Bauan, Batangas: Historical Data Part I - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore Bauan, Batangas: Historical Data Part I - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore

Bauan, Batangas: Historical Data Part I

Historical Data graphic
Historical data from the National Library of the Philippines.



Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the Municipality of Bauan, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.

Please note that information previously contained in this document for certain barrios may be found in other municipalities previously part of Bauan.

[Cover page.]

H I S T O R I C A L     D A T A
of the
M U N I C I P A L I T Y     O F     B A U A N

Edited by

District of Bauan
Bauan, Batangas


This manuscript has been written in compliance with Executive Order No. 486, which states, among other things, that books and other publications forming the collections of the National Library were almost entirely destroyed during the battle for the liberation of the City of Manila from the Japanese. Among the documents destroyed were those manuscripts containing important data relating to the history and culture or our barrios, towns, cities and provinces. The Executive Order further states that it is for our advancement that such data be gathered and brought up to date from time to time, to serve as a source of inspiration and guidance for the future generations, as well as source materials for historians, investigators, and researchers.

Writing this manuscript has been a pleasure to the teaching force. Everywhere we went for counsel and assistance, the people were willing to help. But, it must be remembered that many records in the municipality of Bauan were destroyed by the Japanese armed forces that had burned the poblacion and some barrios, massacred the inhabitants, and greatly ruined our economic life.

Special acknowledgements of service are due to all Elem. School Principals and teachers who worked cooperatively on the compilation of historical data for the municipality of Bauan, province of Batangas.

[Foreword cont’d]

This manuscript has been arranged and put in shape by Mr. Deogracias Iturralde, Principal of Bauan Central Elementary School, and typewritten by Mr. Leonardo Farol of the Office of the District Supervisor.

District Supervisor

Bauan, Batangas
May 1, 1953

[Table of Contents]

Table of Contents

Bauan Poblacion: History and Cultural Life of Bauan Poblacion1
Alagao: History and Cultural Life of Alagao38
Alalum: A Compilation of Historical Data regarding the barrio of Alalum46
Aplaya: History and Cultural Life of the barrio of Aplaya52
As-is: History and Cultural Life of As-is61
Baguilawa: History and Cultural Life of Baguilawa66
Balayong: History and Cultural Life of Balayong75
Balisong: History and Cultural Life of Balisong90
Bayanan: History and Cultural Life of Bayanan93
Bolo: Historical Data of Bolo97
Colvo: History and Cultural Life of Colvo102
Cupang: History and Cultural Life of Cupang112
Danglayan: Historical and Cultural Life of the Barrio of Danglayan119
Gamao: History and Cultural Life of Gamao122
Gulibay: Historical Data of Gulibay128
Gelerang Kawayan: Compilation of Historical Data of Gelerang Kawayan132
Ilat: History and Cultural Life of Ilat140
Inicbulang: History and Cultural Life of Inicbulang145
Lagnas: History and Cultural Life of Lagnas160
Malindig: History and Cultural Life of Malindig 167
Magalang-galang: History and Cultural Life of Magalang-galang 175

[Table of Contents cont’d]

Laurel: History and Cultural LIfe of Laurel187
Manalupang: History and Cultural Life of Manalupang192
Malaking Pook: History and Cultural Life of Malaking Pook199
Maricaban: History and Cultural Life of Maricaban205
Manghinao: History and Cultural Life of Manghinao212
Mataas-na-Lupa: History and Cultural Life of Mataas-na-Lupa219
Natunuan: A Compilation of the Historical Data of Natunuan224
Palsahingin: History and Cultural Life of Palsahingin236
Papaya: History and Cultural Life of Papaya242
Pirasan: History and Cultural Life of Pirasan245
Pila: History and Cultural Life of Pila259
Pisa: History and Cultural Life of Pisa276
Sambat: History and Cultural Life of Sambat281
San Andres: History and Cultural Life of San Andres285
San Antonio: History and Cultural Life of San Antonio295
San Diego: History and Cultural Life of San Diego297
San Mariano: History and Cultural Life of San Mariano299
San Roque: The Barrio of San Roque309
Sinala: History and Cultural Life of Sinala316
Sta. Maria: History and Cultural Life of Sta. Maria323
Talahib: History and Cultural Life of Talahib332

[Table of Contents cont’d and Appendix]

Tingloy:  History and Cultural LIfe of Tingloy336
A Brief History of the District of Bauan347
Population of the Municipality of Bauan349
Population of the Philippines350
Ranking of Populations (Poblacion and Barrios)350

[Map of Bauan Poblacion]

Map of Bauan Poblacion.
Map of Bauan Poblacion.

