January 3, 2018

San Fernando and Santiago (formerly Payapa), Malvar, Batangas: Historical Data

Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the barrios of San Fernando and Santiago (formerly called Payapa) in the Municipality of Malvar, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.

[Cover page.]

COLLECTION AND COMPILATION

OF

HISTORICAL DATA

BARRIOS OF SAN FERNANDO AND SANTIAGO
(Formerly called Payapa)

MUNICIPALITY OF MALVAR

PROVINCE OF BATANGAS



Submitted by:

PERPEMELO BALASTA
Chairman

ARTEMIO TORIZO
Member

AMADO LANTIN
Member

[p. 1]

HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF THE BARRIO

Part One: History

1. Present official name of the barrio.
a. Santiago
b. San Fernando

2. Popular name of the barrio, present and past, derivation and meanings of these barrios’ names.
a. Past – Payapa
b. Present – Santiago (Payapang Burol or Ibabao)
San Fernando (Payapang Labak)
c. The name Payapa was derived from the name of a tree called Payapang Balete which grew on the bank of a ravine. Under the enormous growth of this tree was a big flat stone where the chiefs of the different groups of Filipino “tulisanes” met to settle peacefully and amicably their intramural conflicts. Payapa means “peace.”
d. At present, the old barrio of Payapa is comprised of two barrios, namely: Santiago and San Fernando. The former is named in honor of “Cabesang” Santiago Lantin and the latter in honor of “Cabesang” Fernando Manalo. Both were prominent men during their time. Despite the official names of these barrios, many people still call Santiago “Payapang Burol” or “Ibabao” and San Fernando “Payapang Labak.” These present popular names are derived from the topography of these places.
e. No sitios are included within the territorial jurisdiction of the aforementioned barrios.

3. Date of establishment.
The two barrios, namely Santiago and San Fernando, were established on January 1, 1919.

4. Original families:
a.  Lantin e.  Reyes
b.  Manalao f.  Torres
c.  Aguilera g.  Garcia
d.  Viaje h.  Laydea [Laydia?]
5. List of tenientes from the earliest time to date.
a. Spanish time –
1.  Santiago Lantin 3.  Manuel Lantin
2.  Fernando Manalo 4.  Evaresto Manalo
5.  Lorenzo Lantin
[p. 2]

(Continuation of No. 5)
b. American period up to 1919.
1.  Claro Lat 3.  Tomas Lantin
2.  Felisito Laja 4.  Genaro Aguilera
5.  Marcelo Reyes

c. From the establishment of the municipality of Malvar to date:
A. Barrio of Santiago –
1.  Dionisio Maralit 4.  Victor Lantin
2.  Teodoro Bautista 5.  Santiago Manalo
3.  Teodoro Hernandez 6.  Ambrocio Terenal

B. Barrio of San Fernando –
1.  Evaristo Lantin 4.  Paulo Aguilera
2.  Roman Viaje 5.  Jose Lantin
3.  Lorenzo Torres 6.  Juanario Tolentino
7.  Francisco Torres

6. Story of old barrios or sitios within the jurisdiction that are now depopulated or extinct.
None.

7. Data on historical sites, structures, buildings, old ruins, etc.
None.

8. Important facts, incidents or events that took place.
a. During the Spanish occupation –
1. Economic – The barrio of Payapa became one of the coffee granaries of the town of Lipa.
2. Despite the lack of religious freedom, many people worshipped Dr. Jose Rizal. They were called “Iko.” Another religious sect called “Kolorum,” which meant “magbubundok,” worshipped the mountain with the belief that God was in it.
3. Incidents – In most of the visits of the “Guardia Civil” and the Spanish “Casadores,” the inhabitants were forced to give chickens, eggs, fruits, and sometimes pigs. Any person seen by them (Guardia Civil and Casadores) on the way was commanded to carry their personal belongings. No one could refuse for fear of inhuman punishment.
4. Personalities – A “Cabeza” named Felisito Laja sold many parcels of land just to cover up the amount of tribute that his barrio mates filed to give. He died poor with but with an honorable life.

b. During the American occupation to World War II.

