Santa Clara, Batangas (Town), Batangas: Historical Data - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore Santa Clara, Batangas (Town), Batangas: Historical Data - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore

Santa Clara, Batangas (Town), Batangas: Historical Data

Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the barrio of Santa Clara, Batangas Town, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.

[Cover page.]
Historical Data






[p. 1]


1. Present official name of the barrio – Sta. Clara

2. Popular names of the barrio; present and past, derivation and meanings of these names (Names of sitios included within the territorial jurisdiction of the barrio):

A. (1) Aplaya – meaning along the seashore. Sta. Clara is a coastal barrio, so it is sometimes called Aplaya.
(2) Pantalan – meaning pier, a place for loading and unloading cargo. The pier is located very near the barrio proper, so it is often called Pantalan
B. Ilaya, Gitna, Ibaba, and Stadium are the sitios of Sta. Clara. Ilaya, Gitna, and Ibaba refer to the divisional parts of the barrio; each name indicating direction or the geographical location of the sitio. Ilaya means north, Gitna means middle, and Ibaba means south, so the southern, northern, and the central parts of Sta. Ana are called Ibaba, Ilaya, and Gitna, respectively. The sitio of Stadium, because of its proximity to the Quezon Memorial Stadium, was named Stadium.

3. Date of establishment: In 1870, a few houses were built along the eastern side of what is now known as the Bonifacio Drive, an extension of the national road from the poblacion.

4. Orginal families: Limbanio Montalbo and Macario Macaraig were the first settlers in the northern part of the barrio; Bernabe Dilay, Epifanio Rivera, Casimero Lira, Eugenio Minioza, and Isidoro Lucero settled in the central part, while Perfecto Lucero and Nicomedes de Guzman settled in the southern part.

5. List of Tenientes del Barrio:
 1.  Casimirio Lira - 1901-1904
 2.  Sixto Mercado - 1905-1908
 3.  Limbanio Montalbo - 1909-1911
[p. 2]
 4.  Sergio Arago - 1912-1913
 5.  Simeon Serrano - 1914-1917
 6.  Catalino Mendoza - 1918-1919
 7.  Domingo Dilay - 1920-1923
 8.  Leon Mercado - 1924-1927
 9.  Mateo Macaraig - 1928-1931
10. Francisco Dilay - 1932-1940
11. Primo Arago - 1940-Present
6. Story of the old sitios within the barrio’s jurisdiction which are now depopulated or extinct:–

There is no sitio within the barrio’s jurisdiction that is now depopulated or extinct. There is such a rapid increase in population that the inhabitants in the sitios of Ilaya and Ibaba have already reached their boundary.

7. Date of historical sites, structures, buildings, old ruins, etc.

A. Historical sites
1. There was a stone wall in the western part of the barrio; west of the Bonifacio Drive. This was built by the Spanish soldiers and served as fortress from enemies. It was completely destroyed when the Americans first came in 1896.

2. In April 1942, the Batangas Pier was the scene of bombing and strafing of a Japanese vessel by the U. S. Bombers.

3. In September, 1944, the same site was bombed by the U. S. Air Force and the Japanese P. T. boats were destroyed.

B. Old ruins

1. During the Spanish regime, there used to be a brick house in the southern part of the barrio of Sta. Clara where Spanish officials lived. Near this structure was a jail similarly constructed where Filipino prisoners were kept. Both house and jail were destroyed when the prisoners bolted. The concrete foundation of the structures still remain.

[p. 3]

2. In the northern part of the barrio, there can still be seen a portion of a concrete wall supposed a part of the brick house of Doña Clara, the wife of a high ranking Spanish official. This was used by Spanish officials as their quarters during the Spanish occupation of the Islands.

3. The ruins of a stone bridge can still be seen between Sta. Clara and Cuta, a neighboring barrio. This was built by Filipino laborers under the administration of the Spaniards.

C. Structures and buildings

1. The bridge between the poblacion and Sta. Clara was constructed in 1875 by the Spaniards. This was reconstructed by the American government in 1911. This was totally destroyed at the outbreak of World War II. It was reconstructed in 1947.

2. The pier was constructed by the Spaniards in 1896. This was reconstructed by the American government in 1917. It was totally destroyed by the American liberation forces in September, 1944. This was again reconstructed in 1949 by the national government.

8. Important facts, incidents or events that took place during the Spanish occupation.

A. Political
During the Spanish period, the heads of influential families in the locality selected the Cabezas de Barangay. The Cabezas helped the Spanish officials in carrying out their work. The first Cabeza was Mr. Casimiro Lira who was followed by Mr. Sixto Mercado and Mr. Limbanio Montalbo.

B. Educational
There was no government school during the Spanish organization. Very few could read and write. The first teacher in the place was Mr. Andres Serrano who taught Catechism in his home. This began in the year

[p. 4]

1860. Children who could read the Cartilla or learned the Latin lessons were allowed to go to confession and to receive communion in the town church.

C. Religion
The Roman Catholic Religion was the only religion the barrio people professed.

In 1813, some Spaniards brought the Santo Niño aboard a vessel on its way to Cebu. The boat dropped anchor in the Batangas Bay to get fresh water and supplies but when [the] time came for it to resume its voyage, the crew could not make it move. The crew made a thorough examination of the engine but could not find anything the matter with it. The sail was raised but not even a breeze blew. Due to the presence of the Sacred Image in the ship, the crew was requested to allow the Holy Child to be taken ashore. This was taken to the church in the town were a Te Deum was sung in its honor. When the image was left ashore, the ship began to move and obeyed the rudder in any direction.

In the barrio and in the poblacion, the Image made numerous miracles that the people’s faith spread for and wide and it became necessary to set January 15th of every year for the celebration of the barrio fiesta in Santa Clara in commemoration of the day when the sacred image was taken ashore.

Since then, the Sto. Niño has become the patron saint of this barrio.

D. Economics
Ever since, fishing has been the main means of livelihood of the people of the barrio of Santa Clara. From the month of January to May, “tulingan” was caught in abundance in the barrio. These were caught in such great quantities that the people were forced to take them by way of Wa-Wa pass into the Calumpang River, to the Talipapa or Market Place, where there were many customers. During the early days, the market place was located near the Calumpang River.

The following Cabezas owned the so-called “pukotan” which were used for catching fish: Messrs. Casimiro Lira, Sixto Mercado and Limbanio Montalbo.

[p. 5]


1900 – 1941

A. 1900 – There was an epidemic of cholera and dysentery.
1901 – The civil form of government was organized.
1915 – Improvement of the road which is known now as the Bonifacio Drive.
1935 – Construction of the pier, rest house and a comfort house.

B. Educational
In 1915, the barrio had a two-room building which was made of nipa and bamboo. This was burned accidentally. With the help of the people and with the aid of the government, a four-room building was built for the primary pupils.

Although there was a public school teaching English, there was also a private teacher, Mr. Andres Serrano, who taught under-aged pupils to read and write Tagalog and how to say their prayers. Even during the summer vacation, school children went to him to study Tagalog and to learn how to pray.

