Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the barrio of Santa Clara, Batangas Town, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.
H I S T O R Y
A N D
C U L T U R A L L I F E
O F T H E
B A R R I O
HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF THE BARRIO OF STA. CLARA
1. Present official name of the barrio – Sta. Clara
2. Popular names of the barrio; present and past, derivation and meanings of these names (Names of sitios included within the territorial jurisdiction of the barrio):
3. Date of establishment: In 1870, a few houses were built along the eastern side of what is now known as the Bonifacio Drive, an extension of the national road from the poblacion.
4. Orginal families: Limbanio Montalbo and Macario Macaraig were the first settlers in the northern part of the barrio; Bernabe Dilay, Epifanio Rivera, Casimero Lira, Eugenio Minioza, and Isidoro Lucero settled in the central part, while Perfecto Lucero and Nicomedes de Guzman settled in the southern part.
5. List of Tenientes del Barrio:
1. Casimirio Lira|
2. Sixto Mercado
3. Limbanio Mercado
4. Sergio Arago|
5. Simeon Serrano
6. Catalino Mendoza
7. Domingo Dilay
8. Leon Mercado
9. Mateo Macaraig
10. Francisco Dilay
11. Primo Arago
6. Story of the old sitios within the barrio’s jurisdiction which are now depopulated or extinct:–
7. Date of historical sites, structures, buildings, old ruins, etc.
1. There was a stone wall in the western part of the barrio; west of the Bonifacio Drive. This was built by the Spanish soldiers and served as fortress from enemies. It was completely destroyed when the Americans first came in 1896.
2. In April 1942, the Batangas Pier was the scene of bombing and strafing of a Japanese vessel by the U. S. Bombers.
3. In September, 1944, the same site was bombed by the U. S. Air Force and the Japanese P. T. boats were destroyed.
B. Old ruins
2. In the northern part of the barrio, there can still be seen a portion of a concrete wall supposed a part of the brick house of Doña Clara, the wife of a high ranking Spanish official. This was used by Spanish officials as their quarters during the Spanish occupation of the Islands.
3. The ruins of a stone bridge can still be seen between Sta. Clara and Cuta, a neighboring barrio. This was built by Filipino laborers under the administration of the Spaniards.
1. The bridge between the poblacion and Sta. Clara was constructed in 1875 by the Spaniards. This was reconstructed by the American government in 1911. This was totally destroyed at the outbreak of World War II. It was reconstructed in 1947.
2. The pier was constructed by the Spaniards in 1896. This was reconstructed by the American government in 1917. It was totally destroyed by the American liberation forces in September, 1944. This was again reconstructed in 1949 by the national government.
8. Important facts, incidents or events that took place during the Spanish occupation.
The Roman Catholic Religion was the only religion the barrio people professed.
In 1813, some Spaniards brought the Santo Niño aboard a vessel on its way to Cebu. The boat dropped anchor in the Batangas Bay to get fresh water and supplies but when [the] time came for it to resume its voyage, the crew could not make it move. The crew made a thorough examination of the engine but could not find anything the matter with it. The sail was raised but not even a breeze blew. Due to the presence of the Sacred Image in the ship, the crew was requested to allow the Holy Child to be taken ashore. This was taken to the church in the town were a Te Deum was sung in its honor. When the image was left ashore, the ship began to move and obeyed the rudder in any direction.
In the barrio and in the poblacion, the Image made numerous miracles that the people’s faith spread for and wide and it became necessary to set January 15th of every year for the celebration of the barrio fiesta in Santa Clara in commemoration of the day when the sacred image was taken ashore.
Since then, the Sto. Niño has become the patron saint of this barrio.
Ever since, fishing has been the main means of livelihood of the people of the barrio of Santa Clara. From the month of January to May, “tulingan” was caught in abundance in the barrio. These were caught in such great quantities that the people were forced to take them by way of Wa-Wa pass into the Calumpang River, to the Talipapa or Market Place, where there were many customers. During the early days, the market place was located near the Calumpang River.
The following Cabezas owned the so-called “pukotan” which were used for catching fish: Messrs. Casimiro Lira, Sixto Mercado and Limbanio Montalbo.
IMPORTANT FACTS AND EVENTS DURING THE AMERICAN OCCUPATION UP TO WORLD WAR II
1900 – 1941
A. 1900 – There was an epidemic of cholera and dysentery.
1915 – Improvement of the road which is known now as the Bonifacio Drive.