[p. 1]



1. Present official name of Poblacion - - - - - Bauan

2. Popular name of poblacion:

Present - - - - - - - - - Bauan
Past - - - - - - - - - - - Bauang

3. Name of sitios:

a. Pansol
b> Pandayan
c. Maricaban
d. Paang-Bundok

4. Date of establishment - - - - 18th Century

5. Original Families:

1690 – 1740

Lucas Mangubat
Ignacio Ronquillo
Juan de la Vega
Juan Ilagan
Bernardo Rodriguez
Damian D. Maranan
Agustin Lucas
Gaspar de los Reyes
Diego de Aguila
Nicolas Sarmiento
Lucas Pagdonsalan
Patricio Dimayuga
Cristobal de los Reyes
Esteban de la Cruz
Bartolome Camiror
Franscisco Rigo
Francisco Capitana
Juan Umali
Cristobal Guerra
Agustin Carandang
Valintin Dimaculangan
Pedro Marcelo
Felipe Dimatondang
Diego Martin Medrano
Mateo Enriquez
Manuel Reyes
Fernando Pagsuyuin
Laureano Marquez
Juan Dinglasan
Cristobal Garcia
Nicolas Ilao
Jose de Leon
Melchor Duenas
Gervacio Sulit
Agustin Umali
Pedro Briones
Patricio Dimayuga
Fernando Valenzuela
Francisco de la Cruz
Gaspar Landicho
Geronimo Perez
Lorenzo Caponpon
Fernando Vuagan
Lucas Marasigan
Juan de Oliver
Pedro Pascual
Juan de Mercado
Ignacio Mercado

1741 – 1790

Jose Marquez
Diego Aguila
Antonio Ortega
Pascual Hernandez
Cristobal Santiago
Pedro Caringal
Domingo Bingtig
Felipe Marucot
Baltazar Mercado
Eugenio Marquez

[p. 2]

Melchor Umali
Nicolas Ilao
Pedro Alejandro
Melchor Magpantay
Juan Carandang
Jose Santiago
Jose Santiago
Lucas Medrano
Patricio Pagdonsalan
Jose Salvador
Agustin Bautista
Cristobal de Mercado
Martin de la Cruz
Jose Matibag
Tomas de Santo Niño
Lucas Salvador
Juan Bautista
Bernardo Aguila
Juan Dimaculangan
Antonio Gutierrez
Pascual Macarandang
Martin Santiago
Francisco Marquez
Francisco Bernardo
Juan Umali
Gabriel Briones
Ignacio de los Santos
Antonio de la Cruz
Carlos Umali
Nicolas Virtucio
Bernardo Caraig
Lazaro de la Cruz
Bartolome Sto. Niño
Leandro Dimayuga
Diego de Chavez
Diego Ortega
Juan del Castillo
Juan Hernandez
Anastacio Dimayuga

1791 – 1840

Manuel Borromeo
Agustin Hernandez
Pedro Manalo
Alejo Dimayuga
Apolonio Ramos
Juan Sto. Niño
Melchor de la Cruz
Diego Carandang
Carlos Hernandez
Santiago de San Nicolas
Pablo Carandang
Estanislao Dimayuga
Julian Carandang
Bartolome del Castillo
Justo Dimayuga
Juan Marquez
Felipe de San Nicolas
Santiago de Mercado
Felipe de la Cruz
Juan Ortega
Nicolas Beltran
Bernardo Castillo
Jose Macarandang
Jose de Mercado
Francisco Castillo
Alipio de Chavez
Eulogio Santiago
Mariano Carandang
Jose de Mercado
Jose de San Nicolas
Benito Carandang
Toribio Dimayuga
Mariano de Mendoza
Francisco de Mercado
Eusebio Hernandez
Tomas Aguila
Pedro Cristobal
Andres Carandang
Felipe Santiago
Francisco Medrano
Juan Umali
Francisco Cristobal
Pascual Ilagan
Domingo Santiago
Martin Hernandez
Antonio de los Santos
Fernando Aguila
Eduardo de los Santos
Mariano de Mercado
Cenicio Orense
Agustin Pagsiyuin
Crispin Martin

[p. 3]

Ignacio de Africa
Policarpio Panopio
Nicoilas Tiburcio
Justino Guia Dimayuga
Juan Alabastro
Nicomedes Generoso
Ciriaco Aranas
Norberto Cusi
Basilio Medrano
Gaspar Cusi
Andres Buendia
Francisco Generoso
Ciriaco Aranas
Norberto Cusi
Basilio Medrano
Gaspar Cusi
Francisco Generoso
Fernando Hernandez
Hugolino Carandang
Juan Pagdonzalan
Agustin Enriquez
Basilio Cusi
Sixto Marquez
Segundo Guia Dimayuga
Eusebio Arquiza
Severino Maliwanag
Roman Delgado
Eliodoro Marcelo
Juan Orense
Francisco Medrano
Pedro Dimaculangan
Camilo Hernandez
Miguel Marquez
Juan Lualhati
Lorenzo Dimaculangan
Narciso Lualhati
Pascual Hernandez
Amrocio Dimayuga
Cayetano Guia Dimayuga
Mariano Gloria

1890 – 1920

Eleuterio Cordero
Diego Gloria
Anselmo Dimayuga
Jose Magboo
Jorge Reyes
Placido Brual
Daniel Farol
Pablo Lualhati
Leon Contreras
Juan Arreglado
Francisco Macarandang
Tomas Villaluz
Alfonso Panopio
Vicente Dimayuga
Jacinto Dimaculangan
Sebastian Brual
Jose Cusi
Jose Africa
Vicente Cordero
Higino Marasigan
Jorge Binay
Roque Cusi
Juan Buendia
Lambanio Calderon
Leon Lualhati
Eugenio Aranas
Cipriano Buenviaje
Felipe Gonzales
Tomas Cuevas
Antonio Lualhati
Gelacio Garcia
Martin Arada
Andres Buendia
Bentio Cusi
REFERENCE: Record of the late Judge Tomas C. Cuevas
Submitted by:

