Bauan, Batangas: Historical Data Part II - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore Bauan, Batangas: Historical Data Part II - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore

Bauan, Batangas: Historical Data Part II

Historical Data graphic
Historical data from the National Library of the Philippines.




[p. 19]

people need very badly. The people approached Angalo and told him that they had no salt. They wanted to go to the other side of the sea to get salt.

“Please help us,” said the people of the village. “We want to get salt from our neighboring village on the other side of the sea.”

“It is easy,” said Angalo, “come here.” The people went to the seashore.

Angalo stretched his leg on the top of the mountain on the other side of the sea.

“Here is my leg,” said Angalo, “you can make this as your bridge in going to the other side of the sea.”

“Thank you Angalo,” said the people.

“Now, you can bring sacks with you where you can put the salt,” said Angalo.

The people were very happy. They brought with them sacks and crossed the sea by using the leg of Angalo as the bridge.

When they filled their sacks with salt, they started for home. When they were in the midst of the sea, an ant bit the foot of Angalo. Angalo moved his leg and all the people with their sacks of salt fell into the sea.

From that time on, the sea became salty.

Reported by:

B. Legends of Different Plants
A. Legend of the Coconut

In a town near Lake Laguna, there lived a beautiful maiden. One day, she met a young stranger with whom she immediately fell in love. Her mother disapproved of this man and forbade a meeting with him.

In his frantic effort to see her, he sought a magician. The magician turned him into an eel. One day, a high flood occurred. The eel squirmed its way to the maiden’s window. Luckily, the maiden was there.

The eel spoke, “I am your lover. If you still love me, bury me in your garden as soon as the water subsides.”

When the flood ebbed, the maiden buried the eel in the garden. A strange looking plant grew from the marked spot. It became very tall and bore a round fruit called coconut.

[p. 20]

If the husk of the coconut is removed, one may see the traces of a man’s face: two dark spots for the eyes and one lower spot for the mouth. Those are the lover’s.

B. The Legend of the Duhat

Long before the Philippine Islands were discovered by the Spaniards, a group of dark people inhabited one of her forests. These people had a ruler, named Duhat, who was loved for his kindness, strength and intelligence.

Notwithstanding all these qualities, some of his men disliked him and finally shot him to death. Before he died, his blood spilled on a plant that bore many fruits in clusters. By a trick of nature, the red fruits turned dark violet. Henceforth, people called this fruit duhat in memory of the ruler, Duhat.

C. The Legend of the Pineapple

Aling Rosa, a widow, had a daughter named Pinang. Pinang was very lazy. One day, Aling Rosa became sick; she asked Pinang to boil some rice for her. When Pinang gave her mother some boiled rice, Aling Rosa refused to eat it, for it had a bad taste. She told Pinang to fetch a ladle and stir the rice.

Pinang could not find the ladle. The mother called out, “Oh, how I wish your eyes would multiply so that you could see the ladle quickly.”

One morning, Pinang disappeared. When Aling Rosa became well again, she saw a little green plant growing under the house. She transplanted it into the garden. When it grew big, it bore a fruit with a thousand eyes. She called it “piña” which later became pinya.

D. The Legend of the Makopa

At the foot of a mountain, there thrived a little village. It boasted of an uncommon golden bell with a mellow sound. When it rang, people would leave their work and go to church smilingly and proudly.

This previous thing, however, did not last long, for people heard of a band of thieves who wanted to secure it for themselves. The priest and his sacristans buried it under the ground. When the thieves came, they could not find the bell. Wrathful, they hacked down all the churchmen and left the town.

Years passed and the people mourned the disappearance of the bell. One day, a little plant grew near the church. When it grew big, it bore a rosy fruit, shaped like a bell. The villagers called it makopa.


[P. 21]

C. The Origin of the Hawk

Once upon a time, there was a father who told his son to watch the fields and not go home until the palay was ripened. He also commanded his daughter to take food to the boy every day. But on her way, the daughter always ate the food intended for the boy.

The boy, whose task it was to drive away birds from the fields, became thin and pale. One day, he told his sister to bring him some feathers, if she came the next time. The following day, the sister came with a bundle of feathers. The boy got the feathers and strung them all over his body. Afterwards, he tried to fly. When he spread his arm, the feathers grew. He had turned into a hawk. The hawk eats chickens today.

Why the Moon has a Dim Light

It is said that when the world was first made, the sun and moon had the same powers. People had no rest at all for there was no light. They worked continuously without sleeping due to the fact that when the sun set, the moon rose.

One day, the sun took pity upon the people. They did not have any rest at all. So, he thought of a plan. He got together a kilo of lime and put this on a leaf. On his way down, he met the moon. He told the moon to blow on the leaf. Not knowing that the lime would harm him, the moon blew the lime. It spread all over his body. The black spot in the middle of the moon was the lime. The lime burned a big portion. Now, the people have night to rest and sleep. During the daytime, they have a bright light by which to work.

The Origin of Birds and Insects

Many years ago in a town, there was a mountain. On its summit was a lake. It is said that many centuries ago, the stars used to come down from the sky to take a bath in this lake.

One day, a very beautiful girl went to the shore of this lake with a jar to fetch some water. While she was getting the water, she saw many stars playing on the surface of the water. She jumped to catch one of them but they were not stars. They were handsome men.

They took her by the arm and asked her which of them she would have for her husband. The girl refused all of them. So, the people asked each other what they should do to her. They asked her again and again but still she refused to answer.

So, the men divided her into two equal parts. One half of her body they changed into insects. The other half, they changed into birds.