[p. 3]

(Continuation of No. 8, letter b)

1. Incidents –
(a) The Filipino “Insurrectos” ambushed American soldiers at the southern outskirt of Payapa. The American soldiers retaliated by burning all houses in the place where it occurred.
(b) The American soldiers searched the houses of the inhabitants for firearms and hiding “Insurrectos.”
(c) To spare the lives of the barrio people from the crossfires of the American soldiers and the Filipino “Insurrectos,” the American officers ordered all the people to assemble at a safety zone in Lipa. After several weeks, these people were released and ordered to return to their homes.

2. Economics –
(a) The old trail leading to the towns of Lipa to the south and Tanauan to the north was widened and levelled. Later, it was paved with stones and sand. Lastly, the road was asphalted and classified as a first-class road.
(b) More virgin lands were cultivated and planted to a variety of crops.
(c) The introduction of the calesas made the conveyance of the people and market products to the towns faster and more economical.

3. Political –
(a) Barrio lieutenants were free from paying cedula tax. They were also given the privilege to apprehend offenders and culprits and to hold meetings relative to the enforcement of municipal ordinances and national law.

4. Educational –
(a) In 1917, some houses in the barrio were rented purposely to house the school children. The pupils were provided with books, pencils, slates, crayolas, etc.
(b) The first public school building erected in the barrio was only a two-room building. It was erected in 1926. In 1957, another room was annexed to it.

5. Religious –
(a) Many chapels were built in the barrio. The barrio folks used them for “Flores de Mayo.”

[p. 4]

(Continuation of No. 8, letter b)

(b) Many people were affiliated with different religious sects. The people enjoyed the freedom of worship.

6. Personalities –
(a) The only person from Payapa who became one of the Vice-Presidents of Malvar was Mr. Tomas Lantin. The erection of the only public school in the barrio was due largely to his sincere and honest efforts.
(b) Among the municipal councilors from Payapa, Mr. Jose Manalo and Mr. Maximino Aguilera were the first to be included in the list.

c. During and after World War II
1. The Japanese occupation – Important facts:
(a) In June 1942, the public school in the barrio was opened. The pupils were taught Niponggo and the National Language. The medium of instruction used was also English but all literary pieces pertaining to the Americans were excluded.
(b) The people of the barrio were divided into different groups. Each group was under a leader called “Cabo.” The “Cabos” were held responsible for the collection of foodstuff for the Japanese and also for getting male persons the Japanese need to work in the cotton plantations and in the auxiliary air bases.
(c) Hundreds of coconut trees were cut down for trunks only. These were used as supports of the Japanese air shelters and hiding places in the ground.
(d) In January, 1944, the Japanese Kempetai and soldiers commandeered many of the horses, cattle, calesas, bull carts, and sewing machines of the barrio folks.
(e) Guerrilla units were organized to help carry out the national resistance movement against the Japanese and also to protect the people from the molestation of bandits and fake guerrillas.
(f) Guerrilla suspects in the community were given the most inhuman punishments by the Japanese soldiers. Others were brought to other places and killed.
(g) The scarcity of food in the barrio forced the people to overlook personal hygiene and [the] proper upkeep of their homes.

[p. 5]

(Continuation of No. 8, letter c)

(h) Weaving of abaca and sinamay was revived. Age-old native looms were used. Many people wore clothings made of abaca and sinamay.
(i) Sometime in March, 1945, many young women were taken to a concentration camp in sitio Sulok, Lipa, to mend the torn clothes of the retreating Japanese soldiers. No one could tell what happened to them.

2. Incidents –
(a) Guerrilla soldiers under Captain Carandang ambushed Japanese trucks. Destruction of lives of soldiers, ammunition, food supplies, uniforms, etc. was great.
(b) Some Japanese soldiers on patrol were wiped out by some guerrilla soldiers. Japs who arrived later burned the school building. The house of Mr. Lorenzo Torres was included.

