PART I | PART II
Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the barrio of Bucana in the Municipality of Nasugbu, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.
HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE
Barrio of BUCANA
PART ONE – HISTORY
1. Present official name of the barrio – BUCANA.
2. Popular name of the barrio, present and past: derivation and meanings of these names. Names of sitios included within the territorial jurisdiction of the barrio.
|(4) Patay na Ilog
|(3) Makina No. Uno
|(6) Daang Liang
3. Date of establishment – second half of the 19th century, latter part of the Spanish regime.
4. Original families –
5. List of tenientes from the latter part of the Spanish regime to the present:
6. Story of old barrios or sitios within its jurisdiction that are now depopulated or extinct – None.
7. Data on historical sites, structures, buildings, old ruins, etc. – None, except the ruins of an old Spanish bridge.
8. Important facts, incidents or events that took place
(b) During the American occupation until the outbreak of World War II – None that could be considered of significance.
(c) During and after World War II –
The visit of the officers of the Japanese Imperial Army to spread their propaganda about the Co-Prosperity Sphere. At times during the Japanese occupation, guerrillas used to visit this place.
January 31, 1945 – The landing of the American Liberation Forces. The whole barrio became a busy hive of GI’s, guerrillas, and civilians who helped in the unloading of supplies and ammunitions.
9. Destruction of lives, properties and institutions during wars, especially in 1896-1900 and 1941-1945.
Part Two: FOLKWAYS
10. Traditions, customs and practices in domestic and social life; births, baptism, courtship, marriage, death, burial, visits, festivals, punishments, etc.
In this barrio (Bucana), as in all rural areas in the Philippines, there are many customs and practices which have been handed down from generation to generation. These customs and practices are still adhered to strictly in spite of the advancement made in science and technology. The life of the inhabitants are geared to
these in almost all stages of their lives, lest a violation of the same may bring misfortune to the individual members or to the whole family. This is a clear evidence of the superstitious nature of the inhabitants, as shown in the following:
A woman who is conceiving should not laugh at an ugly thing, lest an infant in her womb resemble the ugly thing at birth, just the same she should not get angry with ugly persons or things.
A woman who is conceiving should not eat twin banana fruits, left she give birth to twins.
A women in the family way should not sleep on the floor crosswise to ensure the correct position of the baby when she delivers. When putting firewood in the stove, it should conform with the natural growth of the wood so that when the baby is to be born, the head should be first.
A woman and the family way should not wrap around her neck [a] handkerchief or panuelo so that the umbilical cord will not wrap around the body of the infant.
A woman whose marriage had incurred the hate of the mother will suffer during her delivery of the firstborn, unless the mother steps over her [husband? mother?] while laboring.
During the time when the woman is laboring, any animal tied, especially roosters, should be set free so as not to prolong the labor.
In bathing the newly born baby, the water should be tepid and in the basin should be placed silver coins, paper and pencil to ensure a prosperous life for the child. The paper and pencil will make the child intelligent.
In burying the placenta and umbilical cord, they should be placed in halves of the coconut shell. Papers, [a] pencil and [a] needle should be buried with them. The one burying should be very quiet. These instructions should be followed so that the child will not be garrulous and a wanderer. He will be intelligent and industrious.
The remaining cord, once it is cut, should be wrapped and hung above the fireplace. Care should be taken that it not be stolen by rats, left the child becomes a thief or a thief or a kleptomaniac.
When a baby is born, the parents confer on the name that should be given. The name selected must conform with the name of the same that appears on the calendar on the date the child is born. This is strictly followed in the belief that if the child dies and is not named after the right saint, it will not go to heaven.
The next step that is usually done is the selection of the godfather or the godmother, as the case may be. The one so selected must be of good moral character and intelligent for it is believed that the child takes after the godparents.
If the child shows signs of dying before the real Baptism can take place, an old man or woman is asked to perform a semblance of church Baptism. This is called a “buhos tubig.” A proxy may be asked in this lay Baptism.
A women may have had several children born to her, but not one has lived long. In this case, an old man may be asked to become the godfather to ensure long life for the child. In some cases, the first love or sweetheart of the woman is asked to be the godfather.
A child in the course of the Baptismal ceremony is forced to cry for it is believed that he will live long.
If during the ceremony, plenty of salt was swallowed by the child, [the] same child will not be hard headed.
During the ceremony, a necklace with a coin is hung around the neck of the child to ensure a prosperous and bright future.
After the ceremony, there is a race for the door of the church among the godparents and the first to
go out of the church will mean a long and prosperous life for the newly baptized child.
If the godfather or the godmother blows [on] the face of the child during the ceremony the godchild will take after him/her as the case may be.