[p. 22]

The Origin of the Holy Cross

Long ago in a barrio of Bauan which is now Alitagtag, there lived a couple. Alitagtag was still covered with a thick forest. The couple planned to build a house and they cut down trees from the forest. One of the trees cut was snubbish [context unclear]. Luckily, this wood was not used in making the house proper, the kitchen near the batalan. The man thought that it was proper to make into a cross which he put in a haunted place nearby. Not far from this haunted place was a house owned by another couple. The man was a gambler and often went home at midnight. Usually, the woman was already fast asleep having worked so hard the whole day. The man usually kicked and nagged the wife asking her to prepare his supper. After this, the woman got her jar and fetched some water from “Dingin,” a faraway place. The woman walked through a rugged path. She used to stop by the haunted place and prayed before the cross.

One night, she was surprised to see that water flowed from the cross. She filled her jar and after her prayer, she went home. The man wondered why it was too quick for her to get water unlike the previous night. He suspected his wife. One night, he followed his wife secretly to find out what the matter was. He saw how the water flowed from the cross while the woman prayed. He realized the mistake that he made and repented. Since then, he treated his wife dearly and lived happily thereafter.

How the Tamarind Got Its Name

During the early part of the Spanish rule in the Islands, few people, if not all, could hardly understand the Castilian language. In view of this fact, many natives suffered humiliation and maltreatment.

One day, a squad of Spanish soldiers were sent out into a faraway village to look for a runaway convict. They traveled far but in vain. They became so very hungry that they were forced to take a rest under a tree bearing a fruit. To relieve their hunger, they gathered some fruits of the tree which was unknown to them. They were wondering about the unknown fruits they were eating until they saw a villager passing by. They called him to come near them. They asked him the name of the fruit. The man did not talk at all for he did not understand their language. They asked him for several times the same question. Of course, the man kept silent, not knowing a word of the soldiers’. Out of patience, they slapped the man, and with pity, they offered him to eat some of the fruit with them. The man became angry with them and shouted in his native tongue, “sampal bago alok,” meaning slapped and then offered. The soldiers overheard those words. They shouted in surprise, “Oh, it’s sampalok.” Ever since, they have been calling the fruit and the tree “sampalok.” This has been transmitted from generation to generation to the present.

[p. 23]


Have you ever see a cat wash its face? Does it have some connection with what will happen, or if a thing happens after a cat washes its face, is it merely a coincidence? Here is a short explanation in the way that cat washes its face and what it means to us.

I have a grown up male cat at home which I have observed to wash his face. He washes his face sometimes in the morning or at noon. He wets one of his front paws with his saliva and rubs his face round and round. He does this until I suppose his face is thoroughly washed in his own way. Then, he rubs his breast and other parts of his body within the reach of his tongue. This is the way I call the cat washes his face. But to me, more than that as I have observed my cat several times. Here is an incident that makes me believe that the washing of the face foretells some events.

One day, mother and I were preparing our noon meal in the kitchen, our cat happened to be at the doorway washing his face. Mother, upon seeing the cat, remarked that we would have a visitor. I told her that it was a nonsense idea. She remarked that the cat really washes its face. Mother told me to wait and see what will be coming. To our great surprise, a visitor came just after our meal. This incident happened several times. To us, then the washing of the face by the cat especially by the doorway is a sure sign that a visitor, relative or friend, is coming soon.

The Hen’s Noise at Dawn

Can hen and dog see the holy spirit of persons about to die? When hens make strange noises at dawn, does it mean the death of our kinsmen far away? This happening is very fresh in my memory which has [a] bearing on the old beliefs of our folks that men being mortals, their deaths are foretold by some visible signs to animals and fowls, as dog and chicken. This is a true occurrence that took place a month ago at home.

One early morning at about five-thirty of December 17 and 18, 1951, I was awakened by the strange noises of the hen, from the night abode on branches of the coffee and avocado trees. Jumped up from my bed, opened the window and drove the chickens away. The hens were joined by the rooster and by the small chickens as if they were frightened. I flashed my light to find out if our cat was hanging around or some other cannibals were present. There was none. They soon stopped after all the chickens were driven away. This happened two times, but I did not take it to mean something, for I never believe in ghosts or spirits till I see one.

About a week after, I received a message telling of the death of my first cousin who died on Dec. 17 at about 9:35 and the burial took place on the following day. I, then, concluded that the strange noises made by the chickens were a sign of a dying close relative far away. Our old folks have the same notion towards the noise made by the hens in the morning and the howling of the dogs in the evening. Such occurrences I never [word not scanned]


in my life.

The Magic Book

During the early part of the nineteenth century, Alitagtag was still a barrio of Bauan. A great part of Alitagtag was still covered with forest. In the place where the Holy Cross was found, a church and a big convent stood. There stood the building and a little nipa hut in a nearby farm. The other inhabitants of the barrio lived in scattered places where the town is now located.

In the big convent, there lived a group of missionary priests, the Jesuits headed by Father Faura. The Jesuit fathers since the beginning were known for their high intelligence.

Father Faura was not only intelligent but was famous for wonderful things he possessed. He had a big book which possessed magic charm.

One day, his chief sacristan Bonifacio Manalo entered his room for curiosity’s sake. He looked around turning and touching queer things. His attention was focused on a big book on the table. He opened the big book. But, alas, he suddenly rose until he reached the roof of the convent, his head banging against the roof. In utter fear, he quickly closed the book and he fell on the floor. He never ventured to open the book again. He concealed his acts until his death.


