fixed.
3. Courtship –
Courtship during the olden days was very, very queer but it was traditionally idealistic. A man or a woman married without seeing or courting each other. Only the parents of
both parties agreed upon their marriage.
4. Marriage –
When the date of the marriage was already fixed, the parents of the young man prepared the dowry to be given to the parents of the girl. The dowry could be in the form of money, jewelry, land or domestic animals. These dowries were given before or after the marriage. One week before the marriage ceremony, the couple was thought [taught?] to pray, and then asked to have confession two days before the marriage. If he or she failed to recite the prayer, he or she would be sent again to study and memorize the prayer. This failure was called “talbog” and to they had to study again in order to succeed. If the couple passed this form of oral test, the marriage was sure to be continued. After the marriage had been solemnized by the priest, it was a funny thing to see the couple having a race toward the church’s door. The reason for this was that the girl wanted to be ahead in order that she might not be submissive to her husband. Upon arrival of the couple in the bride’s house, they would be served at the door one or two spoonful of sweet. Sometimes, two candles were lighted together and then were squeezed tightly. These practices were being done in the belief that the couple would live happily and abundantly and never be separated until death.
5. Death –
Death is [a] common occurrence to everybody. Old and young, poor and rich, wise and ignorant will have to meet death. It comes to us in any place at any time whether we like it or not. There are two kinds of death – natural and the unnatural death. During the Spanish, American and Japanese occupations, the tool of death in Tubuan was very low. In most cases, death was due to sicknesses like cholera, dysentery, fever and other internal ailments.
6. Burial –
The burial practices during the old days might be the same as those of today, with only slight differences due to the higher standard of living at present.
If anyone of the members of the family dies, it is natural that all members of the family and the close relatives cry and lament. All neighbors will at once express their grief and condolence to the bereaved family. Sometimes, the relatives and other neighbors help the members of the family in some household work which are neglected because of their grief. When night comes, many of the friends, neighbors and other relatives watch the corpse until the next morning. To pass the night unnoticed, they play different games and make some jokes. These watchers are served with some bread, coffee, and [a] little wine. The interment is done in the following day. The corpse is placed in a coffin or sometimes when the bereaved family is very poor, they just wrap the corpse with a mat and a blanket and place it in a bamboo split called “baklad.” But nowadays, this practice is no longer performed by the people.
Every night, the spirit of the dead is prayed for by the members of the family, with some members and friends. They pray for eight nights and at the last night, there is again a little threat [treat?] like serving of soft drinks, and sweets, after the prayer. On the first anniversary of the dead, the family once more prepares food for those who will pray. From that time, all the members of the family begin to wear colored
7. Festivals –
Before and after the Spanish rule, there was no festival in the said barrio. But after the lapse of time, the people, especially the religious men and women, began to build a “tuklong” where the hold the mass. The mass was said by a Catholic priest. They had the image of Saint Rafael and [the] Virgin Mary. Since then, festivals were held every year and the people prepared foods for their visitors. To make the fiesta more colorful, sometimes they had different games and also native dances like “subli” and “pandango.” They hired a band whose musical instruments were drums and “tipano” made of anos. This band went around the barrio early in the morning to awaken people of the barrio in order to attend mass. By this time, the barrio people refrained from having festivals because of the peace and order condition of the barrio.
8. Punishment –
The punishment inflicted to our ancestors during the Spanish critical era was very severe. If one was suspected working against the administration, he was hanged or shot to death. The least punishments were fines and whipping or flogging. The kinds of punishment depended upon the kinds of crime committed.
9. Myths, Legends, Beliefs, Superstitions –
1. Sweeping at twilight is bad for it will mean the loss of your savings.
2. When a black butterfly enters the house, it give a bad omen.
3. It is bad for the bride and bridegroom to go away after marriage for [an] accident is near to happen.
4. When you are cooking anything and the fire makes a blowing noise, it means that some visitors are coming.
10. Popular Songs, Games and Amusements –
A. Songs –
Hintayin natin ang tatay
Humahanap ng kahit ulam.
Hindi ko naman masundo,
May putik at may bulaho.
Pagdating sa Maynila,
Ipagpalit sa manika.
Pagdating sa Malabon,
Ipagpalit sa bagoong.
11. Riddles –
1. What is it that cries without eyes, and stands without feet? (candle)
2. I carried it, it carries me. (slippers and shoes)
3. Two round balls can see very far. (eyes)
4. Here comes Mildred, with her shirt so red. (banana blossoms)
5. The captain is [a] cane, which you can’t retain. (snake)
6. It was bought without understanding. (coffin)
12. Proverbs and Sayings –
The following are some of the proverbs that were used by the early inhabitants of this barrio of Tubuan, Lemery.
1. A sleeping shrimp will be carried away by the current.
2. A friend indeed is a friend in need.
3. After the storm comes the calm.
4. In union there is strength.
5. Patience is the ladder to success.
6. Knowledge is power.
13. Methods of measuring time, special calendars.
During the past, the people had also some methods of measuring time. This method of measuring time was not very accurate or correct as those we have at present. They could tell the time by the position of the sun and also the cackling of the rooster at night. The rooster crowed if past ten or twelve o’clock at night. When the crows crowed hurriedly with short intervals, that was already morning and at that time, the people woke up, took a cup of coffee and went to work.
As to the calendar used, they had the same calendar as we have today. The oldest calendar is the calendar being prepared by Mr. Honorio Lopez.
Barrio Committee Chairman