[p. 4]

6. List of Municipal Presidents and Municipal Mayors from the earliest dates to the Present Time

Capitan Municipal- - - - Fernando Mangubos (Before the arrival of the Spaniards)
    "             "- - - - Mr. Norberto Cusi
    "             "- - - - Mr. Basilio Cusi
    "             "- - - - Don Andres Buendia (father of Dr. Andres Buendia)

Before the establishment of the Revolutionary Government

Capitan Municipal- - - -Mr. Jacinto Dimaculangan (During the Revolutionary Gov't)

American Period

Municipal President- - - -Dr. Sebastian Brual (During the Military Government)
Municipal President- - - -Mr. Felipe Gonzales
     "             " - - - - Mr. Alfonso Panopio
     "             "- - - -Mr. Andres Buendia (Father of Dr. Conrado Buendia)
     "             "- - - -Mr. Higino Marasigan
     "             "- - - -Mr. Andres Buendia
     "             "- - - -Mr. Benito Cusi
     "             "- - - -Atty. Simeon Ilagan


Municipal President- - - -Dr. Conrado Buendia
Atty. Quintin Castillo
Atty. Godofredo Brual

Japanese Period

Municipal President- - - -Atty. Francisco Madlangbayan
Atty Alberto Leynes
Dr. Jose Dimaculangan


Municipal President- - - -Atty. Eleodoro Marasigan
Atty. Godofredo Brual
Dr. Gregorio Arreglado

Philippine Republic

Municipal President- - - -Dr. Jose C. Daite

7. Derivation of Names of Sitios –

1. Pansol – from springs which are still in existence and being used by the people. 2. Pandayan – The sitio is well-known for its blacksmithing, producing bolos, plow parts, rice knives, “lilik,” etc.

[p. 5]

3. Maricaban – derived from the name of an island near Tingloy, Bauan.

4. Paang-Bundok – from cluster of high places.

5. Bauan Catholic Church

Church of Bauan

The parish of Bauan was administered by the Augustinians from 1596 to the end of the 19th century. The church built in the 18th century was remodeled and improved by the Rev. Hipolito Huerta and the Rev. Felipe Bravo in the 19th century. It was destroyed by fire on July 13, 1928. The Eminent Botanist, Father Blanco, was pastor of the church from 1816 to 1828. Under his administration, great impetus was given to the home industries of weaving and dying. The museum of National History and the library of rare books collected by Fr. Bravo were destroyed during the insurrection of 1898.

A. Story of Bauan

The town of Bauan, now composed of the Poblacion and 47 barrios, was organized 55 years ago. Formerly, it was only a sitio inhabited by primitive Filipinos whose ancestors came from the Malay Peninsula.

This town got its name from the word “bawang,” meaning “garlic.” It was said by some old folks that one day while the people were very busy planting “bawang,” some Spaniards happened to pass by the field. When they saw what the people were doing, they stopped and watched the way the people planted. After a while, one of the Spaniards called a native and tried to ask in their own Spanish language the name of the place. The native believed that the Spaniard was asking for the name of the plant they were planting, so she answered, “Bauang,” which means “garlic.” Since that time on, this place was called Bauan.

Formerly, the town of Bauan had very few inhabitants but very soon it grew so big that already two towns came from this place. They are now called Alitagtag and Mabini.

The town of Bauan has two very distinct seasons, the wet season and the dry season. The wet season begins in May and ends in December. During December and January, it is very cold in this town more especially in the upland barrios.

Several barrios of the town have fertile

[p. 6]

soil and some barrios have poor soil. In general, the town of Bauan has fertile soil suited to rice and sugarcane.

It is interesting to note that in its early stage, in the town of Bauan, education was more a matter of compulsion that of persuasion. There were times when the school officials and teachers, with the help of local policemen, had to force the parents to send their children to school. As years went on, these difficulties and a thousand others were gradually solved until our government at present can no longer keep pace with the over-expanding needs of the school system.

8. A. Data of historical sites, structures, buildings, old ruins, etc.

a. Pansol Springs. It is at the southeastern side of the church. They had been built as public baths. They are still being used as bathing places and places for washing clothes.

b. Priests’ Bathhouse. Once situated back of church convent. The building was a bath house made of adobe stones and used solely by the priests.

c. Old Presidencia. A rectangular adobe building now partly in ruins. It was used as the first Municipal building during Spanish times. Now, it is in ruins, having been destroyed by the last war.