2. After World War II –
(a) In May 1950, public school buildings were rehabilitated.
(b) The primary school of Payapa became a complete elementary in 1949.
(c) Three artesian wells were constructed in 1952. The difficulty of the barrio folks in securing safe drinking water was greatly minimized.
(d) The people learned to apply fertilizers to their fields and farms extensively. The increased production of various crops greatly improved the standard of living of the people.
(e) The people observed the barrio fiesta annually. Such has not been observed before.

9. Destruction of lives, properties and institutions during wars, especially in 1896-1900 and 1941-1945.
(a) The houses of the barrio folks in the southern part of Papaya were razed to the ground when the Filipino “insurrectos” ambushed the American soldiers.
(b) Sometime in March 1945, the school building and the house of Lorenzo Torres were burned by the Japanese soldiers.
(c) During the years 1944 and 1945, hundreds of coconut trees were cut down by the Japanese soldiers. Staple foods of the people were commandeered. [The] Same was done to the people’s burden animals.

[p. 6]

(Continuation of No. 9 ( a), letter c and 9 (b).)
A guerrilla was killed and some maidens were forced to sew army clothes. Later, they were raped and massacred.

(b) Measures and accomplishments toward rehabilitation and reconstruction following World War II.

(1) Measures –
a. Organization of “Puroks” for the improvement of community living.
b. Holding of community assemblies.

(2) Accomplisments –
a. Construction of the P.T.A. School Building
b. Rehabilitation of the primary school building.
c. Construction of an artesian well in the lot of the school.
d. Construction of two more artesian wells in San Fernando.

Part Two: Folkways

10. Traditions, customs and practices in domestic and social life; birth, baptism, courtship marriage, death, burial; visits; festivals; punishments; etc.

a. Birth –
1. It is believed that if a conceiving woman eats twin bananas, she will give birth to twins.
2. When an expectant mother cuts her hair, she will have a hairless child.
3. When an expectant mother puts firewood in the reverse position, she will deliver the child with the feet coming out first.
4. At the first birth, the mother eats squid, the meat of the carabao or the deer, so that the mother [will] not relapse.
5. An expectant mother does not allow any person irrespective of social relationship to stay at the door prior to or even at the delivery of the child.
6. Pregnant mothers who go to funerals do not enter the cemetery.
7. Expectant mothers fear eating bluish purple eggplants.

[p. 7]

(Continuation of No. 10, letter a)

8. Pregnant women take a walk at an early dawn; take shower baths late in the afternoon and early in the morning.
9. The mother does not give the newly-born child its first breast feeding until after the lapse of twenty-four hours.
10. Conceiving women are very careful in their behavior anytime and anywhere for fear of anything that will appear in the child after birth.

b. Baptism –
1. Pre-baptism at home by pouring water on the head of the child lying in the arms of the sponsor-to-be.
2. After the baptism of a group of children, the sponsors rush out of the church. It is believed that the first to be out will always be first in any undertaking in the future.
3. When the priest blows on the head of the child as he is baptized, the sponsor blows also with the belief that the child will emulate the character traits of the sponsor.

c. Courtship –
1. Men court ladies most when a star is near the moon. It is believed that good luck will be nearer to them.
2. Offering of servitude to the parents by the bridegroom to be for a length [of time] until the marriage ceremony is solemnized.
3. The parents select and have an agreement on whom their sons or daughters will marry irrespective of any official engagement or acquaintance with those selected.
4. A dowry in the form of money, land, or gold is given to the parents of the bride-to-be.
5. A visitor or suitor of a maiden says “Tao po” at the base of the ladder before going up the stairs. He could go up unless he is told to do so. Before entering the house, he kneels to the parents and receive their blessing.
6. No visitor or suitor goes to the house of the maiden if she is alone in the house.
7. The visitor or suitor and the girl are seated far from each other. Some or one of the members of the girl’s family stays somewhere in the same room until the visitor or suitor goes away.