It is the common belief that a child that dies without [the] benefit of Baptism becomes a “patianak” and the show does not go to heaven.
It is also a common belief that a child still unbaptized should not be brought far from home or on travels for this may spell accidents.
In most cases after the Baptism of the child, there is a party in the home of the parents. The first to sit at the table are usually the godparents and the companions of godparents.
It is a common practice that the “Ninang” or “Ninong” gives a “pakimkim,” This yes either in the form of cash or in kind given to the child.
In this barrio (Bucana) as in others, there are still many customs and practices which are followed when a young man courts a young woman. It is a common occurrence that when a young man desires to make known his intention of courting a girl, he serenades her at night. By means of songs, his heart’s desires are expressed. When the serenader is recognized, he and his companions are asked to ascend the house and there he continues his plan of laying the foundation of his future plan. At times, the girl is requested to sing. When she accepts, the young man tries to glean from her song if he is looked upon with favor or otherwise.
Sometimes, the young man does not do the above. Instead, he request and uncle or another person to make known his intention to the family of the girl. Then, he pays her a visit. On this visit, the parents are supposed to meet him, but if they do not, this shows that he is looked upon with disfavor and, therefore, he will not triumph in his desire. In case the parents meet him, he can continue his suit. In this first meeting, the parents are the ones who talk to
him on a variety of subjects except love. In succeeding calls on the girl’s parents, the daughter is permitted to talk with the young man but the mother is usually present although quite some distance from the two
When the young people become engaged, the parents of the boy call on the parents of the girl to tell them about the engagement of the young people. In some cases, only the old people talk even if the young man and the young woman have not fallen in love with each other. When the parents of the boy go to the house of the girl, they bring some foods and drinks. The arrangement is made regarding the marriage of the young persons. This affair is called “pamumulung.” Sometimes, the parents of the girl ask for a new house, at other times, the old house is to be repaired, or a big “handa” or wedding feast is asked. Meanwhile, the young man continues to serve in the house of the girl; say, carrying water, splitting wood, or helping in the field or in the fishing grounds. If the parents of the boy agree on fulfilling the things asked, the date of the marriage is set.
During the courtship and engagement, there are parents who lay fast rules to be observed by the young man. He should not talk with a girl outside of her house, particularly on the streets. He should not go to the house at noon nor stay after Angelus. Undue familiarity should be avoided, respect for the girl at all times and [the] preservation [of] her womanly virtues are so required.
When the day of the marriage has been set, which is usually in the middle of the month (30 days) and when there is high tide and full moon, there are certain taboos which should be observed by both the bride and groom.
They should not travel far from their homes because accidents work on their way. The bride-to-be should not put on her bridal gown to find out if it fits because misfortune and bad luck will talk their married life. On their wedding day, the bride should not wear pearl necklaces because this will mean tears for her during her married life.
On the day set for the marriage (church marriage is referred to), the bride and groom wake up very early
and dress up for the ceremony, together with their maid of honor and best man. Usually, they dress up in their respective homes. The groom should be the first to enter the church for if the bride-to-be is the first to enter, misfortune will come. During the ceremony, there are many superstitions connected with it. It is a bad omen if the ring bearer drops the coin or the ring for it means that the couple will separate. During the putting of the veil, care should be taken that it does not drop. When their hands are joined together and the bride grips the hand of the groom tightly, the woman will surely dominate the husband. If the candle flicker brightly during the ceremony, it means that prosperity and happiness will shower the life of the newlyweds. However, if the light burns or the light is put out, it means bad luck for the couple. There is even a groom who intentionally steps on the wedding gown off the bride so that she will be obedient to him at all times, or he sometimes goes ahead of the bride in going out of the church door after the ceremony. But usually, they both go out at the same time and while marching out, friends and relatives shower them with rice grains in order to bring prosperity to their wedded life.
When the newlyweds reach home, they kiss the hands of their parents and older relatives. They are given silver coins – the parents of the girl give to the groom and the parents of the groom give or put it inside her bridal gown. On the wedding dinner, the parents and relatives of the bride, the sponsors, together with the wedding entourage and the newlyweds, are the first to sit at the table. No relatives of the groom are asked to eat with them.
After the wedding dinner is the “lipat” or escorting the bride to the home of the groom. In this, she is accompanied by all her friends and the relatives of the man. While she is being escorted to the accompaniment of a brass band, two or more older folks dance before her until they reach the house of the groom. As soon as she reaches the place, someone breaks a pot or plate. This practice is done to ensure children for the couple and to have a happy and prosperous life. The groom is usually left in the house of the bride and he goes home the next day.
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