The Barrios, Including the Poblacion in the Municipality of Bauan
1. Alagao
2. Alalum
3. Aplaya
4. As-is
5. Baguilawa
6. Balayong
7. Balisong
8. Banaba
9. Bayanan
10. Bolo
11. Colvo
12. Cupang
13. Danglayan
14. Durungao
15. Gamao
16. Gelerang Kawayan
17. Gulibay
18. Ilat
19. Inicbulan
20. Lagnas
21. Locloc
22. Laurel
23. Magalang-galang
24. Malaking Pook
25. Malindig
26. Manalupang
27. Manghinao
28. Maricaban
29. Mataas na Lupa
30. Natunuan
31. Palsahingin
32. Papaya
33. Pila
34. Pirasan
35. Pisa
36. Poblacion
37. Rizal
38. Sambat
39. San Andres
40. San Antonio
41. San Diego
42. San Mariano
43. San Roque
44. Sta. Maria
45. Sinala
46. Talahib
47. Tingloy

[p. 7]

a. Facts and Incidents During the Spanish Time

When the Spaniards assumed the rein of government in Bauan, Batangas (Cuenca, Alitagtag, and Mabini included), many facts and incidents occurred. In view of the fact that informants, especially the old generations, are few in numbers and their retentive memories are inclined to be inactive now, only little information could be narrated.

During the incumbency of Capitan Gaspar Cusi (capitan was the term used for president or mayor at present) in the 19th century, there was cholera on a big scale. There were times when 30 persons died a day. This fatal incident lasted for at least 3 months. After a few months, Tagalog comedy was introduced for the entertainment of the people.

When Capitan Narciso Lualhati (alias Capitan Siso) took the rein of government, his administration was marked with progress. There was good harvest, complete control of epidemics and prevalence of peace and order.

At the very start of the Spanish administration, religion was enforced. Spanish authorities were strict in the enforcement of taxation. Failure on the part of Bauan people to pay their personal assents in the form of taxes to the Spanish government would mean death to the poor Christians. A great many of the Baungueños were jailed in Bilib prison in Batangas, Batangas for tax evasion. Once upon a time, there was a prisoner from Bauan who was pardoned. After a time, there was a riot or jailbreak because the prisoners scampered and returned to Bauan to take refuge. Unfortunately, the ill-fated Bauangeños were caught. Immediately, the poor Christians were put to death at the old Roman Catholic cemetery at the back of the present municipal government building.

Yet, there were still some more “capitanes” who were in succession until at last the Spaniards yielded the power to the Americans.

b. Bauan During the Early Part of the American Occupation

After the Spanish occupation in the islands, the Americans administered the whole archipelago. The provinces were under a definite head called the provincial governor, while the town was under a definite head called the president. The first president under the American regime was Don Sebastian Brual. He obtained his position by nomination. At his time, the male inhabitants of the right age paid an amount of ₱.20 as a cedula tax. Females were exempted from paying. After one year, females were asked to pay ₱.20. Later, it was raised to ₱1.00, then to ₱2.00.

[p. 8]

The barrio was under the leadership of the teniente councilor. This person reported the happenings of his barrio to the municipal council. He also presented suggestions to the council with regards to the benefit of his place. Sometimes, he took charge of collecting fees and advance reports of the barrio especially of a coming storm or earthquake.

At the early part of the American regime in this town, there were some uprisings the causes of which were due to the dislike of the administration. Due to this constant abuses of some people, two suspects were placed under arrest. Later, they were guillotined. These enemies of the government were taken care of by the Sumatins. They were the policemen of today. They took the place of the Guardia Civil during the Spanish period. A person arrested by the Sumatins was tried in the justice of the peace court. The justice of the peace was Don Cipriano Buenviaje. He took charge of minor crimes and marriages of the town.

During the early stay of Americans in our place, they gave aid to the inhabitants by distributing rice at a lower cost. This distribution was placed under the management of the president. Every family was allowed to receive one ganta every weekend. A well-to-do family was not allowed to get any ration from the government.

Sanitation during this period was not properly taken care of like at present. Vaccination was very seldom done. Very few houses had toilets like the sewage or the Antipolo type. Some people used to move their bowels along the banks of rivers and brooks, especially in the barrios. As the years went on, the people of Bauan at the early part of the American regime lived and had various kinds of industries such as weaving, basket-making, fishing, and farming. Those places along the shore earned their living by fishing, while those in the highlands lived on farming. Their finished products were transported to local markets by calesa. The local market of our town was situated in the site now called Pansol, in Sta. Cruz street. People used to trade or barter with one another in that place. Clothing and shelter of the inhabitants were simple. Males used to wear “Barong Tagalog” or “Camisa de Chino” while females their “Saya.” There were very few who could afford to wear coats especially those who belonged to well-to-do families.

Bauan before was but a mere caricature of the present. It is now very far advanced.


On January 16, 1900, Tuesday, at 4:00 o’clock in the afternoon, the invading Americans arrived in the Municipality of Bauan. After three days of conquest, they left the unpopulated town and returned again on February 9 of the same year. They stayed for a long time until they were able to capture the Filipino rebels.

[p. 9]

In April, 1900, the American military government appointed Don Sebastian Brual as president, and Don Cipriano Buenviaje, vice-president. It was in this year when all residents of the municipality of Bauan were called and concentrated in the poblacion with the aim in view of detecting the rebels. During this same year, there was an epidemic. On August 30, 1901, Don Jorge Reyes was appointed judge of [the] peace court and Don Cipriano Buenviaje became auxiliary judge.

