4. Children and grandchildren kiss the hand of the dead parent before burial.
5. Children and relatives take a bath on the fourth day after death.
6. No eating of vegetables growing on vines within nine days after the death of a member of the family; no sweeping of floor.
7. The plates used in eating are not piled on top of the other until after they are washed, within four days.
VI. Visits – Pagdalaw
1. Neighbors and friends visit the sick although the disease is communicable.
2. Visitors are offered buyo, cigarettes, or soft drinks.
VII. Eating – Pagkain
1. Due to [the] lack of household furniture, it is common to see families eat on the floor.
2. Use of fingers instead of spoon and fork.
3. Wetting the tips of the fingers in [a] common dipper or cup before eating instead of washing with soap and water.
4. The first handful of rice is not usually eaten but set aside to remember a dear one or for the spirits.
VIII. The Household – Pamamahay
1. Before constructing a house, the lot is scrutinized well by old residents of the place to determine if it is a lucky spot. A glassful of water is left on the spot overnight. Overflowing of water means luck. A piece of bamboo is measured and thrown on the selected spot. If measurement after subsequent throw increase in length, the place is lucky.
2. Stairs of the house preferably face the east, north or south but never west.
3. The doors in the house are placed on different distances from the corners of the walls – never in straight lines.
4. There are houses where the back porch is the first place to be reached before the house proper.
5. There are still many houses without other rooms except the sala.
MGA ALAMAT, PAMAHAIIN, PANINIWALA, AT KURO-KURO
Ang karamihan sa mga taga Sta. Clara ay mga Katoliko at sila’y mga mabubuting magbabasa ng Pasyon. Ang lahat ng nakatitik sa aklat na ito ay pinawawalan ng mga taga rito. Taos-puso silang nagtitiwala sa Diyos na siyang lumikha ng mga kakasang nasa kanilang paligid gaya ng dagat, bundok, lupa, hangin, langit, halaman, hayop, buwan, bituin, at iba pa.
Kanilang nasasaulo ang mga bahaging lubos na makahulugan sa “Pasyon” at ito’y kanilang ikinukwento sa mga bata gaya ng mga unang nilikhang tao, sina Adan at Eba. Iya’y kanilang isinasalaysay buhat nang unang likhain si Adan, nang bigyan siya ng Diyos ng kasama sa buhay; nang tuksuhin silang mag-asawa ni Eba ng demonyo upang mapalayas sa Paraiso, at nang matupad ang masamang hangarin ni Satanas hanggang sila’y mapalayas sa nasabing Paraiso. Iyang mga kuwentong gaya niyan ay kinatutuwa-an nilang isalaysay.
Kakaunti ang kanilang masasabi tungkol sa mga lindol, kulog, bagyo, at kidlat. Pinaniniwalaan din nilang ang mga ito’y nangyayaring lahat sa kagustuhan ng Diyos upang paalalahanan ang mga tao sa kanilang mga pagkakasala at sa gayo’y maisipang magsisi ng mga kasalanan.
Ganoon man ay mayroon pa ring mangilan-ilang nakapagkukuwento ng mga kanilang paniniwala at kuro-kuro tungkol sa pinagmulang ng mga bituin, buwan, bundok, lupa, at iba pa gaya na nga ng mga salaysay na sumusunod:
LEGENDS, BELIEFS, INTERPRETATIONS AND SUPERSTITIONS
Most of the people of Sta. Clara are Roman Catholics. They have faith in the Divine Providence and believe
what is written in the “Passion.” They account for the existence of the land, the seas, the mountains, the planets, the animals, moon, stars, the sky and other things around them as having been created by God.
They believe in Adam and Eve as the first man and woman. The subscribe to the Biblical origin of the first man and woman; that is, that Adam was created by God and that Eve was taken from Adam’s [rib] to give the first man a woman companion to help him overcome his loneliness. They seem to be familiar with the account of their life in the Garden of Paradise; of Satan’s evil desires on them and their being driven away from Paradise.
They have very little to say with regards to the occurrence of earthquakes, thunder, lightning and storms as they often believe that God wills these things to happen.
However, there are some barrio folks who give accounts of the legends and origins of the land, of the mountains, the eclipse, the moon and others. Those that were related are given in the pages that follow.
ALAMAT NG LUPA
Noon unang panahon, diumano’y walang lupa, mga punong kahoy at mga bundok. Langit lamang at tubig ang tanging nakikita sa paligid.
Isang araw, mayroon daw isang ibong lilipad-lipad at nang mapagod ay naghanap ng mapapapagpahingahan. Nabigo ang ibon sapagkat walang malamang dapuan. Sa matinding pagod ay naisip niyang bunutin ang isang bagwis ng kanyang buntot at ito’y ipinatak sa tubig. Ang pinatakan ng buntot na iyon ay naging bato. Natuwa ang ibon at nagkaroon siya ng madadapuan.
Paminsan-minsan buhat noon ay naglalaglag ang ibon ng kanyang bagwis kung lumilipad. Yaong pinatakan ng bagwis ay nagiging lupa at bato. Iyang ibong iyan ay nawalan ng balahibo at hindi na nakitang muli. Yaong mga nawalang balahibo ang naging lupa.
ORIGIN OF LAND
A long time ago, it was believed that there was no land, mountains, and trees. There was nothing around except the sky and the water.
One day, a bird came flying about and was on its wings for hours. Soon, he felt weary and exhausted. He searched for a place where he could alight and rest for some time. But he searched in vain. At last, he thought of plucking one of his tail feathers and dropped it down the water. To his surprise, the feather became a big stone. This made him happy as he found a place to alight and rest.
For some time, he flew again and dropped one of his feathers. Soon, he lost all his feathers and was never seen again. It was then believed that every plumage he dropped into the water was turned to land and stone.
