Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the barrio of Panhulan in the town of Agoncillo, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible.
Barrio of Panhulan
Municipality of Agoncillo
Province of Batangas
DIVISION OF BATANGAS
DISTRICT OF LEMERY
HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF THE BARRIO
PART I: HISTORY
1. Present name of the barrio – PANHULAN
2. Popular name of the barrio, present and past, derivation and meaning of these names. Names of sitios included within the territorial jurisdiction of the barrio:
Past name: Panhulan
Many years ago when the Philippines was under the Spanish regime, our barrio did not have a name.
One day, a member of the family heard a man named Epe who was a good fortuneteller. The members of the family wanted to know their fortunes. On their way to Epe’s house, they met Spanish soldiers asking for the name of the barrio. A woman’s answer was, “Going to Pahulaan,” meaning they were going to the fortuneteller with the thought that they were asked as to where they were going. Since that time, the Spaniards called the barrio Pahulaan. Later, the people in the village changed the name from Pahulaan to Panhulan. This place is quite big for it is bounded by Panhulan West, Panhulan East, Panhulan North, and Adya as it is called now.
3. Date of establishment:
It was established in the year 1865 with the agreement of the people of the barrio.
4. Original families:
In this place, there were few houses comprising but few families. They were the families of Andales Mendoza, Lorenzo Cabello, Andres Encarnacion, Liberato Mendoza, and Felino Catena. They were all relatives and were neighbors. They lived in small huts made of cogon and bamboos. These people were industrious for they had their kaingin where they planted crops to support their living. As days passed, the neighboring settlements grew and prospered. Families multiplied and more houses were built.
5. List of tenientes from the earliest time to date:
During the Spanish time, the ruler in a certain barrio was called the teniente and they were the ones responsible in every undertaking they had. The teniente during that time was Manuel Encarnacion. Later, on, this man died and his son, Jose Encarnacion, was appointed by the people to do the duties of his father.
During the American regime up to the present, the tenientes were Alejo Solis, Juan del Mundo, Demetrio del Mundo, Bernabe Ortiz, Juan Brotonel and Gregorio Brotonel.
6. Story of old barrios or sitios within the jurisdiction that are now depopulated and extinct:
Luckily enough that there are many inhabitants living in some parts of this place. Other parts of the land are cleared and planted with rice, corn and other crops.
7. Date on historical sites, structures, buildings, old ruins, etc.
It was in the year 1868 when some of the Spaniards were very cruel; as such, the people found hardship in their livelihood. Some houses of the people were burned and destroyed by the Spaniards. The chapel where the teacher taught the students was also burned. The sugar mill was also destroyed so the people found hardship in their work. That was one of the means where they could get a little amount of money to support their living. In the year 1911, Taal Volcano erupted. Properties and some houses of the people were burned because of the explosion of hot ashes and fire broke out.
8. Important facts, incidents, or events that took place:
(a) During the Spanish occupation, the people of this barrio had hard means of living. The natives were employed in the kaingin system. They cut down trees, cleared the land, and planted rice and other crops. In a limited way, they used rotation of crops to suit the seasons. During that time, the Spaniards treated the people harshly. For this, the people made several uprisings against the Spanish tyranny.
(b) During the American regime, there was a great manifestation in view of the administration because in the democratic form of government, sovereignty resides in the people; they are free from expressing what they want provided it is not contrary to law. They have [been] given the freedom of speech, freedom of press and freedom of religion.
It was in the year 1902 when the agricultural policy was clearly set forth. The people during the American occupation were in good health. They did not find hardship in their daily lives. They had good means of transportation and easy means of living. They were very skillful and law-abiding citizens of the community.
9. In the year 1941, there was another World War. It was the Japanese Occupation. People usually went to the mountains to evacuate. It was the beginning of hardship of all people in every locality. The Japanese were cruel to the people. Days elapsed and years passed by, but it was the memorable date to every Filipino citizen – the fall of Bataan which was in the year 1942. The month of April will always be remembered and linked with the fall of Bataan. The records will tell the unforgettable event of April, 1942.
10. After years of hard struggle and painstaking labor came the momentous yet sorrowful days of our barrio mates because they encountered much difficulties with the Japanese in September, 1944. The barrio lieutenant during that time was Mr. Demetrio del Mundo. He was not able to have an attempt to help his barrio mates because he was sick by that time then. It was that time when all adult inhabitants of the barrio were summoned by the Japanese officers to appear before them at Pansipit Hotel as they were suspected of being guerrillas. Most of them, if not all, were brutally punished. The liberation of our locality by the American liberating forces was acclaimed by the people with great joy. The remnants of the Japanese forces who fled to the hills were pursued by our men who really were guerrillas.
PART II: FOLKWAYS.
11. Traditions, customs, and practices in domestic and social life:
Concerning birth, when a mother is ready to deliver a baby, the husband is not permitted to stay in the house. After the delivery, both parents of the couple choose the godmother or godfather of the child. They don’t just give a name of the child without referring to the calendar.
If there is one who is dead in the family, they will not sweep the surroundings of the house or clean it until the fourth day. The deceased is brought to [the] town of Lemery wrapped with a blanket or mat or placed in a coffin. The dead of a poor family is buried in the ground without cement unlike what some people do who could afford to do so are now practicing.
If a man courts a young lady and makes his visits, he takes off his hat as he enters the gate. As he enters the house, he shows his respect by saying the term “Mano po” as he kneels down on the floor. He would not stay inside the house but just sit flat at the entrance of the door with his legs crossed. He could not express his love to the girl for they are far from each other and watched. Sometimes, they are married because both parents have agreed upon their marriage.
12. Superstitions and beliefs:
(b) If one sings in front of the stove while cooking, he will be married to a widow.
(c) If the owl hoots early in the morning, it is a good day for the farmers to plant crops.
(d) If one leaves the house when somebody is still eating, he will meet an accident. To avoid this, the plate should be turned clockwise before leaving.
(e) If there is a crow crowing near the house, people believe that a close relative will die.
(f) If a cock crows and a hen cackles together at midnight, there is a lady who will elope.
13. Games and amusements:
During the Spanish regime, there were few games and amusements that made the people happy. There were only cockfighting and “pata.” The Spaniards also played with the natives in all the games they played.
(b) The vine was moved and the monkeys were all frightened.
(c) An insect roams but has no head.
(d) A house of a prince that can’t be closed after it is opened.
(e) A hanging fruit that looks like a ball with some nails.
(f) It walks without pupping and runs without feet.
(g) There is [a] head without hair and a stomach without a navel.
Proverbs and sayings:
b. Speaking softly soothes the heart.
c. It is easy to become a man, it is difficult to behave as one.
d. No diligence to save, no restraint to waste.
e. If you wish to improve yourself, take the initiative.
f. Better a glutton than a thief.
g. Repentance always comes after.
h. The rich man’s purse is always short. The more we have, the more we want.
i. Speed and valor are life’s armor.
j. To a man of honor, his word is a pledge.
k. Value your honor as you value your life.
l. He who does not retract the past will never arrive at his destination.
m. The lazy fellow is always in want. Sloth breeds poverty.
Methods of figuring time:
During the Spanish regime, people could determine the time without a clock. They used the following methods in telling time:
b. When the sun is overhead, it is twelve o’clock noon.
c. When the voices of the crickets are heard in the afternoon, it is six o’clock.
(MRS.) CRESENCIA G. BROTONEL
(MISS) JUANA SOLIS