C. Religion
The Filipino Independent Church or Aglipayan Church gained followers in the northern and southern part of the barrio. The central part remained devoted to the Roman Catholic Church.

D. Politics
The barrio lieutenant or the pangulo was appointed by the mayor upon the recommendation of the municipal councilor assigned for the barrio. He exercised not only executive but also judicial powers as well.

E. Economics
As the Barrio of Sta. Clara is situated along the seacoast, fishing was the most common means of livelihood. Some were engaged in salt-making during the dry season while some were merchants. Stevedoring was common among young men. Most of the women were engaged in selling fish. Those who were not were occupied with embroidery, sew-

[p. 6]

ing, or running small retail stores to earn their living.

F. Social
People had their special gatherings like weddings, baptismal and birthday parties.


A. Events –

1. Before the outbreak of World War II, the Philippines reinforced the defensive position of the barrio against the anticipated coastal attacks. The coastal area was protected by a pair of barbed wires laid out ten meters apart along the shore. Trenches and dugouts were built for general safety and protection. The school building was utilized as army barracks; and together with its premises, the entire school site took the shape of a military establishment.

2. On December 15, 1941, twenty-seven Japanese planes ruthlessly attempted to destroy the pier but their bombs missed the target. The pier stood undamaged after the air attack.

3. On December 24, 1941, the barrio was set on fire. One person was reported to have been killed and all houses were burned except those of Lira and Cunag. The army and the civilian population evacuated after the pier was destroyed for military purposes.

4. The Japanese Forces that took the barrio in January, 1942, installed anti-aircraft guns at the school site and in the area occupied by the Liras’ house. The pier was temporarily rebuilt to facilitate the loading and unloading of Japanese supplies transported by boat.

5. In April, 1942, the vessel named “Cebu,” filled with Japanese soldiers, was bombed.

6. Before the coming of the American Liberation Forces in September 1944, the barrio was burned by the Japanese Forces. All Japanese P. T. boats were destroyed by American bombers.

7. When the American Liberation Forces came, they occupied some parts of the barrio, like the school com-

[p. 7]

mand. Heavy artillery guns were placed in the different points of the barrio. A Red Cross camp was established at the entrance of the barrio to aid both American soldiers and civilians. Soon, all the people came back and began making temporary shelters with all available surplus materials that the American soldiers gave away to the homeless population. With this assistance, the barrio was gradually reconstructed. The pier was rebuilt, this time to serve the American forces.

At present, many new and big houses have been erected while the government is beginning to undertake the reconstruction of the harbor.

B. Education –

In 1945, the barrio had only a four-room school building made of light materials – nipa and bamboo – and without flooring. With the increased enrolment in 1946, the Parents Teachers’ Association under the auspices of Dr. Olegario Cantos, Mr. Primo Arago, Mr. Eustaquio Montalbo, Mr. Pedro Alialy, Mr. Andres Maderazo, Mr. Alejandro Catibog and Mr. Pablo Coz, were able to establish a temporary school building. Spending about ₱12,000 for the purpose [of] a seven-room building of wood and sawali with galvanized iron sheets as roofing was realized. Unfortunately, destructive typhoon Jean tore the roof down last December 26, 1946. This was replaced with relief fund secured by the then Mayor Roman L. Perez.

At present, the barrio has a school building with seven rooms in the main building, 2 annex rooms, an industrial shop and H.E. buildings, aside from the four borrowed classrooms in the NACOCO warehouse. It became a complete elementary school in 1947.

In 1950, the Principal, with the help of all the teachers, introduced the community-centered school. The community was divided into seven “puroks” with their leaders and officers. Among the improvements made were the construction of two reading centers and two recreational centers sponsored by “Purok D, E, G, and H,” respectively. The most notable achievement is the cleanliness of the community. With the introduction of the community-centered school, the people’s minds were weakened toward the improvement of the health conditions in the barrio.

[p. 8]

C. Religion –

Although there are several religions existing in the barrio, a large majority of the people are Roman Catholics. Barrio fiestas and masses in honor of the Patron Saint are held annually (every January 15th) in the chapel built for the purpose. May-Flower celebrations are also observed in the barrio yearly in May. Formerly, the barrio chapel was made of bamboo and nipa. After its destruction during the war, a semi-permanent chapel made of wood and galvanized iron was erected under the initiative of Mrs. Francisca Dilay and Miss Gregoria Macaraig before the fiesta of January 15, 1949. The amount of ₱500 appropriated for the purpose was taken from the Rehabilitation Fund.

D. Economics –

Since the barrio is situated along the seacoast, fishing is the most common means of livelihood. There are some who engage in salt-making. Stevedoring is common among young and adult males. The latter occupation has been found profitable in view of the thriving trade that makes merchant vessels from Mindoro and the Visayas and from neighboring seacoast barrios call at the barrio harbor. The flourishing commercial activity accounts for the increase of population.

Businessmen own most of the “pukotan,” fishing ponds and vessels in the barrio.

Housewives have their part in earning a living by selling fish, running tiendas, engaging in embroidery work, in sewing and in the making of nipa thatches.

Organizations also flourished, the most active of which are the “Samahan ng Cochero,” “Stream Cargadores” and “Association of Jeep Owners and Drivers.”

E. Politics –

During elections, the inhabitants feel free to vote as they may choose, although it is not rare that the prosperous “pukot” owners are able to prevail upon a few to vote as they are told.

[p. 9]

The Barrio Lieutenant or the Pangulo is appointed by the Mayor with the recommendation of the Councilor in charge of the barrio. He exercises executive powers. Minor judicial cases which used to be referred to him are now handled by a “checkpoint” which was established at a strategic point in the community.

F. Social –

The people are not behind in social activities. Aside from some traditional social affairs like weddings, baptismal and birthday parties, the younger population enjoys social gatherings on special occasions like Christmas and New Year. Ballroom dancing is customary.


1896 – 1940

1. Lives lost – a. Caused by the first American bombardment – None
b. Caused by an epidemic of cholera, about 100 persons
2. Properties lost – Caused by typhoons and floods approximately ₱5,000.00
3. Institutions lost – One room schoolhouse made of nipa and bamboo – ₱100. This was destroyed by the typhoon.
Two-room schoolhouse made of nipa ang bamboo – ₱200

1941 – 1945

1. Lives lost – Killed by the Japanese – 10
2. Properties lost
December 24, 1941 – a. Bombing of the pier and the rest house – about ₱5,200.00
b. Burning of about 300 houses amounting to approximately ₱50,000.00
Sept. 1944 – Burning of houses about 120 in number amounting to ₱30,000.00
3. Institutions lost – A four-room schoolhouse made of wood and galvanized iron was made into barracks at the outbreak of World War II.

[p. 10]

This was burned by the military authorities when Japanese ships were sighted approaching Batangas Bay in 1941. This loss was estimated at ₱1,000.


When the Philippines was declared liberated on July 5, 1945, the barrio of Sta. Clara was on the road to normalcy and order.