13. Traditions, Customs, and Practices in Domestic and Social Life

Birth: When a child is to be born, the expectant mother makes some preparations for the young. The preparation consists primarily of the infant’s wear, first aid medicine, subsistence of the expectant mother. The type of preparation depends upon the economic and social stability of the parents, but even indigent parents prepare for the coming of the infant. In the early days when a child is to be born, the mother is attended by the unlicensed midwife of “hilot” as she is called, assisted by friends or relatives who blow continuously through the encircled fingers of one hand to the head of the mother to hasten delivery. When the child is safely delivered, it is bathed in lukewarm water where coins are placed. They believe that by doing so, when the child grows up, it will not be wanting. The placenta is placed in a coconut shell. With it is a threaded needle and a piece of newspaper or a leaflet if the child happens to be a girl so that she would be a good housewife. If the child happens to be a boy, the threaded needle is absent but instead is a pencil and paper to make him a leader in the future. In both cases, the coconut shell is then buried at the foot of the stairs. When the core drops out, it is placed together

[p. 25]

with other cores of the family so that unity and peace will reign in the family circle. Every afternoon, during the mother’s confinement, she is asked to stand stride over a very hot stone with her body well-covered to prevent draft. The stone is made cooler and cooler by sprinkling water on it. After the hot bath, she will be offered a sort of substantial food that the family can afford. They say that will enable the mother to keep her body strong and maintain her nice complexion. This practice is losing its foothold now especially among the learned. Some deliver now in the maternity houses, puericulture centers, hospitals, or lease a licensed midwife or doctor to attend to them. During the mother’s confinement, the parents find means to let her taste all kinds of food that they can find to prevent relapse. She is also asked to swallow a very small portion of the placenta with [a] little wine. She is asked to close her eyes while swallowing it. The idea is to prevent relapse also. This is practiced by those delivering the primitive way.

Baptism: When a babe is to be baptized, if it happens to be a first child, the parents of the young couple are given the privilege to select the sponsor. The naming is patterned from the names suggested in the calendar the day the child was born. Nowadays, the parents select the name they wish to give their child. The lucky sponsor offers gifts to the godchild. It may be a suit for the occasion, money, food for the celebration and payment for the church services. All of these mentioned may be offered or any of them or even not one as the case may be. The christening party is a cause of rejoicing among the majority.

Courtship: When a young man desires to marry a young woman, he may either win the woman himself by going to the maiden’s house at night to express his mission. He sometimes serenades her. Sometimes, the parents of the man makes arrangements with the marriage proposal. Before, the bride and groom married without their mutual consent. This was true to those whose parents only arranged the marriage for them. Before the marriage took place, the parties concerned talked about the dowry and the wedding. When the parties concerned did not agree, the marriage was stopped or postponed. What was very lamentable in the courtship was that the groom sometimes had been serving for two or three years and he would be ordered dismissed for a very minute mistake or lack. Sometimes, it was caused by a failure to greet to whom courtesy was due or inability to perform a certain task assigned to him, etc. When the man fortunately passed the trials given him, he would be asked to advise his elders for a compromise.

Marriage: The parties arranged the marriage. They talked about the dowry and the kind of wedding. The dowry went to the parents of the girl who could dispose of it in the way that best pleased them. When the parents of the girl are well-off, they give an equal amount of dowry and gave all to the new couple. This dowry will then be the first asset of the new couple. The groom’s parents finance the marriage expenditures like [the] clothing of the bride, food, and the church service. The marriage ceremony is administered by the priest or by the justice of the peace. On the eve of the marriage, there is a dinner at the home of the girl. If the groom can afford many

[p. 26]

guests are invited, but if financially unable, only the near relatives are invited. The wedding feast ends in the giving of gifts by the relatives and those who so desired to the new couple. The bride and groom sit side by side at the table with a plate in front of each. The gift, which is generally in the form of money, is placed on the plate. Those who gave because of the woman placed theirs in the groom’s plate and vice-versa. When they are through, the money is counted by the sponsors they [word not scanned] money in the handkerchief is given to the husband, who in turn gives it to the wife as their first earning. Then, the woman leaves her home for the house of the man accompanied by the man’s people. He follows her on the next day. The stay of the husband in the wife’s home after the wedding is becoming obsolete. Some follow immediately, others leave together with the wife.

Deaths: Death services differed according to the social and economic condition of the dead. The higher or the nobles had their funerals with much expenses, others had simple. Only what was rather uniform was the mode of mourning. The relatives wore black for a period of one year as a sign of respect to their dead. When the dead was below seven years of age, the kin did not wear black costume for they considered it a sin to mourn for the innocent. There was one custom here that is now fading. Though how poor the parents of the dead may be, that he even died due to the lack of treatment, still the parents could find means to finance the party at the fourth day in case of those below seven and at the ninth day for those more than seven. The mourning ended with a party. This party is at times more splendid that that of the ninth day’s if the dead happened to die of an infectious disease, especially tuberculosis.

Festivals: There are many causes for feasting. There are town fiestas, church, state and district fiestas. Of all the fiestas, the town fiesta is celebrated with the greatest pomp. This is celebrated yearly. Before the day comes, they do some preparations; like cleaning the house and surroundings, decorating, and deciding as to what food they will have for the day. Every home in the poblacion and in the barrios comprising the town is happy.

Punishment: Punishments are inflicted to the wrong-doers. Of course, if it happened to be [a] public offense, he is punishable by the authorities according to law. What is meant here are those minor offenses. Before, when a school child committed a sin, he was inflicted with corporal punishment by the teacher without any civil liability, but since the issuance of the civil service regulation which prohibits the teacher from inflicting any corporal punishment except on the basis of loco parentis. Inflicting of corporal punishments in the public schools had been greatly reduced to the minimum if not entirely eradicated. Parents punished their children by having them lie down with a stick giving him three, or six or twelve or twenty-five strikes according to the offense commnitted.

