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January 2, 2018

Calaca, Batangas: Historical Data

Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the Municipality of Calaca, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.

[Cover page.]

DIVISION OF BATANGAS
DISTRICT OF BALAYAN
CALACA ELEMENTARY SCHOOL





HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE

OF THE TOWN OF CALACA

AND ITS BARRIOS






Submitted by:

VIDAL BAUTISTA
Principal


Contents Noted:

FILEMON DIZON
District Supervisor

[Foreword.]

FOREWORD

In conformity with Memorandum No. 34, s. 1952, and Executive Order No. 486, dated December 7, 1951, of the President of the Philippines, the teaching force in the municipality of Calaca, Batangas, undertook to gather and compile the desired historical data of the town and its barrios. Efforts have been exerted to collect to the minutest detail all available data in the whole municipality. All sources that may help or contribute in the undertaking have been availed of, hence, whatever information or data might have been missed in this compilation work is due to the absence of possible sources of information.

In order to divide equitably the compilation of the data of the poblacion and the different barrios, the principals and head teachers of the different barrios assisted by their teachers made the collection and compilation of the data of the respective barrios within the jurisdiction of their schools, while the principal of the Central School and his committee gathered the data for the poblacion and took charge of the compilation of the report for the whole municipality.

It is, therefore, with sincere gratitude and appreciation that the administration fully acknowledges the cooperation and assistance of all the teachers and resource persons who, one way or another, have contributed in the collection and compilation of this report herewith submitted.

VIDAL BAUTISTA
Principal

Src

[p. 1]

HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL LIFE OF THE TOWN OF CALACA

Part One: History

Present Official Name of the Town. – The present official name of the town is Calaca.

Former name and meaning or derivation. – Ever since the creation of the town of Calaca, the official name has never been changed up to the present. The name was derived by the natives from the roofs of the houses made of bamboos cut into halves put and arranged over one another. As to how it got the name officially, an anecdote runs this way: When it was still a sitio and long been called Calaca, three Spanish officials happened to pass by. They saw some carpenters making the roof of a house. They asked one of the carpenters about the name of the place. The carpenter, who did not know Spanish, believed that the Spaniards were asking what they were making and they answered, “calaca.” Coincidentally, the answer was correct. The Spaniards jotted the name and since that time, Calaca became the official name when it became a town.

Date of Establishment. – Calaca, formerly a barrio of Balayan, was established as a town in the latter part of 1835, the first centennial anniversary being held on December 23 and 29, 1935.

Names and Social Status of the Founders. – The founders of the town were Rufino Punongbayan, Cayetano Buhay, Januario Punongbayan, Valentin Capacia, Juan Sangalang and Diego Inumerable. They were the most well-to-do, more educated and wielded great influence over their barrio folks. These six prominent citizens worked hard together to request the high Spanish Officials in Manila to make the flourishing barrio a town, and they succeeded.

Names of Persons Who Held Leading Official Positions in the Community with the Dates of Their Tenure
Name Position Year
 1.  Mr. Rufino Punongbayan Gobernadorcillo 1835-1836
 2.  Mr. Cayetano Buhay " 1837
 3.  Mr. Januario Punongbayan " 1838
 4.  Mr. Valentin Capacia " 1839
 5.  Mr. Juan Sangalang " 1840
 6.  Mr. Diego Inumerable " 1841
 7.  Mr. Ciriaco Crisostomo " 1842
 8.  Mr. Juan Pineda " 1843
 9.  Mr. Victoriano Vizconde " 1844
10. Mr. Ramon Zara " 1845
11. Mr. Francisco Sinag " 1846
12. Mr. Guillermo Matalag " 1847
13. Mr. Gabriel Marasigan " 1848
14. Mr. Santiago Jolongbayan " 1849
15. Mr. Juan Panganiban " 1850
16. Mr. Vicente Relevo " 1851
17. Mr. Aniceto Gatdula " 1852
18. Mr. Martin Tolica " 1853
19. Mr. Pedro Mandanas " 1854
20. Mr. Anselmo Ronimo " 1855
21. Mr. Tomas Consul " 1856
[p. 2]
Name Position Year
22. Mr. Felix de Ocampo Gobernadorcillo 1857
23. Mr. Gabriel Marasigan (2nd term) " 1858
24. Mr. Apolinario Javier " 1859
25. Mr. Julian de la Joya (2nd Term) " 1860
26. Mr. Felix de Ocampo (2nd Term) " 1861-1864
27. Mr. Martin Medina " 1865-1866
28. Mr. Juan Inumerable " 1867-1868
29. Mr. Felix de Ocampo (3rd Term) " 1869-1870
30. Mr. Claudio Vizconde " 1871-1872
31. Mr. Mariano Vizconde " 1873
32. Mr. Basilio Villamar " 1874
33. Mr. Agaton Macatangay " 1875-1876
34. Mr. Juan Marasigan " 1877-1878
35. Mr. Natalio Vizconde " 1879-1880
36. Mr. Fermin Malabanan " 1881-1882
37. Mr. Catalino F. Roxas " 1883-1884
38. Mr. Agaton Macatangay " 1885
39. Mr. Apolinario Bacal " 1886
40. Mr. Claudio Vizconde " 1887-1888
41. Mr. Perfecto Rosales " 1889
42. Mr. Felix Rodriguez " 1890-1891
43. Mr. Mauricio Dedal Capitan Municipal 1892
44. Mr. Basilio Villamar Capitan Municipal 1893
45. Mr. Felix Rodriguez Capitan Municipal 1894-1898
46. Mr. Ruperto de Leon Jepe Local (Gobierno Rev) 1899
47. Mr. Felix Rodriguez Municipal Pres. 1900 (American Rule)
48. Mr. Higino Concepcion Municipal Pres. 1901-1902
49. Mr. Roberto Sale Municipal Pres. 1903
50. Mr. Francisco Marasigan Municipal Pres. 1904-1905
51. Mr. Ignacio Marella Municipal Pres. 1906-1907
52. Mr. Felix Rodriguez Municipal Pres. 1908-1909
53. Mr. Angel Admana Municipal Pres. 1910-1912
54. Mr. Ireneo Arriola Municipal Pres. 1913-1916
55. Mr. Francisco Vizconde Municipal Pres. 1916-1919
56. Mr. Ananias Bihis Municipal Pres. 1919-1922
57. Mr. Catalino Reyes Municipal Pres. 1922-1925
58. Mr. Jose de Leon Municipal Pres. 1925-1927
59. Mr. Catalino Reyes (2nd Term) Municipal Pres. 1927-1930
60. Mr. Luiz Macatangay Municipal Pres. 1930-1934
61. Mr. Zoilo Espinoza Municipal Pres. 1934-1938
62. Mr. Zoilo Espinoza (Reelected) Municipal Pres. 1938-1941
63. Mr. Bernardo Macatangay Municipal Pres. 1941-1944
64. Mr. Manuel Macatangay (Jap Occupation) Municipal Pres. 1945
65. Mr. Conrado Macatangay (Appointed After the Liberation) Municipal Pres. 1945
66. Mr. Guillermo Gomez (Appointed After the Liberation) Municipal Pres. 1945
67. Dr. Bernardo Macatangay Appointed Mayor 1946
68. Mr. Conrado Macatangay (Municipal Mayor) Municipal Mayor 1946-1947
69. Mr. Conrado Macatangay (Reelected) Municipal Mayor 1948-1951
70. Mr. Conrado Macatangay (Reelected) Municipal Mayor 1952 to the present
[p. 3]