1945 – Reestablishment of a school building in the present site to bring back the children to school. It was made of bamboo, sawali and nipa (kamalig) costing the barrio people ₱500.00.

1946 – Construction of a private commercial building (Nacoco) under the management of Mr. Kalaw amounting to ₱50,000.00. It made three direct exportations of copra to other countries like England and the United States from 1946 to 1948, employing a hundred laborers in the barrio with compensations.

1947 – Construction of the present school building by the Parent-Teacher Association amounting to ₱12,000.00.

1948 – 1. Construction of the barrio Home Economics building by the National Government amounting to ₱4,000.00.

2. Construction of the barrio Industrial Arts Building by the National Government amounting to ₱5,000.00.

3. Construction of the public toilet in the central part of the barrio by the National Government costing ₱1,500.00.

1949 – Reconstruction of the pier and comfort room by the National Government amounting to ₱5,000.00.

1950 – 1. Reconstruction of the road south of the barrio by the Provincial Government amounting to ₱1,000.00.

2. Installation of three water pumps in the barrio by the Municipal Government costing about ₱300.00.

1952 – Construction of the two school toilets, one for the boys amounting to ₱1,390.00 from the Sweeps-

[p. 11]

stakes Fund allotted for the Province, and one for girls amounting to ₱1,500.00 from the Municipal Fund.

1945 – 1953 – Construction of about 500 private houses in the barrio amounting to about ₱250,000.00.


1. A measure for the construction of the pier and warehouse by the National Government costing ₱45,000.00
2. A measure to convert the Bonifacio Drive into a boulevard.
3. A measure for the reconstruction of a better barrio school building by the National Government.


1. Traditions, customs and practices in domestic life and social life, birth, baptism, courtship, marriage, death, burial, visits, festivals, punishments, etc.

2. Myths, legends, beliefs, interpretations, superstitions; origin of the world, land, mountains, rivers, seas and caves, lakes, plants, trees, animals, sun, moon, stars, eclipse, thunder, earthquakes, lightning, clouds, rain, wind, storms, changes of climate, other natural phenomena, first man and woman, birth of twins or more; sickness, witchcraft, magic, divination, etc.

3. Popular songs; games and amusements

4. Puzzles and riddles

5. Proverbs and sayings

6. Methods of measuring time; special calendar

7. Other folktales


I. Birth – Panganganak

1. The helper of an expectant mother during delivery is an old unlicensed midwife without knowledge of the art except through experience, instead

[p. 12]

of a registered nurse or a graduate, licensed midwife.

Ang katulong ng isang manganganak ay isang “matandang hilot” na hindi sanay, sa halip na tunay na nars o nag-aral at may lisensiyang hilot.

2. The newly-born child’s cord is cut by a thin blade of bamboo, instead of a sterilized pair of scissors. The healing of the cord is hastened by putting fine ashes from the native stove or the scrapped powder from the outside of a coconut shell.

Ang bagong inianak na sanggol ay pinuputulan ng pusod sa pamamagitan ng manipis at matalas na balat ng kawayan sa halip na malinis at pinakuluang gunting. Nilalagyan ng gabok sa abuhan o pulbos na kinayod sa bao upang maputol at gumaling sa lalong madaling panahon.

3. The hands and feet of the newly-born child are bound by a band and its body wrapped in muslin.

Ang kamay at paa ng bagong anak ay ginagapos ng kapirasong damit at ang buong katawan ay binabalot ng malapad na lampin.

4. The baby is not given [a] sponge or tub bath until the cord falls off.

Hindi pinupunasan o pinapaliguan ang bata hanggang hindi napuputol ang pusod.

5. The baby is given bitter fruit juice for laxatives instead of castor oil.

Ang ipinupurga sa bagong anak ay mapait na katas ng bungang kahoy sa halip na aciete de castor.

II. Baptism – Pagbibinyag

1. The sponsor for the baby is at once decided and announced soon after birth, otherwise the would-be sponsor might reject the request.

Agad sinasabihan ang mag-aanak sa binyag sapagkat baka hindi paunlakan ang pakiusap.

2. The sponsor buys the dress for baptism.

[p. 13]

Ang mag-aanak sa binyag ang bibili ng bibinyagang isusuot sa pagbibinyag.

3. Usually, there is a party after the baptism. The sponsor gives the child a gift in the form of money.

Karaniwan ay may handaan pagkatapos ng binyag. Ang mag-aanak ay may pakimkim na salapi.

4. The sponsor blows at the face of the child during a certain part of the ceremony so that the child will resemble him.

Ang binibinyagan ay hinihipan sa mukha ng nag-aanak sa binyag upang tumulad sa kanya.

5. After the ceremony, the babies are rushed to the door.

Pagkatapos ng binyag ay nag-uunahan paglabas sa pinto ng simbahan.

III. Courship – Panliligaw

1. Sometimes, a young man who wants to court a young woman asks permission from the parents of the latter.

Manaka-naka ang isang binatang ibig manligaw ay nahingi ng pahintulot sa magulang ng dalaga.

2. A young man seldom invites a young woman to go to parties. If ever a young woman is invited, she is chaperoned.

Ang dalaga’y madalang anyayahan ng binata upang dumalo sa mga kasayahan. Kung magpaunlak ang dalaga ay sinasamahan ang dalaga ng isang matanda.

3. There is a certain time for courtship which is usually in the evening but not later than eight o’clock.

May panahon ang panliligaw, karaniwan ay sa gabi, datapwa’t hindi lalampas sa ika-walo.

IV. Marriage – Pagkakasal

1. Almost all the neighbors help in the preparation during the eve of the wedding party.

[p. 14]

Halos lahat ng kapitbahay ay tumutulong kung may handaan sa araw ng kasal.

2. The groom gives a certain dowry to the parents of the bride.

Ang ikakasal na lalaki ay nagbibigay ng “bilang” o bigay-kaya sa magulang ng ikakasal na babae.

3. After the party, the bride is brought to the house of the groom; the groom is left at the bride’s house during the first night.

Pagkatapos ng handaan, ang bagong kasal na babae ay ‘dinadapit’ o dinadala sa bahay ng lalake at ang lalake ay iniiwan sa bahay ng babae sa unang gabi ng kasal.

4. The newly-weds are given money publicly by the relatives of both.

Ang bagong kasal ay “sinasabugan” o binibigyan ng salapi ng kanilang kamag-anak sa harap ng maraming tao.

5. Before entering the house after the church rites, the couple is showered with rice and given sweetened desserts to make life sweet.

Bago pumanhik ng bahay pagkatapos ng kasal, ang ikinasal ay sinasabugan ng bigas at pinagpapagmatamis upang maging matamis ang samahan ng dalwa.

V. Deaths – Kamatayan Burial – Paglilibing

1. All night vigil over a dead person.

Pinagpupuyatan ang patay sa magdamag.

2. A fair or big celebration on the fourth or ninth day after death.

May kainan o malaking handaan sa ika-apat o ika-siyam na araw ng pagkamatay.