Reported by: (MRS.) JULIANA B. TORRES

[p. 27]

Traditions, Customs, & Practices in Domestic and Social Life, Birth, Baptism, Courtship, Marriage, Death, Burial, Festivals, Punishments, etc.
A. Birth

1. The baby’s umbilical cord must be hidden very well for if the rat steals it, the child becomes a thief when he grows up.

2. For a newlywed couple, their first child must be born in the wife’s former home.

3. When a newly-born babe is bathed, the parents put silver coins in the water used for bathing so he will have a prosperous future.

B. Baptism

1. Do not let the baby’s christening cap drop during the ceremony or else the baby will have a short span of life.

2. After the christening ceremony, do not be the last to leave the church or else the child will be the last in any future activity.

3. The sponsor must blow on the baby’s head so the child may have his temperament.

C. Courtship

1. Never give your lady as gifts any religious articles as you will surely break your engagement.

2. Ladies must not sing before the stove while cooking or else she will marry a widower.


1. To throw rice at the newlyweds for prosperity.

2. The “sabugan” ceremony where the bride and the bridegroom sit opposite each other with a table between them. On the table in front of each of the newlyweds are two plates. The family of the man puts money on the bride’s plate which is in front of her. Likewise, the bride’s family and relatives place money on the bridegroom’s plate. Both families try to surpass each other by filling the contents of its [each?] plate. Then the money is counted and wrapped in the handkerchief. The husband hands the money to the bride for safekeeping. On this money usually starts their married life.

3. When the bride goes to the new-in-laws’ home, she is given sweets by the door so their relation will always be sweet.

[p. 28]

4. During the ring ceremony, the bride usually presses the bridegroom’s hand so she can have her way most of the time.

5. The bride after the ceremony stands first and presses the groom’s shoulder down so he would be under her domination.

Death and Burial

1. Do not sweep when there is a dead person in the house.

2. Vegetables are not eaten during the 9 days of mourning as other members may follow immediately.

3. Plates aren’t placed one on top of another during mourning as a member [of the family] might follow soon.

4. To throw a handful of soil on the coffin while being lowered [into the grave] so the deceased may rest in peace.

5. If the deceased’s eyes are open, it means he is waiting for someone to come and visit his wake.

6. If the body is soft and not rigid in death, another will follow soon.

7. When you drop the deceased’s blanket over a person afraid of the soul, his fear will vanish.


1. To have 9 days novena for the patron saint.

2. To decorate the home, feed persons that arrive at fiesta time, and to attend processions.


1. Kneeling on corn, mongo, and peas with arms outstretched.

2. Hanging of criminals in the public plaza.

3. Whipping of a barrio folk who did not bring one adobe stone to build the local church.

4. Pinching, pulling of the ears, and whipping of naughty children.

5. Working in the house of the cabeza with no compensation.

[p. 29]

Traditions, customs, and practices in domestic and social life, birth, baptism, courtship, marriage, burial, festival, punishments, etc.

D. Marriage:

Gifts of Good Luck. The sprinkling of rice on the newly-married couple seems to be a universal practice. Purposely, it is done to bring fertility to the couple. Rice sprinkling is not practiced only by the wealthiest people but also among the lowliest.

The newly married couple is made to eat sweets at the door and drink.

The prospective bridegroom must render manual service to the girl’s parents if he hopes to take her to the altar. This happens only among poorer members of the population.

The man carries the woman upstairs. The parents of the woman eat with the newly-married couple. The man is left in the woman’s home and follow in the afternoon.


When the deceased is a mother and had left several small children, she will either take her to the other world or haunt them until they fall sick and die also. To prevent this horrible possibility, a custom prevails that before a grave is covered, the surviving children are passed over the open hole. One relative stands to one side. The babies and small children are then transferred one by one from one relative to another.

Or, a surviving child is either dressed in red or wrapped in a red blanket for the same reason.

That when someone dies, all mirrors should be covered, no combing of the hair and no cleaning of the house until the fourth day.

When the dead person comes down the house, it was followed by throwing pots or cans of water. No one from those who go to the interment should turn their backs.

Sometimes, music accompanies the funeral cortege. If the music is lively, the deceased is a child; if mournful, it is an adult that died.

We know that someone dies when the church bell tolls.


People believe that a person gets sick because the spirits were offended and that for that person to get

[p. 30]

well, the spirits have to be appeased by food and prayer.

Tagalogs believe that if a young child suddenly develops fever without any apparent reason, that child had been frightened by something adults cannot see or that a stranger had taken a fancy to the child and wants to take it from its parents. The cure for such [a] situation is known as “Tawas.”

The first rain in May is collected in bottles, is drunk to cure stomach disorder or to make the skin soft and clean.

- - - - - -

This is the so-called atomic age when people live in the modern way by all means, but not one could deny that he or she has to follow some ways and customs that are handed down from generation to generation by our forefathers.

The people of Bauan still preserve these worthwhile customs and practices. During a fiesta, or big social occasion, visitors whether they are known to the family or not are welcome. It is a day when the family table or “dulang” is heavily laden with native delicacies. When a person from another place passes by the house of a friend, the latter feels displeased when the former does not drop in to have some refreshments or partake of the meal offered to all comers. Not only that. Before he goes, when the fiesta is over, he is expected to make a call again and receive some “binalots” (wrapped cakes or viands) and other things which the good friend has in his home.

Have you ever heard the expression “gulay na kahanggan?” When a housewife cooks a chicken or vegetables, her neighbors can always expect to have a share of the dishes cooked by her. This is a custom observed religiously in our town.