Data on Historical sites, structures, buildings, old ruins, etc.

Reliable information from the old folks in the town gave the following data: that Calaca was formerly only a barrio situated east of the present poblacion just on the other side of the Bolbok River. The houses were almost all made of “calaca.” When the barrio was made a town, the founders selected the present site of the poblacion which is a wide plain. Diego Inumerable, one of the founders, suggested the place between Dacanlao River and Cawong River but it was not approved due to its proximity to Balayan. Roads were laid out as they are now but were not given any names then. Only the road rounding the back of the present church disappeared because no one would care to build a house there. Few passed that way, too. The site of the present was the cemetery. The chapel was east of the cemetery in the corner of the present Rodriguez Street and de la Salud Street where Mr. Vicente Rosales’ house now stands. The immediate surroundings in the northern part was a thick forest with big trees where some lumber used in making the present church was obtained. That time, the roads were not yet given names and it was only in the latter part of the Spanish regime and early part of the American government when the streets were named mostly in honor of those who contributed and worked hard for the welfare of the town. They were named Vizconde Street, Admana Street, Marasigan Street, Sangalang Street, A. de Joya Street and Rodriguez Street in honor of the first priest Fr. Basilio Vizconde, the former Capt. Apolonio Admana, former General Eleuterio Marasigan, former Gobernadorcillo Juan Sangalang, former Judge Arcadio de Joya, and Felix Rodriguez, respectively, who held different positions as head of the town. The other streets were named San Rafael Street in honor of the miraculous Patron Saint of the town, De la Salud Street, De la Paz Street and Igualdad Street.

The former tribunal or municipal building was situated in the corner of San Rafael Street and Admana Street. In front was the public market. Then, the new municipal building was built at its present site in the town plaza. The market was rebuilt on its present site on Marasigan Street in the southern part of the poblacion which was formerly the cemetery in the early part of the establishment of the town. The church was built on its present site, as well as the cemetery where they are now in the northern part of the poblacion.

Most of the lands were owned by the natives, then, but some pieces of land were given to the church due to some church officials who made the innocent and ignorant people to believe that by donating their land to the church, they would be more blessed, would surely be in heaven after death, and for the salvation of their souls. Other tracts of land passed from hands to hands of settlers who were land opportunists, through inheritance and purchase. Of course, majority acquired their land through legal means.