3. There are church rites before the burial.

Bago ilibing ang patay ay idinadaan sa simbahan.

[p. 15]

4. Children and grandchildren kiss the hand of the dead parent before burial.

Humahalik ng kamay ang mga anak at apo ng namatay.

5. Children and relatives take a bath on the fourth day after death.

At mga anak at kamag-anak ng namatay ay sa ika-apat na araw nangliligo.

6. No eating of vegetables growing on vines within nine days after the death of a member of the family; no sweeping of floor.

Ipinagbabawal ang kumain ng gulay na kuha sa halamang gumagapang; at ang pagwawalis ng pamamahay sa loob ng siyam na araw.

7. The plates used in eating are not piled on top of the other until after they are washed, within four days.

Ang mga pinggan na ginamit sa pagkain ay hindi pinagpapatong-patong hangga’t hindi nahuhugasan.

VI. Visits – Pagdalaw

1. Neighbors and friends visit the sick although the disease is communicable.

Ang mga kapitbahay o kaibigan ay dumadalaw sa isang may sakit na ang sakit ay nakakahawa.

2. Visitors are offered buyo, cigarettes, or soft drinks.

Ang mga dumadalaw ay inaanyayahan ng nganga, sigarilyo, o dili kaya ay karaniwang inumin.

VII. Eating – Pagkain

1. Due to [the] lack of household furniture, it is common to see families eat on the floor.

Dahilan sa kakulangan ng kagamitang pambahay ay karaniwang makitang ang isang angkan ay kumakain sa sahig sa halip na sa hapag.

2. Use of fingers instead of spoon and fork.

[p. 16]

Paggamit ng galamay sa halip na kutsara.

3. Wetting the tips of the fingers in [a] common dipper or cup before eating instead of washing with soap and water.

Binabasa ang galamay sa isang tabo o tasa bago kumain sa halip na maghugas ng may sabon sa tubig.

4. The first handful of rice is not usually eaten but set aside to remember a dear one or for the spirits.

Ang unang sakol ay hindi kinakain, datapwa’t inilalagay sa isang tabi ng plato upang ialay sa isang mahal o di kaya sa mga espiritu.

VIII. The Household – Pamamahay

1. Before constructing a house, the lot is scrutinized well by old residents of the place to determine if it is a lucky spot. A glassful of water is left on the spot overnight. Overflowing of water means luck. A piece of bamboo is measured and thrown on the selected spot. If measurement after subsequent throw increase in length, the place is lucky.

Bago magtayo ng bahay ay sinusuri ang lupang pagtitirikan ng mga matatanda. Ang isang basong puno ng tubig ay iniiwan sa napiling lupa sa buong magdamag. Sakaling umawas ang tubig, ang lupa ay mabuti. Ang isang patpat na may taning na sukat ay makailang ihahagis sa lupang napili. Sakalit humaba ang patpat kung susukatin muli ay itinuturing na mabuti ang lupang napili.

2. Stairs of the house preferably face the east, north or south but never west.

Ang hagdanan ng bahay ay nakaharap sa silangan, hilaga o timog datapwa’t hindi sa kanluran.

3. The doors in the house are placed on different distances from the corners of the walls – never in straight lines.

Ang mga pintuan sa loob ng bahay ay hindi magkakatapat.

4. There are houses where the back porch is the first place to be reached before the house proper.

[p. 17]

Karaniwan ay ang batalan muna ang sasapitin bago ang kabahayan.

5. There are still many houses without other rooms except the sala.

Maraming bahay ang walang silid maliban lamang sa silid tanggapan.


Ang karamihan sa mga taga Sta. Clara ay mga Katoliko at sila’y mga mabubuting magbabasa ng Pasyon. Ang lahat ng nakatitik sa aklat na ito ay pinawawalan ng mga taga rito. Taos-puso silang nagtitiwala sa Diyos na siyang lumikha ng mga kakasang nasa kanilang paligid gaya ng dagat, bundok, lupa, hangin, langit, halaman, hayop, buwan, bituin, at iba pa.

Kanilang nasasaulo ang mga bahaging lubos na makahulugan sa “Pasyon” at ito’y kanilang ikinukwento sa mga bata gaya ng mga unang nilikhang tao, sina Adan at Eba. Iya’y kanilang isinasalaysay buhat nang unang likhain si Adan, nang bigyan siya ng Diyos ng kasama sa buhay; nang tuksuhin silang mag-asawa ni Eba ng demonyo upang mapalayas sa Paraiso, at nang matupad ang masamang hangarin ni Satanas hanggang sila’y mapalayas sa nasabing Paraiso. Iyang mga kuwentong gaya niyan ay kinatutuwa-an nilang isalaysay.

Kakaunti ang kanilang masasabi tungkol sa mga lindol, kulog, bagyo, at kidlat. Pinaniniwalaan din nilang ang mga ito’y nangyayaring lahat sa kagustuhan ng Diyos upang paalalahanan ang mga tao sa kanilang mga pagkakasala at sa gayo’y maisipang magsisi ng mga kasalanan.

Ganoon man ay mayroon pa ring mangilan-ilang nakapagkukuwento ng mga kanilang paniniwala at kuro-kuro tungkol sa pinagmulang ng mga bituin, buwan, bundok, lupa, at iba pa gaya na nga ng mga salaysay na sumusunod:


Most of the people of Sta. Clara are Roman Catholics. They have faith in the Divine Providence and believe

[p. 18]

what is written in the “Passion.” They account for the existence of the land, the seas, the mountains, the planets, the animals, moon, stars, the sky and other things around them as having been created by God.

They believe in Adam and Eve as the first man and woman. The subscribe to the Biblical origin of the first man and woman; that is, that Adam was created by God and that Eve was taken from Adam’s [rib] to give the first man a woman companion to help him overcome his loneliness. They seem to be familiar with the account of their life in the Garden of Paradise; of Satan’s evil desires on them and their being driven away from Paradise.

They have very little to say with regards to the occurrence of earthquakes, thunder, lightning and storms as they often believe that God wills these things to happen.

However, there are some barrio folks who give accounts of the legends and origins of the land, of the mountains, the eclipse, the moon and others. Those that were related are given in the pages that follow.


Noon unang panahon, diumano’y walang lupa, mga punong kahoy at mga bundok. Langit lamang at tubig ang tanging nakikita sa paligid.

Isang araw, mayroon daw isang ibong lilipad-lipad at nang mapagod ay naghanap ng mapapapagpahingahan. Nabigo ang ibon sapagkat walang malamang dapuan. Sa matinding pagod ay naisip niyang bunutin ang isang bagwis ng kanyang buntot at ito’y ipinatak sa tubig. Ang pinatakan ng buntot na iyon ay naging bato. Natuwa ang ibon at nagkaroon siya ng madadapuan.

Paminsan-minsan buhat noon ay naglalaglag ang ibon ng kanyang bagwis kung lumilipad. Yaong pinatakan ng bagwis ay nagiging lupa at bato. Iyang ibong iyan ay nawalan ng balahibo at hindi na nakitang muli. Yaong mga nawalang balahibo ang naging lupa.