ALAMAT NG BITUIN AT NG EKLIPSI
Sa simula ng daigdig, ang Diyosang Araw ay maraming kaanak na mga bituin. Ang mga bituin niyo’y kulay pilak at maningning. Minsan ay naisip ng Diyosang Buwan na hindi matatagalan ng mga bituin niya ang init ni Araw at ng kanyang mga kaanak. Sa gayo’y lumapit siya sa Araw upang makipagsundo.
“Diyosang Araw,” ang wika ng Diyos Buwan. “Ikaw ay totoong mainit at hindi ka maaaring matagalan ng mga bituin ko.”
“Kung gayo’y ano ang ibig mong manyari, Diyosang Buwan?” ang tanong ng Araw.
“Kung papayag ka’y pawiin natin ang atin-ating mga bituin para mapangalagaan ang ating kaligtasan,” ang mungkahi ni Diosa Buwan.
“Ikaw ang masusunod, ang sangayon ng Diosa Araw. Kakanin ko ang aking mga bituin at kakanin mo rin ang iyong mga bituin.”
Pumayag ang Diosa Buwan sa mungkahi ng Diosa Araw. Kinain ng Araw ang kanyang mga bituin. Hindi kinain ng Buwan ang kanyang bituin. Sa halip ay itinago ang mga bituin ng Buwan sa likod ng mga ulap. Paminsan ang mga bituin ng Buwan ay lumalabas buhat sa kanilang pinangungublihan. Nagalit ang Araw ng Makita ang ginawag kataksilan ng Buwan.
“Magbabayad sila ng mahal sa ginawa niyang panlilinlang upang mailigtas niya ang kanyang sarili at ang kanyang mga bituin,” anang araw.
Sapul noon ay hinabol niya ang Buwan upang pagbayarin. Maliksi ang Buwan kaya hindi mahuli ng Araw.
Ang paghahabulan ng Araw [at] ng Buwan ay nagsimula
noon pang unang panahon. Kung minsan ay naglalaban ang Buwan at ang Araw at kinakagat ang Buwan ng Araw. Magdidilim sa lupa kapag nagaganap ang ganitong paghahamok. May mga pagkakataong ang Buwan naman ang natatalo sa labanan. Kung ang Araw daw ayon sa paniniwala ng mga matatanda ay hindi bingkat ay maaaring tayo’y sunog sa kainitan nito. Iyan ang matatandang paniwala at hanggang ngayon ay pinaniniwalaan pa rin ng ilan.
Kung Araw ay itinago ng Buwan ang kanyang mga bituin, at kung kaya lamang ilalabas sa kung siya ay pinagpayohan ng kanyang pinakamatandang anak na babae na si Tala, na ang Araw ay malayo at hindi makakain ang biuin.
ORIGIN OF THE STARS AND THE ECLIPSE
A long time ago when the world was young, it was believed that the sun had many relatives, the stars. His stars were golden and bright.
One day, it came upon the Moon that her own stars might not be able to endure the very strong rays and heat of the Sun. She approached the Sun and gave her proposal.
“Sun,” she began, “you are too hot and I’m afraid my stars will not be able to endure your heat!”
“What would you like to happen, then?” inquired the Sun.
“If you will agree, I suggest that we get rid of our stars for our own good,” proposed the Moon.
“Well, I agree with your proposal,” said the Sun. “I will eat all my stars and you will eat yours, too.”
The Sun, true to his promise, ate up all his stars sparing none of them. The Moon, on the other hand, hid her stars behind the clouds instead of eating them. Once in a while, her stars [would] come out from their hiding places. The Sun was enraged upon learning of the Moon’s hypocrisy.
“I will make vengeance for her untruthfulness. She will suffer bitterly for this,” swore the Sun to himself.
Since then, the Sun was always on guard and often
chased the Moon. But this wise queen was never caught. She was swift and always on the alert.
The feud between the two continued until one day, the Sun caught the Moon and bit her. She hid herself behind the clouds until her wound was healed and came out again when she was well. She had planned, too, her revenge and she really did it one day when she had a fight with the Sun. She bit him too, bitterly, that the Sun is no longer round and big as he used to be.
It is believed then that whenever these enemies meet, there is an eclipse. The old people believed, too, that if the Sun’s size was not reduced and if he were not bitten by the Moon, his rays would be terribly hot that no human being will survive to endure the heat.
At daytime, the moon and her stars are hiding behind the clouds and come out at night when the Sun is not around to eat the stars and chase her. She is often advised by her oldest daughter, Tala, as to the proper time of showing up.
ALAMAT NG BUNDOK
Noon daw una, ang lupa ay patag kaya’t ang mga ito ay hindi nahihirapan sa pagakyat sa bundok. Dahil sa kaginhawahang ito ay nalilimutan ng tuloy ng tao ang Panginoong Diyos. Minarapat ng Panginoon na bigyan ng parusa ang mga tao at pinapagkaroon niya ng mga bundok. Buhat noon di-umano ay sa tuwing makatapos ng isang tao na makaakyat sa isang mataas na bundok ay sinusundan niya ito ng mga salitang “Salamat sa Panginoong Diyos!”; natuto tuloy siyang maka-alaala sa Diyos sa tuwing oras.
ORIGIN OF MOUNTAINS
At the beginning of time, there were no mountains. Lands were level and people found no difficulty in travelling. Because of this comfort that the people enjoyed, they forgot all about God who created everything. This aroused the ire of the Almighty, and to punish them, he created mountains. This made traveling harder, but the people came to remember God again. Every time they reach the summit of a high mountain, they heave a sigh of relief, look up at heaven, and utter “Thank God, at last I have reached the top.”