On June 20, 1901, 18 councilors were appointed during Don Sebastian Brual’s incumbency. These officials were in power till the end of 1903. On February 5, 1902, Wednesday morning at 10, Martin Quitain, a resident of Sambat, Bauan, was hanged to death at the public plaza. On April 11 of the same year, Basilio Leynes, a resident of the Poblacion, was hanged also. It was in this year when there was a pestilence with high rate of mortality in the animal kingdom.

On September 8, 1903, territorial taxation was imposed on the people.

In 1904, another appointment was made with Don Felipe Gonzales as president, Don Placido Brual, vice-president, Don Cipriano Buenviaje and Don Jose Cusi, as justice and auxiliary justice of the peace court, respectively. On May 15, 16, and 17, same year, the Catholic populace went to Batangas for confirmation with Archbishop Jeremias J. Harty, officiating. On June 19, 10 houses in the eastern side of the town were burned to ashes. It originated in the house of Cornelio Alvar.

On November 5, 1905, Sunday evening at 9, Municipal President Don Felipe Gonzales met an instant death.

On January 1, 1906, Monday at 10:00 A.M., Don Alfonso Panopio and Don Jose Africa were appointed president and vice-president, respectively. Only 9 councilors were appointed and the remaining 9 were retained. Don Cipriano Buenviaje was justice of the peace with Don Eugenio Aranas as his auxiliary. But on March 20, 1907, the Governor General of the Philippines appointed Don Tomas Cuevas as auxiliary judge and he assumed his office on April 12, 1907. On September 19, 1907, Don Alfonso Panopio was changed and the Governor General appointed Don Daniel Farol. Four days after, Don Tomas was appointed [to the] Justice of the peace court with Don Vicente Cordero as his auxiliary.

On October 28, 1908, Archbishop Jeremias J. Harty arrived in Bauan and rendered confirmation on the 29th, 30th, and 31st of October.

[p. 10]

The following year, Don Andres Buendia was elected president, Don Pablo Lualhati, vice-president, Don Tomas Cuevas, justice of the peace, and Don Vicente Cordero, auxiliary judge. It was this year when Lipa became a diocese under a bishop. Incidentally, on January 19, Tuesday, a volcano in Tayabas province (now Quezon) erupted emitting mud and lava. Many people, animals and plants were buried alive.

In 1910, Don Higino Marasigan, and Don Gelacio Garcia were elected president, and vice-president, respectively. In this year, Mons. Jose Petrelli became the bishop of the diocese of Lipa.

Another fatal incident happened in Taal, just 17 kilometers away from the Bauan plaza. There was a loud tremor and church bells rang incessantly. Earthquakes continuously occurred until finally, between 12:00 and 1:00 A.M. Monday, February 21, 1911, Taal Volcano erupted throwing out ashes, mud and deadly lava to neighboring towns like Lemery, Bauan and Talisay. Many people were killed and buried alive.

On March 6, 1911, at 2:00 p.m., the tremor was excessive. But a day before this, at 8:00 in the morning while Rev. Fr. Leocadio Dimanlig was saying the high mass at the Bauan Catholic Church, Don Sebastian Brual, first president of the military government in Bauan, was knifed at the bottom of the neck by a lunatic Adriano Gonzales, from San Roque, this municipality. The blood flowed profusely on the church floor which caused its closing from public worshippers. Mons. Jose Petrelli, bishop of Lipa, ordered its closing after a few days of consecration of the church and its contents. In 1911, Don Higino Marasigan was still the municipal president, Don Gelacio Garcia the vice-president, Don Jorge Binay president of the sanitary division, Don Eugenio Aranas the Municipal Secretary, Don Sisenando Ferriols municipal treasurer, Don Tomas Cuevas justice of the peace and Don Lembano Calderon auxiliary judge. Between 1911 and 1912, Alitagtag became and independent municipality. In July 1911, there was an order issued to all courts that all judges be examined by the government and would receive their pay on salary basis. Don Tomas Cuevas was reappointed judge and Don Anacleto Magtibay from Batangas was appointed auxiliary judge.

On June 4, 1912, the first municipal election was made as per order from the Governor General. Don Higino Marasigan was the first elected president and Don Martin Arada, first elected vice-president and councilors were elected by the people until 1916.

In 1917, Don Andres Buendia was elected president and Don Francisco J. Macarandang became vice-president. On Jan. 1, 1918, Mabini was separated and became an independent municipality.

In 1919, another election took place. Don Benito Cusi was elected president, Don Tomas Villaluz, vice-president, Don Tomas Cuevas, judge, and Don Juan Buenafe, auxiliary judge.

[p. 11]

On November 15, 1925, Atty. Simeon Ilagas was the president when Manghinao bridge was destroyed due to natural cause. Four persons and one horse were found lifeless in the ravine. One of the dead bodies was a native of Taal, a sugar vendor. Two victims, father and son, were from San Roque and another one was a native of Inicbulan.

Politics during this period was intense and deadly. The poor barrio people were easily gypped by politics, promising to buy garments for them, to pay their land and person taxes. This was prevalent before election. During Atty. Ilagan’s incumbency, there were improvements in the lives of the people. Roads were constructed and schools were built. During town fiestas, he was instrumental in making the events colorful and pompous.