[p. 8]

(Continuation of No. 10)

d. Marriage
1. Marriage is often solemnized during a new moon or full moon.
2. The newly-married couple does not live together until four or nine days have elapsed.
3. In exchanging of vows, any one of the couple who presses the hand tighter will be dominant in the family. The bridegroom also steps on the feet of the bride during the exchange of vows for the same reason.
4. Pinning the veil and tying the cord will make the wedded couple live forever without separation.
5. The couple goes upstairs at the same time. Coins, especially silver, rice, and flowers are poured overhead. Both eat the sweets from the same plate and drink from the same glass.
6. At the dining table, the couple sits opposite each other at the “cabesera.”
7. The practice called “sabugan” requires the couple to sit opposite each other at the sides of the table. Money is given by both parties to the couple.
8. Before the bride leaves her house for the house of the bridegroom, any member of the bridegroom’s [family] breaks a new cooking jar into many pieces. It is believed that the couple will have many children.
9. The couple kisses the hands of the parents of the bride before the bride leaves her house.
10. The bridegroom does not go with the bride to his house. He is left in the house of the bridegroom. They remain separated for four or nine days.
11. The “bilik” is not removed until four [days] have elapsed.

e. Death and burial –
1. No eating of glutinous rice (malagkit) in the house of the dead.
2. No sweeping in the house of the dead is done until after four days.
3. While feasting, service plates and other glassware are not piled up. Washers of these are very cautious enough not to break any of them.
4. While the dead in the coffin is brought out of the house, a person follows and pours water on the way as far as the door of the stairs. All windows are pulled closer to each other to darken the room.
5. Several prayers are offered to the dead at different times of the day until the dead is to be brought to the cemetery.

[p. 9]

(Continuation of No. 10, letter e)

6. Offering of “limos” to the family of the dead.
7. Sides or any part of the coffin should not touch or bump any side of the door when going out.
8. No eating of vegetables from vine plants crawling on the ground until the ninth day.
9. Sick persons should not go to the house of the dead believing that the ailment will grow worst.
10. Pregnant women do not enter the cemetery to witness the burial of the dead.
11. The young children of the dead parents are passed over the dead before a coffin is closed. The same thing is done to the grandchildren of the dead grandparents.
12. Celebration of the so-called “lukasan” or “babaan ng luksa.”
13. In the cemetery, the coffin is opened again for the immediate members of the family to get the last view of the dead. The last prayers is said again.
14. The mourners leave the cemetery as soon as the dead is lowered to the grave or placed in the niche.

f. Punishments –
1. Punishments are third degree.
2. People are invited to witness the punishment of the person.

g. Visits –
1. The people go on pilgrimage to any sacred place they promised to visit.
2. Persons paying visits to sick persons or to mothers who [have] just given birth carry something for them.

h. Festivals –
1. The people celebrate the so-called “Flores de Mayo” or “Santa Kurusan” and “Fiesta ng Nayon.”

11. Beliefs and Superstitions –
1. The creation of stairs should be facing the rising sun. This belief is said to give prosperity to the family. Stairs erected at the direction of the setting sun foretells bad fortune. It is believed that the life of the family goes down with the fading sun.
2. Prophesying the life of a person by the lines of the palm.
3. No sweeping of the house at night are at sunset.

[p. 10]



(Continuation of No. 11)

4. When a child will go to school for the first time, the mother lets her eat at midnight from the point of a sharp instrument like a razor. It is believed that the child will be intelligent.
5. No payments of debts at night.
6. No cutting of fingernails at night.
7. Scolding the rats will cause more destruction.
8. Visitors will come when the cat sits at the door rubbing its face.
9. Brisk sale of goods by putting aside leaves under them.
10. A conceiving woman who develops a strong liking for the fruit of a certain tree will cause that tree to be sterile; that is, it will not bear fruit thereafter.

b. Divination –
1. The appearance of a comet foretells war, famine, death or pestilence.
2. Tying the four corners of a white handkerchief upon sight and disappearance of a heavenly body falling means good luck.

c. Witchcraft and magic –
1. Death is often caused by the so-called “mangkukulam” “manggagaway,” and bites of the so-called “barang.’
2. The use of the so-called “bulong” and the Latin words written on a piece of onion skin paper by the quack doctor in treating ailments or sickness of a person.

d. Sickness –
1. It is believed that sickness comes from the “nuno;” wandering spirits at night; “na-uhiya;” “na-lupa;” “naitaasan;” and from the so-called “masamang hangin.”