A long time ago, it was believed that there was no land, mountains, and trees. There was nothing around except the sky and the water.

[p. 19]

One day, a bird came flying about and was on its wings for hours. Soon, he felt weary and exhausted. He searched for a place where he could alight and rest for some time. But he searched in vain. At last, he thought of plucking one of his tail feathers and dropped it down the water. To his surprise, the feather became a big stone. This made him happy as he found a place to alight and rest.

For some time, he flew again and dropped one of his feathers. Soon, he lost all his feathers and was never seen again. It was then believed that every plumage he dropped into the water was turned to land and stone.


Sa simula ng daigdig, ang Diyosang Araw ay maraming kaanak na mga bituin. Ang mga bituin niyo’y kulay pilak at maningning. Minsan ay naisip ng Diyosang Buwan na hindi matatagalan ng mga bituin niya ang init ni Araw at ng kanyang mga kaanak. Sa gayo’y lumapit siya sa Araw upang makipagsundo.

“Diyosang Araw,” ang wika ng Diyos Buwan. “Ikaw ay totoong mainit at hindi ka maaaring matagalan ng mga bituin ko.”

“Kung gayo’y ano ang ibig mong manyari, Diyosang Buwan?” ang tanong ng Araw.

“Kung papayag ka’y pawiin natin ang atin-ating mga bituin para mapangalagaan ang ating kaligtasan,” ang mungkahi ni Diosa Buwan.

“Ikaw ang masusunod, ang sangayon ng Diosa Araw. Kakanin ko ang aking mga bituin at kakanin mo rin ang iyong mga bituin.”

Pumayag ang Diosa Buwan sa mungkahi ng Diosa Araw. Kinain ng Araw ang kanyang mga bituin. Hindi kinain ng Buwan ang kanyang bituin. Sa halip ay itinago ang mga bituin ng Buwan sa likod ng mga ulap. Paminsan ang mga bituin ng Buwan ay lumalabas buhat sa kanilang pinangungublihan. Nagalit ang Araw ng Makita ang ginawag kataksilan ng Buwan.

“Magbabayad sila ng mahal sa ginawa niyang panlilinlang upang mailigtas niya ang kanyang sarili at ang kanyang mga bituin,” anang araw.

Sapul noon ay hinabol niya ang Buwan upang pagbayarin. Maliksi ang Buwan kaya hindi mahuli ng Araw.

Ang paghahabulan ng Araw [at] ng Buwan ay nagsimula

[p. 20]

noon pang unang panahon. Kung minsan ay naglalaban ang Buwan at ang Araw at kinakagat ang Buwan ng Araw. Magdidilim sa lupa kapag nagaganap ang ganitong paghahamok. May mga pagkakataong ang Buwan naman ang natatalo sa labanan. Kung ang Araw daw ayon sa paniniwala ng mga matatanda ay hindi bingkat ay maaaring tayo’y sunog sa kainitan nito. Iyan ang matatandang paniwala at hanggang ngayon ay pinaniniwalaan pa rin ng ilan.

Kung Araw ay itinago ng Buwan ang kanyang mga bituin, at kung kaya lamang ilalabas sa kung siya ay pinagpayohan ng kanyang pinakamatandang anak na babae na si Tala, na ang Araw ay malayo at hindi makakain ang biuin.


A long time ago when the world was young, it was believed that the sun had many relatives, the stars. His stars were golden and bright.

One day, it came upon the Moon that her own stars might not be able to endure the very strong rays and heat of the Sun. She approached the Sun and gave her proposal.

“Sun,” she began, “you are too hot and I’m afraid my stars will not be able to endure your heat!”

“What would you like to happen, then?” inquired the Sun.

“If you will agree, I suggest that we get rid of our stars for our own good,” proposed the Moon.

“Well, I agree with your proposal,” said the Sun. “I will eat all my stars and you will eat yours, too.”

The Sun, true to his promise, ate up all his stars sparing none of them. The Moon, on the other hand, hid her stars behind the clouds instead of eating them. Once in a while, her stars [would] come out from their hiding places. The Sun was enraged upon learning of the Moon’s hypocrisy.

“I will make vengeance for her untruthfulness. She will suffer bitterly for this,” swore the Sun to himself.

Since then, the Sun was always on guard and often

[p. 21]

chased the Moon. But this wise queen was never caught. She was swift and always on the alert.

The feud between the two continued until one day, the Sun caught the Moon and bit her. She hid herself behind the clouds until her wound was healed and came out again when she was well. She had planned, too, her revenge and she really did it one day when she had a fight with the Sun. She bit him too, bitterly, that the Sun is no longer round and big as he used to be.

It is believed then that whenever these enemies meet, there is an eclipse. The old people believed, too, that if the Sun’s size was not reduced and if he were not bitten by the Moon, his rays would be terribly hot that no human being will survive to endure the heat.

At daytime, the moon and her stars are hiding behind the clouds and come out at night when the Sun is not around to eat the stars and chase her. She is often advised by her oldest daughter, Tala, as to the proper time of showing up.


Noon daw una, ang lupa ay patag kaya’t ang mga ito ay hindi nahihirapan sa pagakyat sa bundok. Dahil sa kaginhawahang ito ay nalilimutan ng tuloy ng tao ang Panginoong Diyos. Minarapat ng Panginoon na bigyan ng parusa ang mga tao at pinapagkaroon niya ng mga bundok. Buhat noon di-umano ay sa tuwing makatapos ng isang tao na makaakyat sa isang mataas na bundok ay sinusundan niya ito ng mga salitang “Salamat sa Panginoong Diyos!”; natuto tuloy siyang maka-alaala sa Diyos sa tuwing oras.


At the beginning of time, there were no mountains. Lands were level and people found no difficulty in travelling. Because of this comfort that the people enjoyed, they forgot all about God who created everything. This aroused the ire of the Almighty, and to punish them, he created mountains. This made traveling harder, but the people came to remember God again. Every time they reach the summit of a high mountain, they heave a sigh of relief, look up at heaven, and utter “Thank God, at last I have reached the top.”

[p. 22]

(Beliefs About Sickness and Witchcraft)

Ang mga mangkukulam ayon sa mga taga Sta. Clara ay nakakagawa ng paghihiganti sa kanyang kagalit sa pamamagitan ng pagkulam. Mayroon daw isang manyika ang mangkukulam na ito ay tinutundos ng aspili ang bahagi ng katawang nais pasakitin. Kapag ito’y natundos ay ang taong kinulam ay makakaramdam ng di birong sakit sa bahaging tinundos na maaaring ang tiyan o ang ulo at paa at iba pa. Ang nakukulam daw ay naluluka marahil dahil sa sakit ng bahaging tinundos.