The good neighborly spirit of the people is best expressed when death comes to a member of the family. Upon being informed of the demise of a certain person, the neighbors come to the home of the bereaved family, not only to condole with them but also to offer whatever help they are capable of giving. Every person who comes gives some amount (which depends upon his situation in life and relation to the deceased) to the head of the family and expresses sincere words of sympathy. The male neighbors help make the coffin if the services of a funeral parlor are not available Some men play “tresiete” or join in the night vigil previous to the interment.

When a person is sick, most of the neighbors, upon being so informed, come to the house to visit him, encourage

[p. 31]

the other members of the family and suggest remedies. The sorrows or misfortune suffered by one person or family becomes the concern of the whole neighborhood.

Reported by: Mrs. Benita Generoso


1. Hold your tongue and you will avoid gossip.
2. When a man sweeps, there must be dirt.
3. “No smoke without fire.”
4. If a man often washes his hands, it is a sign that they are dirty.
5. To jump from the frying pan into the fire.
6. Level ground may have pitfalls underneath.
7. The earth has ears, and words have wings.
8. You may check the flow of water but you cannot seal a person’s lips.
9. Keep on the sidewalk and you will be safe.
10. Bear your own horn and drag your own tail. Mind your own business.
11. A small leak may sink a great ship. From a tiny spark may come a conflagration.
12. A wound may heal but the scar remains.
13. He who walks slowly gets a shallow wound.
14. The fish is caught in the mouth.
15. Saliva is left on the meat that a dog has bitten.
16. Where there is a forest, there is a snake.
17. Fagots soaked in water when placed in a fire will sooner or later burst into flame.
18. A girl that is sweet and pure, though she is poor, is worthy to be loved.
19. A woman’s honor when stained is like a glass that is broken; it may be pieced together but the cracks remain.
20. He who sows winds will reap storms.
21. To avoid dangers is not cowardice. To do no wrong is not [a] lack of courage.
22. The tongue is not a blade but it can cut a deep wound in a loving heart.
23. Make fun of a drunken man but not one who has just awakened from sleep.
24. Haste makes waste.
25. Wounds by weapon can easily be healed. Words cut deep and are not easily forgotten.
26. See no evil; speak no evil.
27. She scratches her head, for she has lice.
28. He who speaks highly of himself is often short of self-respect.
29. Amidst fine weather, a storm may be brewing.
30. Still waters run deep.
31. When he covered his head, he was already wet.
32. He can see the hole of a needle but not that of an axe.
33. The stone does not come to the snail.
34. Any kind of seed will thrive in a fertile soil.
35. Make hay while the sun shines.
36. You reap what you sow.
37. Dance with the music.

[p. 32]

38. New king, new policy.
39. Marriage cannot be considered a joke; not like hot rice which when taken into the mouth could easily be brought out.
40. What the cut is, so is the shape.
41. Like father, like son.
42. What you were in youth is what you will be when you grow old.
43. A true friend does not forsake one in times of distress.
44. Fortune, that’s yours to be, does come unexpectedly.
45. He who intends to cheat, often cheats himself.
46. Easily won, easily lost.
47. No fence is strong enough to stop a frightened man.
48. Give and take.
49. Hunger is a strong appetizer.
50. Gifts and kind deeds soften even hearts of iron.
51. Wealth may be lost, but family traits never die.
52. The man on guard is the first to attack.
53. Praising a person in his presence but cursing him behind his back.
54. Forethought is better than alertness.
55. What is the use of grass when the horse is already dead?
56. If you have saved something, you will have something to fall back on.
57. No gains without pains.
58. Consumption unsparing, in the future there’s nothing.
59. True courage dares to do right.
60. An honest penny is better than a stolen dollar.
61. Do unto others as you would have others do unto you.
62. Shallow waters make [the] most noise.
63. Iron is destroyed by its own rust.
64. A reminder is a medicine to the forgetful.
65. A santol tree never bears a guava fruit.
66. Patience is the best remedy for every trouble.
67. A good face is a letter of recommendation.
68. Make hay while the sun shines.
69. Bend the tree while young.
70. When industry goes out of the door, poverty comes in at the window.

Reported by:

15. Popular Songs:

Paro-parong bukid
Hating Gabi
Kung Hindi Man
Madaling Araw

16. Puzzles and Riddles:

1. Isang bayabas, pito ang butas. (ulo)

2. Kung araw ay bumbong
Kung gabi ay dahon. (Banig)
3. Isang butil na palay,
Punong-puno ang bahay. (Ilaw)

[p. 33]

4. Mata kong lingus-lingusin
Di ko abot-abutin. (Tainga)
5. Dalawang magkumpare,
Mauna’t mahuli. (Paa)
6. Manok ko sa parang,
Napula ay natapang. (Sili)
7. Isang babaeng may korona
Kahit saan ay may mata. (Pinya)
8. Isang prinsesa
Nakaupo sa tasa. (Kasuy)
9. Baboy ko sa pulo,
Balahibo’y pako. (Nangka)
10. Baboy ko sa kaingin
Nataba’y walang pakain. (Palay)
11. Kurting puso nabibitin,
Pitasin mo’t nakakain. (Mangga)
12. Hindi Linggo’y hindi piyesta,
Lagi nang may bandera. (Dahon ng Saging)
13. Umanak ang birhen
Iniwanan ang lampin. (Puso ng Saging)
14. Tintang puti,
Plumang bakli,
Berdeng papel
Ang sumusulat ay babae. (Babaing ngumanganga)
15. Puno’y kalbang
Sanga’y anus,
Bunga’y gating,
Lama’y lisay [unsure word]. (Papaya)
16. Tubig sa digan-digan
Di mapatakan ng ulan. (Tubig ng niyog)
17. Ako’y nagtanim ng saging,
Sa harap ng Mahal na Virgen. (kandila)
18. Isang pirpir na kahoy,
Magkabila’y may buhol. (Sigarilyo)
19. Bata pa si Pepito,
Maalam na manakbo. (Aso)
20. Isang bias na kawayan
Punong-puno ng kamatayan. (Baril)
21. Wala sa langit,
Wala sa lupa,
Ang dahon ay sariwa. (Dapong-kahoy)