12. Popular songs; games and amusements.

a. Popular songs –
1. Tiririt ng maya
Tiririt ng ibon
Huni ng tiyan ko’y
Inihaw na baboy.
Tiririt ng ibon
Tiririt ng maya
Huni ng tiyan ko’y
Tinumis na baka.

2. Si Aling Kuwan po’y

[p. 11]

(Continuation of No. 12)

Kung namimintana,
Ang pinipili pa’y
Bintanang ibaba.
Kapag nakatanaw
Ng gustong binata,
Takbu sa-a silid
At luluha-luha.

Ang wika ng ina’y
Kung bakit ka ganyan
Inang ko, inang ko
Masakit ang tiyan.

Ang ama nama’y takbu sa medico,
Medico, medico, gamut ang anak ko.
Wika ng medico’y hindi sakit ito,
Sinta ng binatang umahon sa ulo.

Pagdating sa ulo’y
Naging balakubak,
Pagdating sa noo’y
Naging tagihawat.

3. Si Mariang burara’y
Nahulog sa tulay
Sinambot ni Pitong
Biscotchong malutong.
Si Mariang Kondende
Naglako nang gabi,
Nang hindi mabili,
Umupo sa isang tabi.

4. Ayokong-ayoko
Sa lalaking tamad
Pupunta sa tindahan
Iinom ng alak.
Pagdating sa bahay
Bali-balintuwad
Ang pobreng asawa’y
Siyang binabag.

5. Ako’y naglalakad
Papuntang Ubando
Ako ay nakaraan
Ng isang bigkis na tubo.
Inurong-urunga’t
Saka ko tinakbo
Regedeng regedeng
Nakapang-os ako.

6. Ako’y naglalakad
Sa dakong ibayo

[p. 12]

(Continuation of No. 12 (a) – 6)

Ako ay nakasalubong
Ng isang trupang sundalo.
Inurung-urungan ko
Bago ko pinuego
Pong-pong walang natira
Kundi isang kalvo.

7. Ako’y paalam
Pasa sa Lipa
Kabayo ko ay talong
Riyenda ko’y ampalaya
Kumpas ko ay sitaw
Estribo ay patula
Siya ko ay kamatis
Ubod ng pupula.
- - - -

8. Araw mo’y natapos sa kadalagahan
At haharap ka na sa katahimikan
Lilisaning pilit ang lahat ng layaw
Dahil sa asawang dapat panimbangan.

Ang loob mo Neneng ay iyong ilapat
Sa iyong biyanang sampung pinaghipag
Kung ang gawa mo’y sa Diyos ay tapat
Manumanugang ma’y paparahing anak.
- - - -

9. Ang kwentas na ito’y aking isasabit
Sa tapat ng dibdib huwag iwawaglit
Sa mga digmaan kung iyong masambit
Ipagtatanggol ka sa mga panganib.

At kung sakaling ikaw masugatan
Pahatid ka agad sa aking kandungan
Ang mga sugat mo’y aking huhugasan
Ng luhang tumulo sa dibdib bumukal.

b. Games and Amusements –
Playing “sungka” and “dama.”

13. Puzzles and riddles –
a. Puzzles –
1. Mag-inang baka, nag-anak ng tig-isa
There are two cows. One of them is the mother of the other. Both of them delivered only once.
2. Pumili ka ng isang pangalan ng babae na kung dagdagan mo ng isang titik ay nagiging pangalan ng lalaki. At kung karagdagan pa ng isa pa uling titik ay pangalan din ng lalaki.

[p. 13]

(Continuation of No. 13, a-2)

Select a name of a female that if a letter is added to it, it becomes the name of a male. And if another letter or one more letter, so to say, is added, it also becomes the name of a male.
3. Mayroong isang ilog, kung tatawid ka na sa ilog ay kailangang sumakay sa bangka. Ang bangkang magagamit ay ang laman ay dalawa lamang pati ang bangkero. May kasama kang isang kambing, isang aso, at isang bigkis na kumpay. Kapag iniwan mo ang kambing at aso, sila’y magkakagalit. Kung iwan mo ang kambing at kumpay, kakainin ng kambing ang kumpay. Paano ang iyong gagawin sa pagtawid?