Ang may sakit ay ipinagagamot sa arbularyo sapagkat ang tunay na manggagamot ay nagkakamali sa paggamot. May paniwala ang manggagamot na kapag inilubog halimbawa ang sumakit na bahagi ng katawan ng may sakit sa kumukulong tubig, ang may sakit ay hindi nasasaktan. Sa halip ay ang mangkukulam ang nakararamdam ng sakit. Umaabot tuloy sa ang masakit ay mamatay sa ganyang maling paniwala.

Mayroon din ditong kung tawagin ay “manggagahoy.” Ang taong ito’y masamang bumati o tumitig sa kanyang kinatutuwaan. Kapag ikaw raw ay natitigan o nabati nito ikaw ay magkakasakit. Sasakit ng matindi ang iyong ulo at magsusuka ka pang lagi.

Sa ganito’y tinatawag ang magbubuga at kapag nakapagngata ng ikmo at bunga ito’y ibubuga sa may sakit at dagli naman mawawala ang pananakit ng ulo at pagsusuka.

People in Sta. Clara believed in [the] “Mangkukulam.” They said these mangkukulam have the power to avenge their enemies through the spell of evil spirits. It was believed that the “mangkukulam” had a doll which he pricked with a pin on the part of the body where he wished his enemy to feel extreme pain. The object of his evil desires would then suffer as much as he would feel endless pains at a certain part of his body, say, the stomach. The victim sometimes became crazy as the pain increased unceasingly.

The patient would then be treated by quack doctors. The licensed physician as they believed would make the patient’s condition worse, so they called upon the “arbulario.” As soon as the doctor learned of the origin of the patient’s state, he indulged on treating the patient inhumanly. Often he whipped him or poured water over him. This, he believed, would not be felt by the

[p. 23]

patient himself but by the “mangkukulam” who, on the other hand, will relieve the patient’s pain.

The belief had done more harm than good. Often, the patient is slowly being killed without catching the “mangkukulam.”

Another person possessing such powers is the “manggagahoy.” He is not as cruel as the mangkukulam. The moment he stares, glares of praises a person she admires, the person will suffer from extreme headache and constant vomiting. A “magbubuha” is called. He chews the “ikmo” and its extract is spat on the patient’s forehead. The patient recovers instantly as if he had never suffered any pain.


May paniniwala ang mga taga Sta. Clara na kapag daw ang isang buntis ay kumain ng saging na kambal, siya ay magluluwal ng kambal. Mayroon din namang nagsasabi na kapag ang pinaglinhan ay batang kambal o dili kaya’y larawan ng kambal ay kambal din ang iaanak.

Yaon namang iba’y naniniwala na ang panganganak ng kambal ay mana-mana. Agad nilang tinutuntun ang mga kamaganakn at ninuno at kanilang hinahanap ang mga nag-anak ng ganyon.


It is believed that a pregnant woman must avoid eating twin bananas as it will cause her to give birth to twins. Others believe that mothers give birth to twins because they happen to admire pictures of twins when conceiving.

Another belief is that giving birth to twins is hereditary. The birth of twins in a family is traced to relatives, immediate parents and even to preceding generations.

[p. 24]


1. If someone sings in front of the stove, she will marry a widower.

Ang kumanta sa harap ng abuhan ay magkaka-asawa ng balo.

2. When a man going to the cockpit goes down the house and meets a snake, it is a sign of good luck.

Ang magsasabong kung pumanaog ng bahay at makasalubong ng ahas ay dapat ay tumuloy at buwenas.

3. Kapag ang pusa ay naghihilamos, ito ay tanda ng may darating na bisita.

When a cat washes its face, it is a sure sign that visitors are coming.

4. Pag ang ibong laying-layang ay lumilipad ng mababa, iyan ay tanda ng may darating na masamang panahon.

When a swallow flies low and almost touches the ground, it is a sign that bad weather is approaching.

5. Pag ang unan ay inupuan ay magkakaroon ng pigsa.

One who sits on a pillow will surely have a boil.

6. Pag ang langit ay batik-batikan, iyon ay tanda na maraming mahuhuling isda.

When the sky appears spotted, it is a fine sign of a good catch next morning for the fishermen.

7. Kapag nañgamoy o nagamoy kandila at walang nalalamang pinanggagalingan ng amoy na ito, may namatyan ng kamaganak.

When someone smells a lighted candle without seeing a lighted one, it is a sign of the death of a relative.

8. Sa isang bagong kasal ay kapag ang lalaki ang nangunguna sa pagpanhik sa bahay buhat sa simbahan, ito’y nangangahulugang ang kagustuhan ng lalaki ang mangyayari sa pamumuhay ng magasawa.

[p. 25]

When the newlyweds go up the house for the first time after the marriage ceremony and the groom happens to ascend the stairs ahead of the bride, it is believed that the husband’s decisions will prevail in their married life.

11. Kung gabi raw ay huwag magdadakot ng gabok upang itapon sapagka’t oras ito ng paghihikap ng Mahal na Virgen at maaaring mahagisan sa kanyang paglalakad.

It is believed that throwing ashes at night after cleaning the stove is not a good practice as the Blessed Virgin Mary walks around during that holy hour and might be sprinkled with dust.

12. Ang mga babae raw na nagdadalang-tao ay huag titiñgala sa langit kapag mayroong eklipse upang huag magdanan ng hirap sa pañgañganak.

Women who are on the family way must not look and gaze at eclipses. It is believed that by doing [so], they will suffer hardship during the delivery.

13. Kung magtatayo raw ng bahay ay dapat humukay muna ng isang dimukot (one-arm-length deep) sa pagtatayuang ito. Kung sa kinabukasan ay puno o awas ang lamang tubig nito, ay mabuting patayuan ng bahay ang lugal na ito, ngunit kapag ang hukay ay tuyo at walang tubig, ay hindi mabuting pagtayuan ng bahay ito.

Before constructing a house, a hole, about one-arm-length deep, should be dug at the middle of the proposed site. In the morning, if the hole is filled or water in it overflows its edge, it is believed that the site is good. On the other hand, if it is empty and dry, then it is not a good one.

14. Ang pagdaan sa ilalim ng hagdanan ay nagdadala ng masamang kapalaran.

Passing under the stairway of a house brings bad luck.

[p. 26]



Karakol (Pareha ng Bangka)

Ang “Karakol” ay pareha ng mga bangka. Ito’y ginaganap sa tuwina kapag kaarawan o piesta ng mahal na Patron, Sto. Niño. May mga pagkakataong ginaganap din ito kung nagpaparangal sa katapusan ng Flores de Mayo. Maraming bangka ang maaaring sumali sa paligsahang ito. Sabaysabay ang mga itong aalis sa isang takdang lugar at sa pamamagitan ng mabisang paraan sa paggaod ay unahan sila upang makarating sa itinakdang hangganan.

Boat Racing

Boat racing is done usually during the fiesta of the Patron Saint and sometimes during the May Festivals. Many boats can take part in the race. These boats start at the same time, at a given place and stop when they reach the designated goal. The first boat to reach the goal wins.