[p. 34]

22. Buhok ng pari,
Hindi mawahi. (Tubig)
23. Saging ko sa Maynila,
Abot dito ang palapa. (Daan)
24. Pag bata’y nagtatapis
Pag tanda’y naglilislis. (Kawayan)
25. Pag bata’y nagbubuntot
Pag tanda’y nagpupugot. (Palaka)
26. Ang inuusong ay buhay,
Ang nag-uusong ay patay. (Balag)
27. Bahay ni Kaka
Hindi matingala. (Noo)
28. Bahay ni Kiko
Punung-puno ng ginto. (Itlog)
29. Hindi pari, hindi hari,
Ang damit ay sari-sari. (Sampayan)
30. Nagtago si Pedro,
Labas pati ulo. (Pako)
31. Ang itaas ay kugunan,
Ang ilalim ay kawayanan. (Bahay)
32. Ang ibabao ay araruhan,
Ang ilalim ay batuhan. (Cacao)
33. Isda ko sa Mariveles,
Nasa ilalim ang kaliskis. (Sili)
34. Isda ko sa Kitaw-kitaw,
Hindi mahuli’t may pataw. (Dila)
35. Dahon ng pinda-pinda,
Magkasing lapad silang dalawa. (Lupa’t langit)
36. Di madangkal, di madipa,
Lima ang nagtatangan sa kanya. (Karayom)
37. Tumitindig walang paa,
Lumuluha’y walang mata. (Kandila)
38. Baka ko sa Maynila,
Abot dito ang unga. (Kulog)
39. Isang libong kalabaw
Iisa ang tagikaw. (Walis)
40. Dalawang tindahan
Sabay buksan. (Mata)

17. Methods of Measuring Time –

[p. 35]

a. Modern:

by clocks, pocket watch, wrist watch, etc.

b. Ancient:

Sundial, hour-glass.

c. Crude:

Watching the position of the sun during the day.
Watching the position of stars at night. –
1. The Great Dipper & the North Star.
2. The Southern Cross
Crowing of the cocks at night toward the morning.

Filipino Authors

Name of Author:Works (Title):Printed or Published:Kind of Works
Higino Atienza:1. Tagumpay ng Mag-aaral:Manuscript:Drama (2 acts play)
:2. Kalbaryo ng Isang Inaanak:Manuscript:Drama (2 acts play)
:3. At - Sa Wakas:         ":Drama
:4. Dalawang Ibong Sawi:Published 1927 in Pagkakaisa:Story
:5. Kwintas na Ginto:Manuscript:Drama (2 acts play)
:6. Sa Bagong Daigdig:Manuscript:      "
:7. N'ZORGA:Manuscript:      "
:8. Sa Paanan ng aking Watawat:Manuscript:      "
:9. Pagbabalik:Manuscript:      "
:10. Pagsikat ng Buan:Manuscript:      "
:11. Ngiti ng Umaga:Manuscript:      "
:12. Nang Ako'y Magbalik:Manuscript:Kundiman (Lyrics by Higino Atienza and music composed by Prof. Angel Montenegro.
Reported by:


[p. 36]


A.Name of Book or Document:Printed or Published:Author
 1.  Sa Dapit Hapon:Published:Alfonso Casapao
 2.  Aklat sa Pagluluto:Published:Maria Orosa
 3.  Historical Data of Bauan:Manuscript:Tomas C. Cuevas
 4.  Luha at Pag-ibig:Manuscript:Jose Bulanhagui
 5.  Labis na Pagmamahal:":  "          "
 6.  Aking Ina:":  "          "
 7.  Sino ang May Sala:":Mauricio Aldovino
 8.  Sa Likod ng Ulag:":    "             "
 9.  Bayan at Pag-ibig:":    "             "
10. Sinubok ng Pagibig:":    "             "
11. Datu sa Pulo:":    "             "
12. Original:":Joaquin Manibo
13. Dalawang Pagmamahal:Published:Dra. Gregoria I. Mayor
B.Creative Poems::
 1.  Pagtatankilikan:Manuscript:Mauricio Aldovino
 2.  Pagtutulungan:":    "             "
 3.  Manggagawa:":    "             "
 4.  Patpat:":Antonio Asilo
 5.  Reverie:Published:Angel Montenegro
 6.  Dahil sa Iyo:":Alfonso Casapao
 7.  Ang Kislap ng Salapi:":    "            "
 8.  Mercedes:":    "            "
 9.  Pook:":    "            "
10. Ang Buhay ng Tao:":    "            "
11. Pook:Manuscript:Jose Bulanhagui
12. Corazon Fortunata:Published:  "            "
13. Huag Mo Kaming Iwan:":  "            "
14. Religious Poem (Tagalog):Manuscript:Miguel Enriquez
15. Ang Ating Kahapon:Published:Dra. Gregoria I. Mayor
16. Ang Bakit Nga Kaya:":          "               "
17. Sa Puntod ng Libing:":          "               "
18. I Can't Forget:Published-PHIDENC:          "               "
19. Your Eyes:         "            ":          "               "
20. Tagalog Poems:Manuscript:Joaquin Manibo
 1.  Babaeng Tapat na Loob sa Asawa:Manuscript:Jose Montenegro
 2.  Malungkot ang Katutuhanan:":  "           "
 3.  Sawing Pag-ibig:":  "           "
 4.  Ang Eleccion:Published:  "           "
D.Musical Composition::
 1.  Hibik ng Ulila:Published:Angel Montenegro
 2.  Paalam sa Iyo Hirang:":    "           "
 3.  Neneng:":    "           "
 4.  Naty:":    "           "