Some of the oldest buildings were destroyed but some of the remaining ones are the Catholic church and the stone house now almost in ruins, but still used as the headquarters of a detachment of the Philippine Ground Forces. The stone house is owned by Don

[p. 4]

Antonio Paterno, son of Don Pedro A. Paterno, negotiator of the Pact of Biac-na-Bato. Diego Inumerable, with the help of his co-founders of the town and other prominent men headed by the priest, undertook the building of the present church which was more than one hundred (100) years ago. It is said that almost no expenses were incurred because of forced labor by “bayanihan” or by the help of those requested, and by volunteers. Even women and children did their parts. Such were the influence and power of the priests that time that so gigantic a task could be accomplished. Some of the lumber used were cut from the big trees growing just north of the place where the church now stands. Other lumber was cut from the trees along the Pansipit River. The people who cut those trees carried lighted candles to drive the deadly crocodiles in the river. The logs were drawn down the river to the sea and towed by the use of bancas to Calaca shore. Then, hundreds of people hauled them to the place where the church was being constructed. While hauling the logs, a giant man made of split bamboos as the skeleton frame and wrapped by paper led the way followed by a band to make the hauling of the logs more enjoyable. Women and children helped by carrying sand and the stone bricks that were imported from Rizal and brought to Calaca by boats from Manila. Devices made of bamboo called “bawig” or cranes were used to bring up the very big lumber and stone bricks. It is said that there was a man killed while working up the church. It did not take long to finish the curch and the convent.

The children born in Calaca years before it was made a town were baptized in Balayan because there was no priest yet assigned in the place during that time. One day in 1837, the Archbishop from Manila passed by the newly-made town. He had with him many Spanish and Tagalog priests. They talked among themselves and decided to assign Fr. Basilio Vizconde who was from Marilao, Bulacan. When the Archbishop returned to Manila, Fr. Vizconde was left behind. From that time, he remained as priest of Calaca till his death. During his incumbency, the people learned to love him. Some said that whenever he took a walk along the poblacion, the people knelt and kissed his hand along the way. That custom had been carried on until the last part of the Spanish occupation. The first sexton was one Marcos Ramos.

The original legitimate-native and foreign-native families now common in Calaca are the following:
Legitimate native families: Foreign native families:
 1.  Hernandez  1.  Macatangay from Batangas
 2.  Gomez  2.  De Joya from Cavite
 3.  Rodriguez  3.  Bacal from Bauan
 4.  Admana  4.  Macalalad from Balayan
 5.  Marasigan  5.  Inumerable from Lemery
 6.  Dajoyag  6.  Vizconde from Marilao
 7. Moral  7.  Ramos from Marilao
 8. Punongbayan  8.  Reyes from Marilao
 9. Sangalang  9.  Villamar from Marilao
10. De Leon from Taal
11. Marella from Taal
12. Arriola from Taal
13. Valencia from Taal
14. Mendoza from Taal
15. Alcaraz from Taal
16. Bihis from Taal
17. Malabanan from Talisay
18. Goce from Taal
[p. 5]

The only living centenaries or persons almost one hundred years old are:

1. Quirino Piliin
2. Eufemia Mercado
3. Filomena Valencia
4. Francisca Marasigan

On March 5, 1891, when Mr. Felix Rodriguez was the Capitan Municipal, some bandits attacked the poblacion. The bandits came from Cavite and were led by a native of Calaca named Esperidion Socorro. That man was a convict who escaped and hid in the mountains when he was serving a term imposed by former Gobernadorcillo Claudio Vizconde because of banditry. As a revenge, he led the Cavite bandits to attack the town. There was an encounter for almost two hours until the town people ran out of ammunition. The bandits were able to enter the poblacion. They went to the tribunal and robbed the treasury and then went to the house of Mr. Ruperto de Leon, the richest man in the town. The bandits were able to open the door by force and had just gained entrance when the platoon of Guardia Civil led by Judge Marcos came from the seashore. When the bandits heard that the Guardia Civil were coming, they hurriedly retreated northward pursued by the Guardia Civil and by the town people.

The bandits fought as they retreated and there was an encounter by the road near the present house of Mr. Pedro Alix. Among the prominent defenders of the town were Capt. Apolonio Admana and. Lieut. Mariano Admana of the cuadrilleros, and Judge Sementera Marcos. Among the civilians were Captain Municipal Felix Rodriguez and Judge Arcadio de Joya who led the town people in the fight. Mr. Irineo Arriola used only a gun for birds and fired at the bandits through the window of his house. Mr. Eleuterio Marasigan, who became a Brigadier General during the revolution, fought with his revolver but when his bullets were exhausted, he sought shelter at the cemetery. During the time the bandits were in the poblacion, they fired at the civilians but luckily no one was hit.

Captain Apolonio Admana exhibited an exemplary courage during the fight. In spite of the fact that he had no more bullets, yet he did not run. He stayed at the plaza with drawn sword ready for a hand-to-hand fight. Though seen by the bandits, no one dared to go near him nor fire at him. The bandits were aware of his skill in fencing.

The baffling mystery of the event was that no casualty happened among the town people nor the Guardia Civil or the cuadrilleros, though many of the bandits were killed. The mystery is believed another of the miracles of the Patron Saint Raphael. Some people say they saw a little boy by the side of the defenders of the town. The people believed the little boy was Saint Raphael. Even among the captives led by the bandits, no one was hit or hurt. Those captives were men and women that the bandits captured along the way. The bandits tied them with ropes and used them as trenches. There were more or less about fifty captives, but as soon as the fight started, these captives were able to untie themselves and run away. There was no one killed among them.

In general, during the Spanish occupation, the life of the people

[p. 6]

in Calaca was generally peaceful, though peace and order were not well-established especially in remote places were bandoleros and cattle rustlers abounded.