After his term, Dr. Conrado Buendia, another prominent figure in the municipality, brought good harvests. There was complete peace and order.

Then Atty. Quintin Castillo, the lame politico, was elected president. He was an ambitious man because he became a member of the provincial board. His password was service.

Later on, Bauan produced a young politico, Atty. Godofredo Brual, who administered the government till the outbreak of the Pacific War on December 8, 1941. He was active in any kind of affair. He gave aid to those who were in need.

In light of my brief narration, I finally conclude that Filipinos were given greater opportunity to administer the local governments.



Diary of Tomas Cuevas (RIP)
Ex-Justice of the Peace
Bauan, Batangas
Through the kindness of his living
Daughters, Misses Remigia and Godofreda R. Cuevas

d. Important Facts and Incidents that took place During World War II and After

The town of Bauan felt the heavy hand of World War II from December 8, 1941 until this town was liberated by the American forces on March 11, 1945. During this period, almost all the inhabitants in the Poblacion left their homes and lived in the different barrios of this town. In barrios occupied by people from the Poblacion, you would observe that all the pigs and chickens disappeared because the butchering of pigs and chickens everyday became the hobby of the refugees. When the Japanese soldiers came and lived in this town, life became [scratched out] and difficult for fear that these

[p. 12]

ignorant invaders would trouble them. After several months, foodstuffs became scarce because the Japanese soldiers began confiscating every kind of food they would find. Then, many good farms were planted to cotton plants introduced by the Japanese civilians who managed and controlled the different barrios of the town. People were forced to raise food for them and to help them without compensation.

After a year of living in the town, the Japanese soldiers began to use their way of calling the people in a place for a meeting. These meetings held under the heat of the sun without preservation made the lives of the people more difficult because the soldiers were scattered everywhere with their bayonets fixed and guns.

Many of the prominent men of this town were captured and brought to the different garrisons in the Islands. Some of them returned but many of them were killed as up to this time no trace of their whereabouts can be gathered. On February 28, 1945, men of this town were ordered to gather in the church and the women and children were ordered to gather in the Bauan Elementary School. At about noon of that day, the dreadful intention of the Japanese soldiers was accomplished. It was the killing of men under a private house in the poblacion. Because of the timely intervention of American airplanes flying very low around the Bauan Elementary School, the women and children who were kept in this building were able to escape.

On March 11, 1945, the town of Bauan was liberated by the American Forces who came from Nasugbu. From this time on, the people felt very safe and contented. Clothing, food and other materials were distributed by the American soldiers to the people. The people, in turn cooperated with the soldiers in their needs.

10. Destruction of Lives, Properties and Institutions During the Wars of 1896-1900 and 1941-1945

The Spanish-Filipino revolution in 1896 to 1898 that was started by Andres Bonifacio and his followers in Pugad Lawin, Rizal, spread over the whole islands. Batangas was one of the active provinces that participated in this war. Many Batangueños joined the crusade in overthrowing the tyrannical rule of the Spanish Government. As a result of this uprising, a period of terror reigned over the archipelago. Arrests and persecution were made by the Spanish authorities. In Bauan alone, there were many citizens who joined the cause of the revolutionists. According to some old folks, there was no bitter encounter between the two forces for the Spanish Garrison surrendered peacefully to the revolutionists at the end of the war.

With the defeat of the Spaniards, Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed the short-lived Phil. Republic. But Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States in her defeat in the Battle of Manila Bay under Admiray George Dewey. General

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Aguinaldo refused to recognize the right of sovereignty of the U.S., claiming that the Filipinos made known their desire to be free and independent, that they were already starting a government of their own and, that Spain had to right to cede the country to the U.S. Because of these contentions and beliefs of the General together with his followers, conflicts between the Americans and Filipinos ensued on February, 1899. This trouble spread over the whole islands. In Bauan, the fight was carried on by means of guerrilla warfare.

According to some old folks of the town, there was a time when Bauan was placed under a zone or war district under an officer, Commander Hartman. During his command, there was an encounter between the insurrectos under the leadership of Capitan Jacinto Dimaculangan and the American soldiers in the barrio of Mahabang Dahilig in Bauan. In this fight, many Filipinos were killed and captured due to the inferiority of their arms. There were also two men by the names of Basilio Leynes and Martin Aquila who were hanged by the Americans in the public plaza charged with espionage. Casualties in Bauan were not so great because the guerrillas were easily suppressed.

After a lapse of about 40 years under the sovereignty of the U.S., there came the most tragic event in Philippine History. This was the most destructive war between the U.S. and Japan.

After the fall of Bataan and Corregidor, the Japanese forces began to occupy the whole country. Bauan, one of the most peaceful towns of Batangas, was occupied by these forces somewhere in the early part of January, 1942. Attractive policies and measures were initiated by the Japanese Imperial Army to attract the populace to settle to settle in their actuations for fear of reprisals from the Japanese soldiers who became cruel and brutal in the latter part of the Japanese occupation. The brutality reached its zenith in the latter part of their administration. One week before liberating the town by the Americans, on February 28, 1945, the Japanese soldiers confined 276 civilian inhabitants of the town under the magnificent home of Mr. Severino Bautista and blasted them. 206 were killed and 70 wounded [and] survived by running away after the collapse of the building. Aside from this number who were blasted, there were 34 persons who were bayoneted in the outskirts of the poblacion. Most of these victims were distinguished professionals of the town.

