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January 5, 2018

Documents on a Japanese Captive of the Gagalac Guerrillas, Feb 1945

The Gagalac Guerrilla Group was one of the groups operating in Batangas that was given official recognition by the United States Army after World War II. In this transcription are included several documents used as enclosure/attachment to the Gagalac Guerrilla Unit’s appeal for recognition by the United States Army. The documents are edited here in and there for grammar, spelling and punctuation.

[p. 1]

EXHIBIT “D-1”

GAGALAC GUERRILLA UNIT
SINISIAN2 HEADQUARTERS

20 Feb. 1945
SUBJECT

TO
: Presentation of Japanese Captive.

: Lt Col James H Farren
Under guard of Captain Juan Javier, Chief of our Intelligence Division and his three (3) men, we are presenting to you for your custody and control our Japanese captive Ryoichi Higa. The original of his affidavit and the wallet taken from his possession are herewith submitted to you.

(Sgd) F. M. SERRANO
Assistant Executive Officer

CERTIFIED TRUE COPY:

[Sgd.] FILOMENO GAGALAC

[p. 2]

EXHIBIT “D-2”



GAGALAC GUERRILLA UNIT
SINISIAN HEADQUARTERS

16 Feb. 1945
SUBJECT

TO
: Custody of a Japanese Prisoner of War

: The Mayor of Calaca
In accordance with the Articles of War and as required by the conditions of the times, we beg to request that a Japanese prisoner of war now actually in the custody of the Teniente del Barrio of Camastilisan3, be placed in our custody for military reasons. You are assured that the prisoner will be accorded the treatment required by the rules of International Law.

(Sgd) F. M. SERRANO
Assistant Executive Officer

CERTIFIED TRUE COPY:

[Sgd.] FILOMENO GAGALAC



[p. 3]

EXHIBIT “D-3”



GAGALAC GUERRILLA UNIT
SINISIAN HEADQUARTERS

16 Feb. 1945
SUBJECT

TO
: Japanese Captive

: Major Antonio Encarnacion
After a conference of the Members of our Staff, we have decided much to our regret, to keep indefinite custody of the prisoner of war pending the arrival of our Regimental Commander. This is upon the ground that as the prisoner of war surrendered within our territorial jurisdiction, we have the legal right of custody over him. Details of his ultimate presentation to Nasugbu Headquarters may be arranged jointly between us.

(Sgd) F. M. SERRANO
Assistant Executive Officer

CERTIFIED TRUE COPY:

[Sgd.] FILOMENO GAGALAC

[p. 4]

EXHIBIT “D-4”




GAGALAC GUERRILLA UNIT
SINISIAN HEADQUARTERS

16 Feb. 1945
SUBJECT

TO
: Re: Japanese Captive

: Capt. Antonio Comia
This is to inform you that we have in our custody a Japanese captive. As per instruction, if Col Gagalac is still there, inform him about this and try to get information as to whether we can trade this captive with arms whether directly or indirectly. Before surrendering this captive to the Americans, please try to see to it that we can trade said captive with arms.
So, then, I refer this matter for your prompt attention.

CAPT. LEOPOLDO LOVINA

CERTIFIED TRUE COPY:

[Sgd.] FILOMENO GAGALAC



[p. 5]

[Note: In the original document, this page was sequenced ahead of all the documents above. For better grasp of the context of all these transcribed documents, Batangas History has decided to place this last in the sequence.]

EXHIBIT “D”
(Translation)

AFFIDAVIT OF RYOICHI HIGA

Q – What is your name?
A – Ryoichi Higa.
Q – What is your age?
A – Thirty-five years old.
Q – Where have you been captured?
A – Camatsilihan4, Calaca.
Q – What time did you surrender?
A – Three o’clock P.M., Feb. 15, 1945.
Q – Who were your companions when you surrendered?
A – Four of them.
Q – Who were they?
A – Myo Ra, Corporal; Aiga Ras, 1st Pvt; Kua Jala, 1st Class Pvt; and Yajuchi, Pvt.
Q – Why did they not surrender?
A – They did not like to surrender.
Q – Where did they go?
A – They went thru the beach to the eastern direction.
Q – How long have you been here in the P.I.?
A – About ten years.
Q – What was your first occupation when you arrived in the Philippines?
A – Fisherman for the first five years in Echague St., San Miguel, Manila and for the remaining five years as salesman in San Jose Bazar, San Jose, Nueva Ecija.
Q – What is your present occupation when you surrendered?
A – Army interpreter.
Q – How long have you been an army interpreter?
A – Since December, 1944.
Q – In what places have you been as army interpreter?
A – I was first with Capt. Nakamura near Tagaytay Hotel, then to Aga, Nasugbu and from there to the place of my surrender.
Q – What is the estimate of the number of soldiers you had been going with?
A – From fifty to one hundred. About thirty of them were killed at Aga, Nasugbu, and the rest dispersed.
Q – Did you surrender voluntarily and with the knowledge of your companions?
A – Voluntarily and without their knowledge.
Q – What is your status?
A – Married to a Filipina with one child now residing at Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija.
Q – Showing you this picture, identify the persons therein.
A – The one on the left is me, the one in the middle is my wife with my child and the one on the right is my mother-in-law.
Q – Names of your wife and mother-in-law?
A – Conchita Arroceria and Maria Vda. de Zamora.
Q – When were you married to her?
A – About November, 1939.
Q – Why did you put on civilian clothes?
A – Because my uniform was already out of commission.
Q – Have you not been sent by the soldiers on any espionage activity?
A – No sir.
Q – What have the soldiers been doing before your surrender?
A – They had been hiding and sleeping at daytime in the forest and moving out at nighttime, afraid of both civilians and guerrillas.

[p. 6]

Q – Do you know if there are any Japanese still loitering somewhere in Jimalas, Balayan?
A – None, sir, as far as I know.

Note:

There have been found in his possession the following:

One wallet; Japanese bills (₱10.80); two family pictures and according to his statement, one hand grenade delivered to Major Antonio Encarnacion intended for self-destruction as per instruction of the soldier in the event of defeat.

I hereby certify that the foregoing statements are correct on guarantee of my life.

(Sgd) RYO ICHI HIGA



F. M. SERRANO
Assistant Executive Officer

CERTIFIED TRUE COPY:

[Sgd.] FILOMENO GAGALAC

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Notes and references:
1 File Number 278, United States National Archives, downloaded from page Gagalac Guerrilla Unit, Philippine Veteran Association Office.
2 Sinisian is a barrio of “Lemery, Batangas,” later divided into East and West. Wikipedia.
3 Camastilisan is a barrio of “Calaca, Batangas,” Wikipedia.
4 A variant of Camastilisan.

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