The people mostly earned their living by farming. There was practically little or no commerce and bartering was common. The means of transportation was hard and most of the travel was on foot and horseback. Calesas were few.

There was [a] little handicraft and clothes worn by the people were usually cotton cloths woven by the natives.

In those times, there were no public schools as there are today. The children studied “caton and cartillas,” the four fundamentals in Arithmetic and Religion under the tutorship of individuals who were supposed to possess better knowledge or the R’s. These were usually paid by the parents of the children not in cash but in palay, corn, or any other material remunerations. The children studied in the homes of their teachers. Sometimes under a house, under the trees, or in any place in the surroundings. The children read aloud in mass which caused terrible noise. The children were taught individually and tested one by one. There was much memory work and most of the time the children did not understand what they were talking about.



In the latter part of the Spanish regime, a Spanish school called “escolopia” was opened under the teacher named Mr. Sergio Trinidad. The three R’s were emphasized as well as the four fundamentals in Arithmetic, Religion and [a] little Geography.

Only the well-to-do were able to go and study in Manila and only in the latter part of the Spanish regime when some were able to finish some courses.

Another interesting feature in the government administration was in the selection of the gobernadorcillos. The priests of the town played [an] important role when the church could take [an] active part in the affairs of the state. Drawing by lots by the candidates mostly selected by the town curate was one of the procedures. Sometimes, the Cabeza de Barangay noted as to who would be the gobernadorcillo. They voted in the tribunal by casting their votes in the box for the gobernadorcillo they wanted. So, right away they were identified to whom they voted for.

When the revolution broke out in 1896 against Spain, some of the prominent Calaqueños took an [active] part. Captain Apolonio Admana went out and had his men camped with him in Munting Coral, Ireneo Arriola in Pantay and Eleuterio Marasigan, who became [a] Brigadier General of General Miguel Malvar’s forces had his camp somewhere in Kay Tamayo almost at the boundary of Calaca and Cavite. Later, Brigadier General Marasigan and Col. Timoteo Marella, with their petty officers and men, were sent and stationed in the Visayas in Capiz, Capiz.

[p. 7]

DURING THE AMERICAN OCCUPATION TO WORLD WAR II

The American occupation marked a new epoch in the history of the town. The social and religious lives of the people advanced steadily. Public health was improved. The social welfare of the people was promoted. Better roads and bridges were built and repaired. Farming was developed and industries and commerce began to be the main activities of the people.

The English school was established and better recreation and wise use of leisure were enhanced. The first English school was formally opened in 1902 by an American, Mr. Mclough, assisted by Mr. Sinferese Ilagan. From 1903, Filipino teachers were assigned. One of them was the present Auditor General, Hen. Manuel Agregado, who was appointed in 1905. Mr. Tomas Cabrera was the first Filipino principal assigned. Other pioneer Filipino teachers were Miss Maria Marasigan, Miss Matilde Rodriguez, Mr. Rosendo Divico, Dr. Mariano Marella, Miss [?] Luis Gomez, Miss Sixta Marella and some others. The number of teachers increased from two to fifty-four teachers at present. There were only about twelve teachers in 1921 when the intermediate classes were opened, thirty teachers at the outbreak of World War II and fifty-four teachers at present.

The local government ran smoothly and the elections were held peacefully. Political enmities subsided soon after the elections.

During and after World War II - The outbreak of World War II on December 8, 1941 marked another stage of the existence of Calaca. The shocking news took the people by surprise. There was a general feeling of fear and uncertainty among the people.

The schools were ordered closed two days after the beginning of the war. The teachers were utilized in the food production campaign. The able-bodied civilians were organized as members of the civilian guards, bolo battalion and as air raid wardens. The town officials maintained peace and order.

On or about December 19, 1941, USAFFE soldiers were deployed in the different parts of the town. The 75 mm cannons were placed in strategic positions in the different parts of the poblacion. On or about December 21, 1941, all the soldiers left the town which the people later on knew that they were concentrated in Bataan. The people were sad that the soldiers left because there was no one to repulse the invading hordes. But it was a blessing in disguise, for no fighting took place here, otherwise, the town should have been devastated. The people evacuated to the different barrios and mountains because it was learned that the Japanese Imperial Army had already landed in Lingayen, in Atimonan and other points of the Philippines.

Some Japanese soldiers first came to Calaca about the middle part of January, 1942. They did not do any harm and, perhaps, as their policy of attraction, they even compared their skin to ours. They said in broken English, “Same, same color, brothers.” Then, in the subsequent days of the month, more Japanese soldiers came to the place. They did not stay long

[p. 8]

and left the town on the same day they came.

Most of those who evacuated returned to town upon hearing that the Japanese soldiers were not molesting the civilians.

In February, 1942, the Japanese soldiers came again and made the Calaca Elementary School their garrison. Subsequently, a Japanese cotton company came and opened their office in the house of Mr. Mariano Macatangay. The officials occupied some of the big houses like those of Mr. Pacifico de Leon, Mr. Jose Bacal, the big stone house near the municipal building as their bodega. Other personnel lived in their offices. The Japanese confiscated almost all tillable land to be planted to cotton. Those who seemed reluctant to give their land were threatened to be killed. They said that inasmuch as we were vanquished, naturally the spoils would belong to the victor.