1935 – Construction of the pier, rest house and a comfort house.
In 1915, the barrio had a two-room building which was made of nipa and bamboo. This was burned accidentally. With the help of the people and with the aid of the government, a four-room building was built for the primary pupils.
Although there was a public school teaching English, there was also a private teacher, Mr. Andres Serrano, who taught under-aged pupils to read and write Tagalog and how to say their prayers. Even during the summer vacation, school children went to him to study Tagalog and to learn how to pray.
IMPORTANT FACTS AND EVENTS DURING AND AFTER WORLD WAR II
A. Events –
1. Before the outbreak of World War II, the Philippines reinforced the defensive position of the barrio against the anticipated coastal attacks. The coastal area was protected by a pair of barbed wires laid out ten meters apart along the shore. Trenches and dugouts were built for general safety and protection. The school building was utilized as army barracks; and together with its premises, the entire school site took the shape of a military establishment.
2. On December 15, 1941, twenty-seven Japanese planes ruthlessly attempted to destroy the pier but their bombs missed the target. The pier stood undamaged after the air attack.
3. On December 24, 1941, the barrio was set on fire. One person was reported to have been killed and all houses were burned except those of Lira and Cunag. The army and the civilian population evacuated after the pier was destroyed for military purposes.
4. The Japanese Forces that took the barrio in January, 1942, installed anti-aircraft guns at the school site and in the area occupied by the Liras’ house. The pier was temporarily rebuilt to facilitate the loading and unloading of Japanese supplies transported by boat.
5. In April, 1942, the vessel named “Cebu,” filled with Japanese soldiers, was bombed.
6. Before the coming of the American Liberation Forces in September 1944, the barrio was burned by the Japanese Forces. All Japanese P. T. boats were destroyed by American bombers.
7. When the American Liberation Forces came, they occupied some parts of the barrio, like the school com-
mand. Heavy artillery guns were placed in the different points of the barrio. A Red Cross camp was established at the entrance of the barrio to aid both American soldiers and civilians. Soon, all the people came back and began making temporary shelters with all available surplus materials that the American soldiers gave away to the homeless population. With this assistance, the barrio was gradually reconstructed. The pier was rebuilt, this time to serve the American forces.
At present, many new and big houses have been erected while the government is beginning to undertake the reconstruction of the harbor.
B. Education –
In 1945, the barrio had only a four-room school building made of light materials – nipa and bamboo – and without flooring. With the increased enrolment in 1946, the Parents Teachers’ Association under the auspices of Dr. Olegario Cantos, Mr. Primo Arago, Mr. Eustaquio Montalbo, Mr. Pedro Alialy, Mr. Andres Maderazo, Mr. Alejandro Catibog and Mr. Pablo Coz, were able to establish a temporary school building. Spending about ₱12,000 for the purpose [of] a seven-room building of wood and sawali with galvanized iron sheets as roofing was realized. Unfortunately, destructive typhoon Jean tore the roof down last December 26, 1946. This was replaced with relief fund secured by the then Mayor Roman L. Perez.
At present, the barrio has a school building with seven rooms in the main building, 2 annex rooms, an industrial shop and H.E. buildings, aside from the four borrowed classrooms in the NACOCO warehouse. It became a complete elementary school in 1947.
In 1950, the Principal, with the help of all the teachers, introduced the community-centered school. The community was divided into seven “puroks” with their leaders and officers. Among the improvements made were the construction of two reading centers and two recreational centers sponsored by “Purok D, E, G, and H,” respectively. The most notable achievement is the cleanliness of the community. With the introduction of the community-centered school, the people’s minds were weakened toward the improvement of the health conditions in the barrio.
C. Religion –
D. Economics –
Since the barrio is situated along the seacoast, fishing is the most common means of livelihood. There are some who engage in salt-making. Stevedoring is common among young and adult males. The latter occupation has been found profitable in view of the thriving trade that makes merchant vessels from Mindoro and the Visayas and from neighboring seacoast barrios call at the barrio harbor. The flourishing commercial activity accounts for the increase of population.
Businessmen own most of the “pukotan,” fishing ponds and vessels in the barrio.
Housewives have their part in earning a living by selling fish, running tiendas, engaging in embroidery work, in sewing and in the making of nipa thatches.
Organizations also flourished, the most active of which are the “Samahan ng Cochero,” “Stream Cargadores” and “Association of Jeep Owners and Drivers.”
E. Politics –