[p. 37]

 1.  Till Death Thou Us Part : Published : Angel Montenegro
 2.  Halina : " : Angel Montenegro
 3.  Ang Religion : " : Jose Montenegro
 4.  Moonlight Manila : " : Angel Montenegro
 5.  Mayabong na Kahoy : Manuscript : D. S. Conti
 6.  Hibik ng Ulila : Published : Angel Montenegro
 7.  Sianing : " : Angel Montenegro
 8.  Ang Tapat na Asawa : " : Angel Montenegro
 9.  Pacing : " : Angel Montenegro
10. Miling : " :     "           "
11. Miss Philippines : " :     "           "

[p. 38]


The District of Bauan, then composed of the municipalities of Bauan and Cuenca, was organized 45 years ago. Later, Cuenca was separated. Alitagtag and Mabini, barrios of Bauan, became municipalities: Alitagtag in 1910; Mabini in 1916. Both became a part of the district. By 1920, Alitagtag had separated, followed by Mabini 26 years after.

The District of Bauan was successively administered by local and imported educational experts as follows:

 1.  Mr. George Bowers-Sup. Teacher-1903-1906
 2.  Mr. S. T. Freet-Sup. Teacher-1906-1907
 3.  Mr. Alva Hill-Sup. Teacher-1907-1908
 4.  Mr. H. Houston-Sup. Teacher-1908-1910
 5.  Mr. Ward B. Gregg-Sup. Teacher-1910-1912
 6.  Mr. J. H. Brown-Sup. Teacher-1912-1914
 7.  Mr. Tomas Cabrera-Sup. Teacher-1914-1915
 8.  Mr. Flaviano Gamban-Sup. Teacher-1915-1918
 9.  Mr. Liberato Evangelista-Sup. Teacher-1918-1921
10. Mr. Agapito Madlangbayan-Sup. Teacher-1921-1924
11. Mr. Patricio Gozum-Sup. Teacher-1924-1926
12. Mr. Santiago Ilagan-Sup. Teacher-1926-1929
13. Mr. Santiago Redublo-Sup. Teacher-1929-1936
14. Mr. Cipriano Alberto-Sup. Teacher-1936-1939
15. Mr. Tranquilino Atacador-Sup. Teacher-1939-1941
16. Mr. Francisco Mateo-District Sup.-1945-1950
17. Mr. Pedro A. Madlangbayan-District Sup.-1950 to the present

It is interesting to note that in its early state in the town of Bauan, education was more a matter of compulsion than persuasion. There were times when the school officials and teachers, with the help of the local policemen, had to force the parents to send their children to school. As years went on, these difficulties and a thousand others were gradually solved until our government at present can no longer keep pace with the over-expanding needs of the school system as shown in the following table:

Year:No. of Schools:No. of Teachers:Enrolment
1945-1946: 26:81:5080
1946-1947: 27:97:6570
1947-1948: 30:118:7539
1948-1949: 31:138:8152
1949-1950: 31:149:8247
1950-1951: 31:157:8570
1951-1952: 31:158:9672

The necessity for better instruction has never been felt as much as it is now on account of the shortage of professionally trained teachers. Hence, the in-service training of the teachers. The following data are very encouraging:

[p. 39]

Educational Qualifications:1949:1950:1951
: : :
1. Undergraduates (Secondary Level):16:8:6
2. Graduates (Secondary Course):68:32:14
3. PNS or PNC Graduates (Normal):13:14:13
4. Normal Graduates (Private):47:96:116
5. B.S.E Graduates:5:7:8
T O T A L . . . . . 149 157 158

And the following figures give evidence of the sound and continuous progress in education in the district since the end of the war:

1. No. of extension classes opened by year:
1946 – 1947 – 151947 – 1948 – 26
1948 – 1949 – 231949 – 1959 – 6

2. Population and Percentage:

(1) Municipal Population – 40,168 (1948 census)
Elem. School Population – 8,152 (1948-1949)
Percentage of Elem. School population – 20%

(2) Municipal Population – 44,065 (1951 census)
Elem. School Population – 9,672 (1951-1952)
Percentage of Elem. School Population – 22%

3. Bauan High School (Priv.) Academic-Organized in 1947


4. St. Theresa’s Academy (Branch of the St. Bridget’s Col.)

Private – Academic – Organized in June, 1951 –
Classes Organized: From Kindergarten up to Second Year High School.

5. No. of School Buildings Constructed After Liberation (1945):

NatureSource of Fund
:National:US-PI:P T A
1.  Academic:4:3:17
2.  Home Economics:0:2:11
3.  Industrial Arts:0:2:7

[p. 40]

The Parent-Teachers Association, with its moral and financial backing, plays an important role in providing greater accommodations to hundreds of children.