The Japanese, not being satisfied, perhaps, by their inhuman acts, they even burned the houses, the church, and the old school building. The church was halfly [partially] damaged. Out of the thousand residential houses, only seven (7) miraculously escaped the fire. They were the houses of Mrs. Simeona Alabastro y Layco, Mrs. Valeriana Ingco y Hernandez, Mr. Eladio Hernandez, Mr. Juan Comia, Judge Diego Arnas, Mrs. Catalina Brillante y Ilagan, and Dr. Miguel Banta.

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As per [the] record of the Municipal Treasurer, the total destruction of the government properties of Bauan amounted to ₱159,006.41. Out of this total amount, ₱61, 970.46 was for the damaged Municipal Building, ₱64,766.24 for water and electric works, and ₱32. 259.71 for the equipment and supplies.

The destruction was so great that the Municipality of Bauan was paralyzed financially for several years.

Destruction of the War
1896 – 1900

When the Philippines was under Spain, there were many revolts made by the Filipinos, but the most destructive revolt was after the discovery of the Katipunan. Many suspected members of the organization were killed, including Rizal.

Andres Bonifacio, the founder of the Katipunan, led the revolt and it spread throughout the Philippines. Finally, he was killed and General Aguinaldo became the leader. After fierce and desperate encounters, the Spaniards were defeated. Aguinaldo proclaimed Philippine Independence. At this time, there was also war between America and Spain. Commodore Dewey, who was in Cuba, was ordered by President McKinley to go to the Philippines. Sea battle occurred at Manila Bay which resulted in the defeat of the Spanish Armada. Americans made their first landing in Manila to take the Philippines. War was declared between the Filipinos and the Americans. Battle after battle was fought in the barrio of Mahabang Dahilig, Bauan, Batangas which resulted in the death of many Filipino soldiers. Many of our able generals like Gregorio del Pilar and Antonio Luna were killed.

The capture of Aguinaldo at Palanan ended the war in 1900.

Destruction of the War
1941 – 1945

In January, 1941, the Japanese soldiers entered Manila. They destroyed the different buildings and killed people who made resistance. The soldiers committed many atrocities in different places.

In Bauan, the Japanese soldiers gathered together all the inhabitants of the town in the church and in the house of Mr. Severino Bautista. Afterwards, the soldiers had a bomb exploded in the building which resulted in the death of many people followed by the burning of the entire poblacion of the town. The Municipal building was partly burned while the school houses were partly damaged. This took place on Wednesday February 28, 1945.

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11. Measures and Accomplishments Toward Rehabilitation and Reconstruction following World War II

World War II left devastating effects on the town of Bauan. Private and public buildings were destroyed by the Japanese Imperial Forces without mercy. The final destruction of the town culminated in the last stand of the Japanese forces on February 28, 1945 when they massacred the male population of Bauan, bombed the church and set fire to all houses in that town. As a result, there were about five houses that were left which miraculously escaped the fire of that fateful day.

Finally, the town was liberated by the American Forces. Conditions returned to normal, people in general were jubilant although the cost of living was sky high.

Reconstruction and rehabilitation followed. Nearly all the families whose houses went with the smoke on February 28, 1945 made barong-barongs and makeshift buildings from where they started life anew. Later on, these barong-barongs and makeshift buildings were replaced by stronger and better-built houses. To mention some of the rehabilitated homes, are those of Atty. Melquiades Ilao, Dr. Jaime Cordero, Dr. Conrado Buendia, Mr. Lorenzo Leynes, Mr. Tomas Valinton, Cuevas Sisters, Dr. Cesar Buendia, Mr. Felipe Conti and many others.

Simultaneously, public buildings and parks were rehabilitated. The Municipal Building was reconstructed out of the municipal fund. Likewise, the Bauan Elementary School plant and the Aplaya Elementary School plant were returned to their pre-war levels. A measure to safeguard the health of children and expectant mothers, the Bauan Maternity Hospital was constructed out of the Charity Sweepstakes fund of the government. The Municipal Council, in its desire to beautify the town, set aside some amount to convert the town plaza into a beautiful park. The town market was fenced. Roads in the poblacion were repaired. Most of the funds expended in the reconstruction and rehabilitation of public buildings and public improvements came from the Municipal funds and the War Damage Commission. However, in the Central School, the P.T.A. constructed a temporary five-room building to meet the growing school population.

The Bauan Water Works was first rehabilitated. By virtue of the Municipal Council’s resolution, a ₱55,000 peso loan was made from the Rehabilitation Finance cooperation to put the Bauan Electric Light System into operation.

And finally, as the complete rehabilitation of this town depended upon the income of the people, time was not

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far distant when all those nipa -thatched-roof houses would be replaced by the corrugated galvanized iron-roofing materials.

[The] Following is a list of amounts given by the War Damage Commission to the Municipality of Bauan with its recipients. These are all public claims.