Sibatan ng Singsing sa Bisekleta

Ang palarong ito’y maaaring salihan ng kahit ilang nakabisekleta. Ang mga nakabisekleta’y nagdaraan sa ilalim ng isang kawayang salo ng dalawang poste na kinasasabitan ng mga singsing na may kabit na laso. Ang mga maglalaro’y sisibat ng singsing na may kabit na laso. Ang mga maglalaro’y sisibat sa pamamagitan ng isang maiksing bakal na pino at matulis. Ang makarami ng laso na makuha ay magkakamit ng gantimpala.

“Huego de Anillo” on Bicycles

The participants are men. Several ribbons with a ring at one end of each rolled ribbon are hung on a stick which is supported by two posts in a horizontal position. The man rides his bicycle and tries to get the ribbon as he passes under the arch by inserting a certain pointed stick or steel through the ring. He makes as many rounds as he desires to get the most number of ribbons.

[p. 27]

The winner is he who gets the greatest number of ribbons.

Sibatan ng Singsing sa Dagat

Sa paligsahang ito’y bangka na pinatatakbo ng motor ang ginagamit. Ang mga bangkang ito’y daraan sa ilalim ng arkong nakatayo sa dagat. Nakabitin sa arko ang mga singsing na may kabit na nakapulong laso. Paramihan ng makukuhang laso ang maglalaro. Ang pinakamaraming nasibat na singsing ay siyang magkakamit ng gantimpala.

“Huego de Anillo” at Sea

The participants in this game use motor boats as it is played at sea. The participants are men and the number is not limited. An arch is constructed at a reasonable distance from the shore. Several ribbons with a ring at one end of each rolled ribbon hang from this arch. The participants ride the motors boats and try to get the ribbons as they pass under the arch by inserting a certain pointed stick or steel through the ring. He makes as many rounds as he desires to get the most number of ribbons. He who gets the greatest number of ribbons wins.

Sibat Singsing sa Kabayo

Ito’y katulad rin ng sibat singsing sa bisekleta. Ang pinagkakaibahan lamang ay ang sinasakyan ng mga maglalaro ay kabayo.

“Huego de Anillo” on Horses

It is played in the same manners as Huego de Anillo on a bicycle. This time, the participants use horses instead of bicycles.

Huego de Kurbata

Mga dalaga at binata ang nagsisiganap sa paligsahang ito. Ang mga dalaga’y nakahanay ng tuwid sa isang dako. Sa katapat nila ay may ilang dipa ang agwat nakahanay ang mga binata. Ang mga binata ay patakbong

[p. 28]

lalapit sa mga dalagang katapat sa hudyat na ibibigay ng nangangasiwa ng palaro. Pagkaraka’y kakabitan ng dalaga ng binata ng kurbata na kanyang dala. Ang magkaparehang unang makakatapos at wasto ang pagkalagay ng kurbata ay siyang magtatagumpay.


The participants are ladies and gentlemen. The ladies are in one row and the gentlemen are in the opposite row. Each lady has a necktie. The gentlemen run to their lady partners at the same time at a given signal. The ladies put the neckties around the men’s necks nicely. The couple that returns first to their place with the tie properly placed is the winner.

Mga Larong Pampalakas

Ang mga tao dito sa nayon ng Sta. Clara ay mahilig sa mga larong pampalakas katulad ng basketball, baseball o softball, volleyball, pimpong at iba pa. Kung mga araw ng Linggo ay kanilang ginagamit ang kanilang malayang panahon sa mabuti at malusog na paraan. May mga lugar dito na sadyang laan sa ganyang uri ng laro. Manakanaka din nilang ginagamit ang malapad na palaruan sa paaralan.

The people in Sta. Clara are interested in athletics. On Sundays and on days when the winds are unfavorable to fishing, they spend their leisure hours wisely by participating in games such as basketball, baseball or softball, volleyball, ping-pong and others. There are recreational centers where these games are held. Sometimes, they use also the school ground for the purpose. The games attract a big audience and so these provide better and healthier ways of spending their leisure times rather than staying in gambling places.


Cockfighting, though not a desirable form of amusement, is occasionally engaged in by the older men of the barrio. There is no cockpit in the place, but usually once a week, these men whose hobby is to take care of the fighting cocks assemble at a convenient spot. They select the two best bets among the cocks available and in a small arena which these man and onlookers form, the cocks are

[p. 29]

induced to test their skill. With much shouting and excitement, they watch the angry cocks exhibit their grit. More matches are made from cocks. From the movements of these cocks, they determine their best bet in the Sunday cockfighting appointment in town.

Birthday Party

Relatives, friends and neighbors are invited to a luncheon or merienda when someone celebrates his or her birthday. There are singing and dancing among the young generation. It is also customary among the educated group to give birthday presents to the celebrant.


Karaniwang nagdaraon ng kasiyahan upang parangalan ang isang may kaarawan lalo na sa mga nakakaya sa buhay. Mga kaibigan ang marami sa mga inaanyayahan at karaniwang merienda ang kanilang inihahanda. Ang mga inanyayahan ay nagdadala ng kanilang mga ala-ala sa may kaarawan. Mayroon ding mg kantahan at sayawan sa mga kasayahang ito.

[p. 30]



Doon po sa amin, bayan ng San Roque
May nagkatuwaang apat na pulubi.
Nagsayaw ang pilay, umawit ang pipi.
Nanood ang bulag, nakinig ang bingi.

Doon po sa amin, maralitang bayan,
Nagkatay ng hayop, nik-nik ang pangalan.
Ang taba po nito nang maipatunay,
Ang nakuhang langis, siyam na tapayan.

Doon po sa amin, bayan ng Malabon
May isang matandang, nagsaing ng apoy.
Palayok ay papel, papel pati tung-tung.
Tubig na malamig, ang iginagatong


In our place along the bay
Barrio of San Roque,
Met four jolly beggars.
In full festal mood one day,
The cripple gaily, gaily danced,
The mute sang a melody,
And the blind enjoyed the sight,
Gladly listened the deaf.

In that humble little town,
That we proudly call our town,
People slaughter insects,
That we call nik-nik.
And the fat of these mites,
When melted and drained,
Grace oil that filled
All nine earthen vats.

In our place along the shore
Town of Malabon.
There’s a certain old man
Whose fire did boil
In a flimsy paper fat,
Set upon a paper stove.
And for fuel, did you know
He used water cold.

[p. 31]


Sa dakong sikatan
Ng masayang araw
May lupang sagana
Sa madlang kariktan
Nasisiphayo ng palalong asal
Na iyang bayan ko
Bayan ko minamahal
Nawalay sa kanya
Anong laking sakit
Maging sa pag-ibig
Araw na malalam
Malumbay ang langit
Na di ka masilip


Mid the sunny Orient sea
Birth place of the glorious day
Lies a lovely Eden land
Treasure land in every way
Thousand isle be
Under skies of tropic blue
Verdant veils and mountains
Enchanting to the river oh.
Land of blessing come above
Land of ardent sterling love
Land of charms an ending
Land of patriots brave in shiner [?]
Land where life is blush divine
This is my fair beloved land
My own dear native land.