Name of Barrios including the Poblacion:Number of Inhabitants:No. of Registered Voters:No. of Adult Illiterates:No. of Adult Population:Percentage of Illiteracy
:1948:1951:1951:1 9 5 1
 1.  Alagao:471:697:176:106:190:55.8
 2.  Alalum:890:973:406:91:482: 19.0
 3.  Aplaya:3416:3220:1156:205:1521: 13.0
 4.  As-is:864:945:336:77:473: 34.0
 5.  Baguilawa:791:813:224:73:189:39.0
 6.  Balayong:839:933:373:95:552: 17.0
 7.  Balisong:261:257:91:15:135: 11.1
 8.  Banaba:842:494:160:77:239: 32.0
 9.  Bayanan:1448:1357:383:34:578: 5.9
10. Bolo:1076:1097:316:87:533: 16.0
11. Colvo:512:601:127:147:274:54.0
12. Cupang:983:985:237:95:448:21.0
13. Danglayan:711:1186:125:143:539: 26.5
14. Durungao:323:321:105:58:172: 34.0
15. Gamao:506:572:90:56:254: 22.0
16. Gel. Kawayan:1165:1140:305:129:620: 21.0
17. Gulibay:295:314:109:16:150: 11.0
18. Ilat:1136:1282:349:41:781: 5.0
19. Inicbulan:880:994:312:131:544: 24.0
20. Lagnas:1562:1411:457:174:682: 26.0
21. Laurel:534:246:146:25:117: 21.0
22. Locloc:888:948:173:200:469: 42.6
23. Magalanggalang:495:521:81:124:227: 55.0
24. Malaking Pook:926:501:336:25:371 : 6.7
25. Malindig:125:163:46:17:100 : 17.0
26. Manalupang:532:587:116:141:282 : 50.0
27. Manghinao:680:1395:347:193:693 : 28.0
28. Maricaban:416:557:202:150:227 : 64.0
29. Mataas na Lupa:611:616:176:105:340 : 31.0
30. Natunuan:494:975:305:138:540 : 26.0
31. Palsahingin:443:424:136:75:246 :30.0
32. Papaya:810:949:143:179:398 : 45.0
33. Pila:600:437:186:37:250 : 15.0
34. Pirasan:612:514:58:110:201 : 55.0
35. Pisa:768:716:229:95:239 : 39.7
36. POBLACION:2975:4538:1198:74:2223 : 3.3
37. Rizal:563:226:97:14:129 : 11.0
38. Sambat:600:716:206:95:346 : 27.4
39. San Andres:1708:1926:434:269:897 : 30.0
40. San Antonio:836:1005:353:95:487 : 19.5
41. San Diego:247:274:64:94:161 : 58.0
42. San Mariano:908:691:210:5:280 : 18.9
43. San Roque:1247:595:169:69:259 : 26.7

[p. 41]

 44. Sta. Maria :1343:1471:329:226:699:32.3
 45. Sinala :762:797:286:61:424:14.4
 46. Talabib :890:1035:194:105:483:21.7
 47. Tingloy :1300:1650:359:186:766:24.3
       T O T A L:41314:44065:12437:4756:21210:22.4




Poblacion or Barrios:Population:Rank
 1.  Aplaya:3416:1
 2.  Poblacion:2975:2
 3.  San Andres:1708:3
 4.  Lagnas:1562:4
 5.  Bayanan:1448:5
 6.  Sta. Maria:1343:6
 7.  Tingloy:1300:7
 8.  San Roque:1247:8
 9.  Gelerang Kawayan:1165:9
10. Ilat:1136:10
11. Bolo:1076:11
12. Cupang:983:12
13. Malaking Pook:926:13
14. San Mariano:908:14
15. Alalum:890:15.5
16. Talahib:890:15.5
17. Locloc:888:17
18. Inicbulan:880:18
19. As-is:864:19
20. Banaba:842:20

[p. 42]

Poblacion or Barrios:Population:Rank
21. Balayong:839:21
22. San Antonio:836:22
23. Papaya:810:23
24. Baguilawa:791:24
25. Pisa:768:25
26. Sinala:762:26
27. Danglayan:711:27
28. Manghinao:680:28
29. Pirasan:612:29
30. Mataas na Lupa:611:30
31. Pila:600:31.5
32. Sambat:600:31.5
33. Rizal:563:33
34. Laurel:534*:34
35. Manalupang:535*:35
36. Colvo:512:36
37. Gamao:506:37
38. Magalanggalang:495:38
39. Natunuan:494:39
40. Alagao:471:40
41. Palsahingin:443:41
42. Maricaban:416:42
43. Durungao:323:43
44. Gulibay:295:44
45. Balisong:261:45
46. San Diego:24746
47. Malindig:15547
* Could be typo, otherwise error in ranking.


Poblacion or Barrios:Population:Rank
 1.  POBLACION:4538:1
 2.  Aplaya:3220:2
 3.  San Andres:1926:3
 4.  Tingloy:1650:4
 5.  Sta. Maria:1471:5
 6.  Lagnas:1411:6
 7.  Manghinao:1395:7
 8.  Bayanan:1357:8
 9.  Ilat:1282:9
10. Danglayan:1186:10
11. Gelerang Kawayan:1140:11
12. Bolo:1097:12
13. Talahib:1035:13
14. San Antonio:1005:14
15. Inibulan:994:15
16. Cupang:835:16

[p. 43]

Poblacion or Barrios:Population:Rank
17. Natunuan:975:17
18. Alalaum:973:18
19. Papaya:949:19
20. Locloc:948:20
21. Asis:945:21
22. Balayong:933:22
23. Baguilawa:813:23
24. Sinala:797:24
25. Pisa:716:25.5
26. Sambat:716:25.5
27. Alagao:697:27
28. San Mariano:691:27
29. Mataas na Lupa:616:29
30. Colvo:601:30
31. San Roque:595:31
32. Manalupang:587:32
33. Gamao:572:33
34. Maricaban:557:34
35. Magalanggalang:521:35
36. Pirasan:514:36
37. Malaking Pook:501:37
38. Banaba:494:38
39. Pila:437:39
40. Palsahingin:424:40
41. Durungao:321:41
42. Gulibay:314:42
43. San Diego:274:43
44. Balisong:257:44
45. Laurel:246:45
46. Rizal:226:46
47. Manalupang:163:47


Notes and references:
Transcribed from “Historical Data of the Municipality of Bauan,” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.
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