There is a river. If you intend to cross it, a banca is needed. The banca that could be used could accommodate only two including the boatman. With you are one goat, one dog, and a bundle of fodder. If you leave the dog and the goat, they will quarrel. If you leave the goat and the fodder, the goat will eat the fodder. What will you do to cross the river?

4. Ilan ang Isang, Pitong, dalawang Bilang?
How many are Isang, Pitong, and two Bilangs?

5. May isang dumapo sa mga tulos. Kung magtitigalawa ng ibon sa tulos, ay labis ang tulos. Kung magtig-iisa ang ibon sa tulos, ay labis ng isa ang ibon. Ilan ang ibon at ilan ang tulos?

Several birds alighted at several poles. If each pole would have two birds, there would be an over of one pole. If one bird would be at each pole, there would be an over of one bird. How many are the birds and how many are the poles?

b. Riddles –
1. Nang maala-ala’y naiwan, nadala ng malimutan.
When recalled, it is left, but carried when forgotten.
2. Ito-ito na, nguni’t hindi makita.
It could not be seen, but here it comes.

[p. 14]

(Continuation of No. 13, b)

3. Maitim na parang tinta, pumuputi kahit hindi ikula.
Black like the ink, getting white though there’s no bluing.
4. May ulo’y walang mukha, may katawa’y walang sikmura, namamahay nang sadya.
It has a head without [a] face, and body without [an] abdomen. It is really in dwelling.
5. Pantas ka man at makata, alin dito sa gubat ang bumubunga’y walang bulaklak.
Though you [are] an expert and a poet, which here in the forest bears fruit without [a] flower?
6. Kabayo kong si Alasan, ayaw kumain kundi sakyan.
Alasan, a horse of mine, does not eat unless ridden.
7. Sa init ay sumasaya, sa lamig ay nalalanta.
In the heat it gladdens, in [the] cold it gets wilted.
8. Ako’y may kaibigan, kasama ko saan man.
I have a friend. That friend is with me in any place, whatever.
9. Isang butil ng palay, sikip sa buong bahay.
A grain of palay crowds the whole house.
10. Bahay ng prinsesa, libot ng espada.
The princess’s house is surrounded with swords.
11. Alin dito sa lupa, kung lumakad ay patihaya.
Which here on earth does walk topsy-turvy?
12. Bahay ni Garing, butas-butas ang dingding.
The house of Garing has walls with strewn holes.
13. Dala mo’y dala ka, dala ka ng iyong dala.
What you carry carries you, and what carries you is what you’re carrying.
14. Isang balong malalim, di maabot ang tingin.
A deep well cannot by sight be reached.
15. Ang isda ko sa Mariveles, nasa ilalim ang kaliskis.
My fish in Mariveles has its scales under.

14. Proverbs and Sayings –
1. Kung ano ang hinala ay siyang gawa.
What you suspect others do is what you do.
2. Walang hinayang magtapon ang walang pagod mag-ipon.
He who cares not to waste, toils not to accumulate.

[p. 15]

(Continuation of No. 14)