The natives were employed in the cotton plantations with meager pay and, at times, used forced labor. Different cotton companies at different times took charge of the plantations. Perhaps, in the absence of the Japanese soldiers, those Japanese employed in the plantations took charge of the military affairs. Some of those Japanese officials were friendly and the people got busy for their existence though always suspicious and vigilant.

Some of the schools were opened in July, 1942 under the supervision of the Japanese, although they employed [the] same teachers in the public schools at the outbreak of war. The Japanese language was taught. Japanese songs and culture were implemented. They allowed Tagalog to be used in the public schools. The Japanese instructed the teachers to cover the pictures of the American great men which are found in books.

Dr. Bernardo Macatangay was ordered to continue his term as mayor of the town together with some other municipal officials. The administration, however, was a puppet but in most cases, the officials worked hard only for the good and salvation of the people. Mr. Macatangay and other town officials were often confronted with delicate and dangerous problems. There were the forced labor, confiscation of land, animals and other property of the people. There were those who were caught and accused of being guerrillas and other crimes which the mayor often succeeded with his intervention. His tact and wit in dealing with the Japs made him their friends which, in turn, he used in behalf of his people.

Soon after the fall of Bataan on April 9, 1942, the underground movement was being organized in Calaca. In justice to those patriotic people, who in spite of the dangerous undertakings, did not think of the torture and death, their names at least must be recorded in this document as defenders of their town, their country and of democracy. They did not think that there would be liberation pay, back pay or other kinds

[p. 9]

remunerations but all for love of country and democracy. Without any doubt, although others were not included in the roster of the guerrillas, all the people, rich and poor, old and young, were genuine guerrillas. It could be said without mental reservation because nobody revealed the organization to the Japanese. The Japs were ever, ever watchful, suspicious and employed spies, fifth columnists and different means to discover the organization but it ever remained a secret. Secret meetings were held in the houses of Reverend Pastor Narciso Alcaraz, Mr. Francisco Ramirez, Mr. Carmino Inumerable, in the shop building of the school and other places in the poblacion which were the immediate neighbors of the Japanese Garrison and office of the Japanese cotton company but they were not discovered by the Japs because the town people sympathized, cooperated and supported the town guerrillas. Even the small children learned about the movement but they closed their mouths and they were the ones who often guarded the meetings. It seemed as [if] the town people became more brotherly, more cooperative and exerted their concerted efforts in fighting a common enemy. It should have been a wonder of anyone of the people of Calaca was convicted of collaboration. Unfortunately, not all who were included in the original roster of the guerrillas were recognized and processed just for obvious reasons. Only two companies or less than three hundred officers and men were recognized and processed on March 6, 1946 in [the] Lipa Demobilization Camp. The officers were Captain Pastor Dinglasan, now principal of the Dacanlao Elem. School; Captain Martiniano Vivo, now a solicitor in Manila; Captain Jose Macatangay as surgeon; First Lieut. Lorenzo Vizconde, a lawyer; First Lieut. Francisco Ramirez, now a public school teacher; First Lieut. Marcial Malantic, now working as Auditor of the Prisco in Manila; First Lieut. Bernardo Macatangay, former Mayor of Calaca; Second Lieut. Felix Villamar; and Second Lieut. Gabino Alamag. Unfortunately, their recognition was revoked by some who were given educational benefits as deserving guerrillas.

Some prominent guerrilla leaders unfortunately not processed were: Rev. Pastor Narciso Alcaraz, Mr. Carmino Inumerable, Mr. Segundo Sinag, Mr. Luis Herrera, Mr. Manuel Ferrer, Mr. Liberato Gomez, Dr. Gabriel Marasigan, etc.

The USAFFE leaders who took part were: Capt. Oligario de Joya, Capt. Antonio Encarnacion, who was the overall commander; 1st Lieut. Godofredo Espinoza, Sgt. Jose Mercado, Pfc. Sevillano Bacal of the Philippine Scouts, Pfc. Vivencio Martinez of the Philippine Scouts, and others.

The guerrillas detected the Jap activities. They spied on the Japanese positions, their trenches, dugouts, strengths, food supply and ammunition. They helped establish the vanishing morale of some town people, inform the people when the Japs were getting horses and other animals, and to hide things that might be useful to them, especially food. The guerrillas

[p. 10]

advised the farmers to use the fertilizers in such a way to kill the cotton plants – putting it direct to the stems and roots or used them in their own rice and cornfields. The guerrillas advised the farmers not to plant sugarcane because they are used in making alcohol for the Japanese Imperial Army.

The Japanese occupied Calaca from February, 1942 up to March 6, 1945, when the American Liberation Forces with some guerrilla units entered and liberated Calaca.

During the Japanese occupation, individual rights and freedom were suppressed. There were sufferings and misery undergone by the people due to lack of food, clothing, medicines and other prime necessities. Many people engaged in food production, commerce, cigarette-making, and in other businesses. The situation was eased because the people practiced tolerance and goodwill. During the height of the Japanese terrorism, the people remained calm but ever watchful.

During the liberation, the guerrillas helped the mapping operations. Those who had arms fought side by side with the Liberation Forces, those who did not have arms served as guides, carriers of supplies and ammunition.

