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December 31, 2017

Revision Report on the Maculot Battalion, December 1947

The Fil-American Irregular Troops (FAIT) was a large guerrilla organization formed by the retired American officer Hugh Straughn. It had many units operating around Luzon, including Batangas. Among this was the Maculot Battalion which operated in the town of Cuenca, Batangas. The unit was among those that were officially recognized as elements of the Philippine Army in the service of the Armed Forces of the United States in the Western Pacific during World War II. In this document1, one Lt. Kenneth Neubauer filed an investigative report on the Maculot Battalion after the latter had submitted a petition for the revision of its dates of official recognition by the United States Army.

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REVISION REPORT

Maculot Battalion

6 December 1947

1. 1st Lt Kenneth H. Neubauer, on 6 December 1947, investigated the unit file of the Maculot Battalion, to determine whether or not the present recognition date of this unit should be revised. The Maculot Battalion was recognized by letter, Headquarters PHILRYCOM, dated 6 January 1948 [likely 1946] for the period 4 March 1945 to 26 Sept 1945.

2. FACTUAL HISTORY:

a. The subject unit was originally organized by Pedro Pasia and Amado Masilungan as the San Jose, Batangas Guerrillas. Pedro Pasia’s detachment of the unit was organized at Cuenca, Batangas, while that of Masilungan was organized at San Jose, Batangas. The organization was initially associated with Straughn’s FAIT. After the death of Straughn, the unit was attached to the PQOG. Relations were broken with the PQOG as a result of the boundary dispute and, thereafter, the organization operated independently. In 1943, Pasia and Masilungan separated. Pasia renamed his group the Maculot Regiment while Masilungan’s unit retained the name San Jose, Batangas Guerrillas. Though two distinct organizations existed, Pasia remained as the overall commander of both. After the liberation, Pasia was persuaded to join Folsom’s Fil-American Guerrillas for the purpose of expediting recognition of the Maculot Regiment. It was reorganized under the Folsom banner to conform to a T/O and was designated the 5th Bn, 1st Regiment, Folsom’s Fil-American Guerrillas. Re-investigation of the Folsom organization has resulted in the revocation of the 5th Bn, 1st Regiment, Folsom’s Fil-American Guerrillas by letter, Headquarters PHILRYCOM dated 6 January 1948. Concurrently, a reinstatement of recognition for two rifle companies and an Hq and Hq Company was made by the foregoing letter. These units were redesignated as the Maculot Battalion.

b. Occupation activities claimed by the subject unit are:

(1) Maintenance of peace and order.
(2) Dissemination of news and propaganda.
(3) Recruiting and training.
(4) Bolstering the morale of the civilian population.
(5) Giving advance notice of approaching Japanese to inhabitants of nearby barrios.
(6) Informing the people to hide their livestock and food to prevent confiscation by the Japanese.
(7) Intelligence.

3. FINDINGS:
a. Prior to this investigation, the undersigned had previously spent three weeks investigating Folsom’s Fil-American Guerrillas which included

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members of the Maculot Battalion. A field investigation for the present report was not deemed necessary.

b. The occupation activities of the Maculot Battalion are insufficient to warrant revision of the present recognition period. All activities in paragraph 2b, above, were passive in nature and of no value to the prosecution of the war against the Japanese. During the time, the unit was associated with Straughn’s FAIT, it implicitly obeyed Straughn’s “lay-low” orders. There is no evidence that the unit actively resisted the enemy during the occupation period. Indication of poor control and [a] loosely organized structure of the Maculot Battalion is evidenced by the status of some members who were individually attached to and recognized with other guerrilla units, e.g., the 2nd Moreno Battalion.

c. The unit possesses no supporting evidence to substantiate its claim of intelligence activity.

d. The main effort of the unit CO was directed toward associating his group with any guerrilla organization which would be of advantage to him. This is proven by the unit’s original association with Straughn; then with the PQOG, and finally with Folsom’s Fil-American Guerrillas. More effort was expended by Pasia in an attempt to gain personal prestige as a guerrilla leader than in combating the enemy. The unit history clearly indicates that any resistance put forth by this organization was passive in nature during the occupation period.

e. The period for which the unit has been recognized for liberation activity constitutes the only period during which the unit fulfilled the five basic requirements for guerrilla recognition.

f. No useful purpose will be accomplished by further investigation of this unit.

g. The 62 recognized casualties of the 5th Battalion, 1st Regiment, Folsom’s Fil-American Guerrillas, have been redesignated as those of the Maculot Battalion. It is recommended that no additional casualties of this unit be favorably considered for recognition.

4. POLITICAL ASPECTS:

The commanding officer of this unit, Mr. Pedro Pasia, has been recently elected Mayor of Cuenca, Batangas. It is believed that his candidacy was supported by former members of his guerrilla organization.

5. RECOMMENDATION:

It is recommended that the Maculot Battalion be not favorably considered for revision of its present dates of recognition.

[Sgd.] KENNETH H. NEUBAUER
1st Lt, CAC


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Notes and references:

1 MACULOT BATTALION FAIT, File No. 110-67, downloaded from PVAO.

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