3. Walang mailap na pugo sa matiyagang magsiilo.
No quail is wild to a patient trapper.
4. Ang hipong tulog ay nadadala ng agos.
The sleeping shrimp is carried by the current.
5. Ang sakit ng kalingkingan ay damdam ng buong katawan.
The pain of the smallest finger is felt by the whole body.
6. Aanhin pa ang sakati kung patay na ang kabayo.
Of what use will the fodder be if the horse is already dead.
7. Alin mang gubat ay may ahas.
In any forest, there is a snake.
8. Magpakapula-pula ang saga, ay maitim din ang kabila.
However red the “saga” is, the other side is also black.
9. Di lahat ng kumikislap ay ginto.
Not all that glitters is gold.
10. Ang magmarunong sa di alam, ang natutubo’y kahihiyan.
To pretend to be prudent [?] of what is not known, results to have shame as the gain.
11. Walang taong banal sa bukas na kaban.
No person is saintly to an open trunk.
12. Kung anong bukang bibig, ay siyang laman ng dibdib.
What the mouth utters is what the heart feels.
13. Ano mang habain ng prosesion ay sa simbahan din ang tuloy.
However is the length of the procession, to the church it also goes and ends there.
14. Di kahiya-hiya ang walang maibigay, paris ng nagbibigay na di tanggapan.
It is not a shame to have nothing to give, unlike one who gives but not accepted.
15. Pag wala ang pusa, naglalaro ang daga.
If the cat is away, the mice play.
16. Magbiro ka na sa lasing, wag lamang sa bagong gising.
You can joke a drunkard, but joke not one who has just awakened.
17. Ang balita ay bihirang magtapat, magkatotoo ma’y marami na ang dagdag.
News seldom tells the truth and if true

[p. 16]

(Continuation of No. 14, 17)

many are already added to them.
18. Ang dila ay hindi patalim, nguni’t kung sumugat ay malalim.
The tongue is not any kind of a bladed instrument, but it makes deep wounds.
19. Pag ang sakit ay malaki, ang pangako ay marami.
When the sickness is grave, the promises are many.
20. Hubugin ang kahoy habang bata pa.
Bend the tree while it is still young.
21. Ang pilak mo man ay sang kaban, at ang ginto ay sang tapayan, kung wala kang kaibigan ay wala ka ring kabuluhan.
Your silver though is one trunk, and your gold is one jar, if you have no friend, you have no worth.
22. Ang asong di palalibot, buto pa’y di makapulot.
A dog [that] does not wander cannot find even bones.
23. Nakikilala mo ang batang mabait sa kumpas ng kamay at buka ng bibig.
You can tell a good child by the movements of the arms and the expressions that come from the mouth.
24. Ang mais ay di lalapit sa manok.
The corn approaches not the chicken.
25. Ang kuripot na mayaman, madalas pagnakawan.
The person who is rich but selfish is often robbed.
26. Ang kapalaran ay di ko man hanapin ay dudulog kung talagang akin.
My fortune, though not I search for it, will come if really it is mine.
27. Ang maliit ay siyang nakapupuwing.
The tiny is the one that partially blinds the eye.
28. Kung anong lakad ng alimangong matanda, ay siya ding lakad ng alimangong bata.
How the old crab walks is also how the young crab walks.
29. Magpakatalino man ang matsin, ay napaglalalangan din.
The monkey though [it] makes itself very witty, can also be deceived.
30. Maganda sa tingin, nguni’t nakakahirin kung kainin.

[p. 17]

(Continuation of No. 14, 30)

Beautiful it is in sight, but can choke if it will be eaten.
31. Walang sumisira sa bakal kundi ang kalawang.
Nothing destroys the iron but the rust.
32. Walang matigas na tutong sa mamamatay ng gutom.
There is no hard crust of scorched rice to one who will die of hunger.
33. Ang katapat ng langit ay pusali.
Opposite the sky is the muddy pool.
34. Ang taong masalita ay tulad ng hardin na sa damo ay sagana.
A person of words is like a garden full of weeds.
35. Ang pagkaka-isa ay lakas.
Unison is strength.

15. Methods of measuring time, special calendars.
a. Position of the sun.
b. The crowing of cocks in the morning.
c. Chirping of the hornbill at 12 o’clock in the morning.
d. Length of a person’s shadow.
e. The opening of the patola flowers at 4 o’clock in the afternoon.
f. The closing of the leaves of the acacia also at 4 o’clock in the afternoon.
g. Position of the moon during moonlit nights.

16. Other folktales –
None.

Part Three: Other Information

17. Information on books and documents treating of the Philippines and the names of the owners.

None.

18. The names of Filipino authors born or residing in the community, the titles and subjects of their works, whether printed or in manuscript form, and the names of the persons possessing these.

None.

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Notes and references:
Transcribed from “History and Cultural Life of the Barrios (San Fernando and Santiago, formerly Payapa),” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.

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