After the liberation, the schools were opened in April, 1945. The opening of the schools greatly helped in the maintenance of peace and order. The town officials were appointed and normalcy was established.

Destruction of lives, properties and institutions during wars, especially in 1896-1900 and 1941-1945

The war in 1896-1900 did not affect too much Calaca because there was no actual fighting that took place. Only that the Spanish Officials were not strict and stern during that time. The people were confined in the poblacion and when they went to the barrio without permission, they were suspected of being insurrectos.

The war in 1941-1945 did not cause much destruction on the lives and properties of the people of Calaca. Most of those who died were soldiers who fought in Bataan. There were some looting and robberies. Many books and desks in school were used by the Japs for fuel. Parts of the school building were destroyed, too. Only Mr. Carmeno Inumerable’s house was burned during the Jap occupation. It [was] suspected that Jap spies might have burned it.

Measures and accomplishments toward rehabilitation and reconstruction following World War II

The Philippine Relief and Rehabilitation Administration has done much for the people by giving them food and clothing

[p. 11]

and other prime commodities.

Part Two: Folkways

Traditions, customs and practices in domestic and social life –

Birth: - In the olden days, when a mother gave birth, there we're usually two persons attending. They were the quack midwife and a male helper. While the midwife attended pressing the stomach of the expectant mother, the man kept on blowing the head of the delivering mother. It was believed that by blowing, the child would easily come out. The child was bathed with warm water. Then, the skin of "osiw" or bamboo. Then, the mother is dressed. A big diaper is put tightly around the waist and then given with much hot food. The drinking water was boiled with different herbs such as "romaro" and roots of the "sarsaparilla" and drank it warm. It took for the mother one month after delivery before she to her bath. A stone as big as a coconut was put on fire until red hot. Some herbs again are put on the stone, some drops of wine were poured and while evaporating, the mother squatted over it until she had perspired enough. The process was done every day one week after bathing. Every day after birth, some scrap coconut shell is applied to the baby's cord until healed. The juice of ampalaya leaves is used as purgative instead of castor oil. It took usually a month for the midwife to massage both baby and mother.

Baptism: - That it was bad not to baptize the child after some days because ghosts would appear. Right after birth, the father registered the child at the office of the clerk in the tribunal. The parents of the mother, for the first grandchild, selected the godfather and godmother. They we're at once notified the day after birth. Usually, the baptism was done after three days or a week after birth or else the priests would be angry with the parents because of the delay.

That it was bad not to baptize the child after some days because ghosts would appear. The baptism usually was an occasion for a celebration of a great feast for the well-to-do or sometimes none at all to the very poor ones.

Courtship: - This is one of the very interesting traditions of the people in Calaca since [a] long time ago. A young man, when in love with a certain women, showed great reverence not only to the woman he loved and to the family of the woman but also to her home kin and property. When the young man visited the young woman, he took off his hat upon seeing the top of the roof of the house of the woman. It is not common today. When he got up the house, he knelt to the parents and kissed their hands. Kneeling is not common nowadays. Often, he is allowed to sit in

[p. 12]

a distance so that when he talked with the woman, the conversation could audibly be heard by the mother who was always in their presence. The young man head to show to her parents that he is in earnest. He talked with the parents to gain their sympathy and show his real love by rendering services to the family. Then, when the love of the young man is accepted by the young woman and, in many cases, by the parents of the woman, the parents of the young man make arrangements by requesting the hands of the girl from her parents. Often, the parents make the terms of marriage.

Marriage: - Before marriage, the lover renders certain personal and delegated services to the girl’s family, often lasting for several months or years in accordance with their agreement – oral or sometimes in written contract. The dowry or “bilang” or “bigay kaya” in Tagalog was often part of the contract, the amount of which depended upon the ability of the lover to give. Sometimes, the dowry was too costly and could hardly be afforded by the lover’s family. The dowry often consisted of money, land, house, or anything of value to be given by the groom to the bride’s parents. The groom paid the wedding apparel and paid the wedding expenses, too.

The night before the wedding, the relatives of the bride are all invited by the groom to have supper at the bride’s home. Early the next morning, light breakfast is served. The wedding comes. After the wedding ceremony, lunch is served. The bride is then transferred to the groom’s house, and the groom is left in the bride’s home. Sometimes, pots are broken at the stairs to make the couple’s life very fruitful. The next day, the couple settles in their new permanent home.

Death: - The death of a member of the family is known to neighbors by [a] sudden burst of crying by the members of the family. The people believe in life after death. They believe that after death, the soul travels to another world to receive its due reward or punishment. There is much praying for the eternal repose of the soul.

Burial: - The next day or within twenty-four hours, the dead is buried. The immediate members of the family are the chief mourners. They wear black clothes, especially the females, and the males put black lace on their clothes in front of the breast or pocket.

[p. 13]

Visits: - Paying visits to my relatives and friends have been common and up to the present, the people are practicing such cordial relationships.

Festivals: - Celebrating town fiestas and other forms of festivals has already been a long tradition of the place. It has long been celebrating the town fiesta every October 24 of the year. There have been elaborate fiestas. Every home has [a] preparation for the visitors. There were dances called "sarao," "bati," "fandango," and "subli" in connection with the fiesta celebration of the Patron Saint San Rafael.