Leron, leron sinta, umakyat sa papaya,
Dala-dala’y buslo, sisidlan ng sinta,
Pagdating sa dulo, nabakli ang sanga.
Kapus kapalaran, humanap ng iba.

Leron, leron beloved,
Up a tall papaya tree
He climbed with basket gay
That had his love for me
The tip-tip branch he touched,
It broke off with a click
Aba, what evil luck,
Please choose another quick.

[p. 32]

(Riddles Common in Sta. Clara)

1. Nagtanim ako ng dayap sa gitna ng dagat, marami ang nagsihanap, isa lamang ang nagkapalad… Pagliligawan.

I planted lemon in the middle of the sea, many searched for it but only one is lucky to own… Act of courting.

2. Taglong magkakaibigan, magkakalayo ang bayan. Kung magkakainan ay nagkakaharapan… Ikmo, Bunga at Apog.

There are three friends living separately in distant places, but when eating they are together… Beetle nut, beetle leaf, lime.

3. Kung araw ay bumbong, kung gabi ay dahon… banig.

It is a tube during the day, and an open leaf at night… mat.

4. Ako’y may kaibigan, kasama ko saan man, mapagtubig ay di nalulunod, mapa-apoy ay di nasusunog… Anino

I have a personal friend who is always with me wherever I go; in water, he doesn’t drown in in fire he never gets burnt… Shadow.

5. Tubig na pinagpala, walang makakuha kundi munting bata… Gatas ng ina.

Blessed water from a holy spring; no one can get it but the babe… Mother’s milk.

6. May ulo’y walang mukha, may katawa’y walang sikmura, namamahay ng sadya… Palito ng posporo.

It’s a head without a face, a body without a stomach, living in its natural home… Match.

7. Pantaleo’s dog jumped across seven valleys and over seven hills before he found his glory… game of sungka.

Ang aso ni Pantaleon, lumukso ng pitong talon, umulit ng pitong gubat bago nagtanaw dagat… sunkahan.

[p. 33]

8. Kandado roon, kandado rito, kandado hanggang dulo… kawayan.

It is locked here and there and still locked from head to foot… bamboo.

9. Eto na si Kaka, may sunong na dampa… pagong

Here comes my brother with a roof on his forehead… turtle.

10. Munting bundok, di madampot… ipot.

A little heap but can never be picked up… chicken manure.

11. Limang principe sa Balete, sombrero’y tigkakalahati… daliri.

Five princes in a tree with heads covered with hats partly… fingers.

12. Eto na si Lelong, bubulong-bulong… bubuyog.

Here comes Daddy Long Legs, who is whispering all the time… bumble bee.

13. Bumili ako ng alipin, mataas pa kay sa akin… sombrero.

I bought a slave but he became higher than I… hat.

14. Nagtago si Pedro, nakalabas ang ulo… pako.

Pedro hid in a house, but his head is out… nail.

15. Itinapon sa dagat, sa bundok hinanap… bobo

I threw it at the bottom of the sea and found it on top of the mountain… fish trap called bobo.

16. May puno walang sanga, may daho’y walang bunga… sandok.

A branch [tree] without a branch, and a leaf without a fruit… ladle.

[p. 34]

17. Pantas ka man at maalam, angkan ka ng mga paham, turan mo kung ano ang bapor nating katihan ay walang pinaglalagyan kundi ang gamit nating mahal… prensa.

If you are intelligent and wise, your relatives are all bright, guess a ship on the land which only floats on dresses and pants… iron.

18. Kitang-kita ang nakamatay ngunit di pa matalian… hangin.

You can see the killer but you can’t arrest him… wind.

19. Lumalakad ay walang munihila [humila?], tumatakbo’y walang paa… bangka.

It walks but it has no feet, it runs without being pushed… boat.

20. Kung araw yumao ka, kung gabi hali ka na… banig.

It leaves during the day and comes back at night without delay… mat.

21. Magsaing si Kurukutong, kumukolo’y walang gatong… bula ng sabon.

Kurukutong cooked rice and it boiled without fire… soap suds.

22. Bahay ni Ka Huli, haligi’y bali-bali, ang bubong ay kawali… alimango.

The house of Ka Huli has broken posts and a frying pan for a roof… crab.


1. Ang maniwala sa sabi-sabi ay walang bait sa sarili.

He who believes in tales does not have a mind of his own.

2. Ang hipong tulog ay natatangay ng agos.

The sleeping shrimp is carried away by the current.

[p. 35]

3. Ang tunay na kaibigan ay isang kayamanan.

A faithful friend is a treasure.

4. Madali ang sumira ngunit mahirap ang gumawa.

It is easier to destroy than to construct.

5. Ang kahoy habang bata pa’y hutukin at kapag tumanda na’y mahirap baluktutin.

Bend the tree while young.

6. Huag mong gagawin ang masama sa kapwa upang ikaw ay huag ding gawan naman ng masama.

Do not do unto others what you would not have others do unto you.

7. Ang hindi lumingon sa pinanggalingan ay hindi makararating sa parurunan.

He who doesn’t care to look back from whence he came cannot hope to reach his destination.

8. Kapag ang dagat ay matining turukin mo at malalim.

A quiet sea runs deep.

9. Ang taong padaskul-daskul sa anumang ginagawa ay malimit magkamali at madalas malisya [mali siya?].

10. Walang pagkakautang na hindi pinagbabayaran.

All debts must be paid.


Those who do not own time pieces or do not know how to use one tell the hour during the day by looking at the position of the sun or at the length of the shadow it causes objects to cast. When the sun is directly overhead, it indicates high noon.

At night, the crowing of the cocks or else the position of the constellations and the moon when these are visible enable them to tell the hour. Fishermen out in the deep sea know when it is midnight when the Southern Cross is directly overhead and that

[p. 36]

it is four o’clock in the morning when the Morning Star is clearly visible.

Information on books and documents treating of the Philippines and the names of their owners.

1. Philippine National Dances – Reyes-Tolentino
Owner – Miss Elena Maracaig

2. Political and Cultural History of the Philippines by Gregorio F. Zaide; Part II
Owner – Miss Elena Macaraig

3. Philippine Saga, A Pictorial History of the Archipelago Since Time Began – Prof. H. Otley Beyer and Prof. Jaime C. De Veyra
Owner – Mr. Ernesto Abacan

4. The Philippine Revolution – Teodoro M. Kalaw
Owner – Ernesto Abacan

Names of Filipino authors born or residing in the community, the titles and subjects of their works, whether printed or in manuscript form, and the names of persons possessing these.

1. Poems by Vicente Papasin
a. Paalam Na, Guro
b. Ang Guro

2. Story by Vicente Papasin
a. Dakilang-dakila

Both poems and story by Vicente Papasin are in manuscript form. The above-mentioned articles are in the author’s possession.

Notes and references:
Transcribed from “History and Cultural Life of the Barrio, Santa Clara,” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.
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