₱ 8,128.98
1. Home Economics Building (Central)
2. Elementary School Bldg. #2
3. Shop Building (Central)
4. Home Economics Bldg. (Aplaya)
5. Intermediate School Bldg. (Aplaya
6. Sta. Maria Barrio School
7. Central Elementary School Bldg. #1

12. Legends, Traditions, Folklore, etc.

a. The Perfect Man

There were no men a long, long time ago, so the old story goes. The land was black and bare, the sea roared white upon the rocky shore, and the wind sighed upon both land and sea.

There was a god who lived upon the earth, and this god said, “I shall make man.”

He shaped some soft clay into the form of a man. He shaped it lovingly, for he knew that he was creating something important. Then, he baked it in fire.

He was so eager to know just what kind of creature would come from his baking that he could not wait long enough. In a few minutes, he hooked the first man out of the fire. It was not well-baked. It was the first white man.

“I did not give it enough time,” said the god, shaking his head in disappointment. I should be more patient. I will try again. This time, I will wait longer.

He kneaded some more soft clay into the shape of a man. He fashioned the eyes, the nose, the hands, the feet. Then, he put it in the fire. Now, he was determined not to let his curiosity hurry him.

“I will wait,” he said to himself. “I have to wait long enough in order to bake it right.”

He waited and waited and waited. At last, after

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many hours, he decided that it was time. He hooked the second man out of the fire. When the smoke cleared, he saw that he had over-baked his second man. It was all burnt and black. It was the first black man.

“I have to make a perfect man,” said the god. “I shall try again. This time, I will not fail.”

Accordingly, he got the remaining clay and shaped it into the form of a man. Unfortunately, he did not have much clay left.

“Never mind if it is small,” he said. “I shall bake it so that the color will be just right.”

He shaped it very carefully. He placed it in the fire and then watched over it. He carefully timed himself. He waited, but not too long.

At last, he hooked the third man out of the fire. The god saw that he had baked a shiny, brown man.

“Ah, this is a perfect man,” said the god, and he danced around the fire with joy.

He was the first brown man. From him rose the Filipino people, so the old story goes.

Reference: Tales Our Fathers Told
Juan C. Laya
Emiliano C. Ramirez

Origin of Rice

As in most places in the Philippines, rice is the staple food of the people. Because of this, children find the legend of the rice most interesting. Here is their legend concerning rice.

One of the goddesses in appreciation of Sewa created a girl whom she named Bright Jewel. She grew up to be so beautiful that he fell in love with her and even decided to marry her. Being a goddess, he was forbidden by their law to marry a mortal. A meeting of the goddess was called to consider this matter. After a long discussion, Sewa was allowed to marry Bright Jewel.

Bright Jewel, however, refused to marry Sewa until he was able to find food better than the known food at the time. Sewa, true to his love, set out in quest of this food, but he never came back. Bright Jewel, after waiting for her lover for so long a time, decided to go after him. She followed him down to earth where she wandered in search of her lost lover. But she searched in vain for Sewa [and] died of starvation.

Bright Jewel died and on her grave a plant grew. Legend

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says that this was the first rice plant which furnished mankind with food that Bright Jewel so desired.

The First Cloud Thunder and Rain

Cabigat and Bungan were husband and wife, began Grandmother. Each was three times tall as the tallest man or the tallest woman in our town. They lived on the top of a high mountain. They owned a big field planted with camotes.

Early one morning, Bungan took her big basket and went out to dig camotes. Her husband Cabigat stayed at home to cut wood. He took his big bolo and cut down a large tree near the house. Then, he cut it into small pieces. In one hour, he cut as much wood as thirty men could cut in one day.

By noon, he was tired. He wanted to rest and smoke, so he got his big pipe. His pipe was many times larger than your father’s or grandfather’s. The bowl was larger than one of the largest pots. The stem was more than one half a meter long. The pipe held five gantas of ground tobacco.

Cabigat lighted his pipe and sat down under a mango tree. He smoked and rested. He blew so much smoke into the air that after a while, the sky was filled with it. The people who lived at the foot of the mountain saw the smoke in the air and called it cloud.

By and by, Cabigat became very hungry. He wanted some boiled camotes. He called his wife Bungan. She was far away and Cabigat had to shout to make her hear. What a noise he made. Bungan, Bungan, he called. The people who lived at the foot of the mountain heard Cabigat shout and they called it thunder. Today, when people hear thunder, they believe it is Cabigat calling Bungan.

Cabigat worked hard all morning and his hands were dirty. He went to a waterfall and washed them. He shook the water from his hands. The water fell in drops upon the people who lived at the foot of the mountain, and they called it rain.

It was Cabigat who made the first clouds, thunder and rain.

Why the Sea is Salty

Many, many years ago, according to the story of the old folks, the sea was not salty as it is now. The sea became salty because of an ant that bit the foot of Angalo.

And who was Angalo?

Angalo was a giant. When he stood in the midst of the sea, the water reached his knee. When he stood on the land, the mountains were as high as his knee also.

One day, all the salt of the village had [next words not visible]

Transcribed from “Historical Data of the Municipality of Bauan,” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.


Notes and references:
Transcribed from “Historical Data of the Municipality of Bauan,” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.
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