Punishments: - There was a time when a thief was caught, he was traded around the town. He was ordered to cry out loud that he stole a plow or a saddle if he stole such an article. He promised not to do it again and warned others not to do what he did. Sometimes, a culprit was bound with rope and tied to a place where red ants abounded or lived. Another form of punishment was the criminal with rope and tied to a pole under the heat of the sun. The degree of varied according to the gravity of the crime.

Legends: -

The Legend of Bantayan

Bantayan is in the northwestern part of the poblacion. When Calaca was newly made a town, Bantayan was made an outpost against bandits who wanted to attack the town. There were attempts to capture the pueblo but the people attributed that the Patron Saint San Rafael was doing miracles ever since for the safety of the town. The place was considered the best to station the guards from bandits so it was called "Bantayan" or an outpost.

The Legend of Maugat

Maugat is a part of the poblacion of Calaca on the eastern side. It was called "Maugat" years ago, when Calaca was young, the place had many trees. On the ways or roads, big roots of the trees used to obstruct the passers-by. Since that time, it was called "Maugat" or full of roots.

[p. 14]

The Legend of Santa Monic

Very recently, the south eastern part of the poblacion of Calaca was named Santa Monic. It was in a month of May during the May flower offerings when it happened. The different sections of the tongue we're lavishly celebrating flower offerings to the Virgin when the people gave it the name Santa Monic in honor of the Virgin. It was also given simply to identify easily which part of the town celebrated the May festival happily.

Beliefs: - It has been the common belief that when a young woman sings before a stove cooking food, she would marry an old widower. When a hen cackled at midnight, and unmarried woman is getting pregnant and would soon give birth to a bastard child. When a cat wipes its face with its paws, a visitor is coming to the house. When a comet appears in the sky, war, famine or any catastrophe is coming. When a person dreams that one of his teeth falls, somebody in the family will die. When a married woman eats twin bananas, she will give birth to twin children. When a python stays in the house, the owner will be rich. When the sky looks like the skin of the crocodile, the fisherman will catch plenty of fish. When a star is very near the moon, young women will be very submissive to young men and will easily elope with them.

Popular songs: - The kundiman, a tender song of love has been very popular among young men and women. [The] Other favorite song was the Tagalog song of victory called "Tagumpay." some spanish songs have been common, but the most favorite where the kundimans which until the present are much liked. The present song hits are popular. The Tumbukan yes a religious song commonly song during the Lenten season.

Dances: - Picturesque folk dances are the "sarao," "bati," "fandango," and "subli" which are religious dances. They are danced by beautiful young women and handsome young man to celebrate the fiesta of the Patron Saint. The modanza is a farm dance to pull up the weeds in rice plantations. Some Spanish dances such as the "vaylable" and others were danced on social occasions. Many young men and women are very fond of the modern dances. Informal dances are common.

[p. 15]

Puzzles and Riddles: -

1. Isang bayabas pito ang butas. (ulo)
It is a guava with seven holes. (head)

2. Nang maglihi’y namatay
Nang manganak ay nabuhay. (siniguelas)
When it conceived, it died
When it gave birth, it lived. (siniguelas tree)

3. Pagkabata na ay sacristan
Hindi pumapasok ng simbahan. (sisiw ng manok)
A sexton since birth
But never enters the church. (hen’s chicks)

4. Hayan na, hayan na
Hindi mo pa nakikita. (hangin)
It is here, it is here
But cannot be seen. (wind)

5. Takbo roon, takbo rito
Hindi makaalis sa tayong ito. (duyan)
It swings here, it swings there
But never gets away here. (cradle)

6. Maitim na parang tinta
Pumuputi hindi kinukula. (uban)
It is black as ink
It turns white though it is not bleached. (white hair)

7. Buto’t balat nguni’t lumilipad. (saranggola)
It is bone and skin but it flies. (kite)

8. Naghabla ang may sala
Nagtago ang hustisya. (pare at ang nagkukumpisal)
The culprit confesses his crime
But the judge hid. (priest and the person confessing)

9. Tangnan mo ang buntot ko
At sisisid ako. (tabong may tangkay)
Hold my tail and I shall dive. (dipper with handle)

10. Ang paa’y apat
Hindi makalakad. (lamesang apat ang paa)
It has four legs
But it cannot walk. (table with four legs)

11. Itinapon ang laman
Balat ang pinagyaman (uway)
The flesh is thrown
But the skin is kept. (rattan)

[p. 16]

12. Aling mabuting retrato
Kuhang-kuha sa mukha mo? (sa salamin)
Which picture of yours
Is exactly your image? (at the looking glass)

13. Buhat sa puno
Hanggang dulo, puro kuarto. (kawayan)
Form the trunk to the bough,
All are rooms. (bamboo)

14. Alin dito sa mundo
Laging natangis sa
Harapan ng santo? (kandila)

15. Inayos at pinagsama
Saka ko pa nabasa. (titik ng limbagan)
They were mixed and fixed
Before I could read. (letters of the printing press)

16. Bumuka’y walang bibig
Ngumiti ng tahimik. (bulaklak)
It opens without [a] mouth
It smiles in silence. (flower)

17. May katawa’y walang mukha
Walang mata’y lumuluha. (kandila)
It has [a] body without a face
It sheds tears without eyes. (candle)

18. Eto na si amain
Nag bibile ng hangin. (musiko)
Here comes stepfather
Selling wind. (musician)

19. Apat na magkakasama
Pumasok sa kueba
Lumabas ay mapula. (tabako, ikmo, apog, bunga)
Four companions went into a cave
When they came out, they were red. (tobacco, betel leaves, lime, betel nut)

20. Gintong binalot sa pilak
Pilak na binalot sa balat. (itlog)
Gold wrapped by silver
Silver wrapped by shell. (egg)

[p. 17]

21. Alin sa mga ibon
Ang di nakakadapo sa kahoy? (pugo)
Which bird could not alight on trees? (quail)

22. Malayao pa ang sibat
Nganga na ang sugat. (bibig na susubuan)
The spear is still far
But the wound is already opened. (mouth to be fed)

23. Walang pintong pinasukan
Nakarating sa kalooban. (pag-iisip)
No doors to enter
But it gets inside. (thinking)

Proverbs and Sayings: -

1. Walang utang na hindi pinagbabayaran.
There is no debt that will not be paid.

2. Pag wala ang pusa, magulo ang daga.
When the cat is away, the mice will play.

3. Ang pangako ay utang, huag kalilimutan.
A promise is a debt, don’t forget.

4. Kung sinong matiyaga, siyang nagtatamong pala.
He who perseveres, succeeds.

5. Ibang pare, ibang ugali.
Different priest has different mind.

6. Aanhin pa ang damo kung patay na ang kabayo.
Of what use is the grass when the horse is ded.

7. Ang buhay ng tao ay parang gulong,
Nagulongan at makagulong.
The life of a person is like a wheel
It may roll on or be rolled under.

8. Kapalaran ko’y di man hanapin
Dudulog, lalapit kong [kung] talagang akin.
Though I do not seek my fate
It will come to me if it is mine.

9. Walang matimtimang birhen
Sa matiyagang manalangin.
There is no pertinent virgin
To a persistent man.

10. Ang magdaraya’y hindi nagdadalang pa.
The cheater will never be rewarded.

[p. 18]

11. Walang pagwawaging di may pagbabaka.
There is no triumph without struggle.

12. Walang karneng tinangay ng aso
Na di nalalawayan.
No meat being carried by a dog
Is free from its saliva.

13. Kung walang busabus, walang mang-aalipin.
If there are no slaves, there can be no masters.

14. Kanina pa ibibigay ang sarap kung di sa kamag-anak.
To whom will the good taste be given but to the cousin.

15. Kung sino ang palasumpain ay siya ang sinungaling.
He who often swears is the liar.

16. Hindi lahat ng nakinang ay ginto.
That all the glitter are gold.

17. Kahoy mang babad sa tubig, sa apoy ay huag ilalapit,
Pag nadarang ng init sapilitang magdirikit.
Though the wood had long been in water
Do not put near the fire
For if it dries by the heat
It will surely burn.

18. Ang pag-ibig ay sa gawa hindi sa salita.
Love is through deeds, not in words.

19. Ang masamang pamahalaan ay kasalanan ng bayan.
Bad government is the fault of the nation.

20. Kung ano ang sarap, siyang saklap.
Its sweetness is its bitterness.

21. Pag naugong ang dagat ay mababaw.
When the sea is noisy, it is shallow.

22. Lumilipas ang kagandahan ngunit hindi ang kabaitan.
Beauty fades but not kindness.

23. Walang kagandahan di may kapintasan.
There is no beauty without criticism.

24. Kung ano ang ginawa mo ay siyang gagawin sa iyo.
What you have done will be done to you.

25. Ang umilag sa panganib ay di karuwagang tikis.
Discretion is the better part of valor.

[p. 19]

26. Masarap ang gulay na galling sa kapitbahay.
Vegetable is good when it comes from the neighbor.

Method of telling time: -

1. Crows of chickens or cocks
2. Jeckoo’s call
3. Fowls’ call
4. Birds’ call
5. Position of the sun
6. Position of the moon and the stars
7. By the shadow

Methods of measuring time: -

1. Smoking cigar or cigarette
2. Doing a certain piece of work
3. Position of the sun
4. Position of the moon and the stars

Part Three

In spite of the painstaking efforts, no printed or in manuscript form could be located in the community about certain historical data about the town.

Acknowledgment and credits are hereby given to Mr. Ananias Bihis, an old resident and formerly municipal president of the town; Mr. Silvestre Hernandez, another reliable old resident; Mr. Pedro Inumerable, a former policeman during the Spanish regime; Mr. Isabelo Panganiban, an old man who is the uncle of the present incumbent municipal mayor; and other old folks of the town who willingly gave some genuine information concerning the town long ago so that they could remember. Acknowledgment and credits are also given to Mr. Jose Mercado of the Calaca Elementary School who exerted much effort in the gathering of data and researches in order to get the most authentic historical events of Calaca.

Prepared by:

FRANCISCO MARTINEZ
Teacher, Calaca Elementary School

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Notes and references:
Transcribed from “Historical and Cultural Life of the Town of Calaca” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.

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