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January 4, 2018

Calumpang, San Luis, Batangas: Historical Data

Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the barrio of Calumpang in the Municipality of San Luis, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.

[Cover page.]




HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE

OF THE BARRIO OF

CALUMPANG








Compiled by:

(Miss) Eufemia Castillo
(Miss) Nenita M. de Gracia


[p. 1]

HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE
OF THE BARRIO OF
CALUMPANG

Part One

The present official name of the barrio is Calumpang. It is situated on the top of the plateau which extends from Mt. Makulot to Durungao. It is a thousand feet above sea level, seven kilometers from the mother town of San Luis to the west and is bisected from east to west by the provincial road.

The present Calumpang is a union of two barrios – Calumpang in the eastern part and San Martin in the western part. This union was made during the early part of the American regime. Its name was derived from a big calumpang tree which was found growing in the southern part of the barrio. There are plenty of sitios included within the jurisdiction of Calumpang. They are Tawiran, Kawayang Bugtong, Spanya, Papaya, Talang, Bawuan, Onggot, Pook, Bahay Tubig and Patay na Mangga.

The earliest families in the barrio were the Aseron family, Magsombol family, Celindro family, Bonsol family and Maulion family.

The following barrio lieutenants have served the barrio:
Jose C. Hernandez Doroteo Magsombol
Eduardo Magsombol Marcelino de Gracia
Felipe Hernandez Jose Aseron
Anastacio Tibayan Mariano Aseron
Carlos Hernandes Antero Maulion
Sebastian Tibayan Gregorio Aseron
Merenciano Aseron Anastacio Aguilera
Pablo Maulion Severino Magsombol
Florentino Magsombol Jose M. Hernandes
Joe B. Hernandes Emeterio Atiensa
Pioquinto Marasigan Candido Cornejo
Manuel Mendosa Felix Aseron
[p. 2]
Silverio de Gracia Crisanto de Gracia
Eduardo Aseron Doroteo Celindro
Julian Aseron Ramon Maulion
In Sitio Pook, where the original families of the barrio were settled, the children who married built their houses along the trail which is now the provincial road.

In sitio Bawuan, in the northern part of the barrio, a camp was made during the Filipino-American War. The inhabitants of the barrio were zoned during the latter part of 1900 and set free in the early part of January 1901. In other sitios, there were no families who settled.

During the Spanish occupation, the inhabitants were treated as slaves; very few had landholdings. Some men volunteered to fight against the Spaniards. They were given ranks as: Capitan, Lieutenant and Cabo. All of them are receiving the same pension (₱15.00 a month) when the Americans arrived.

The coming of the Americans opened the minds of the male residents to business. They began to peddle dry goods in every part of the country and those who could afford to send their children to higher institutions of learning did so.

Majority of the young men joined the underground movement during the Japanese occupation. The guerrillas fought against the Japanese forces that had their stronghold in Mt. Durungao. In sitio Onggot, in 1945, there were around ten Japanese soldiers killed by them. It was also this time when the people were forced to plant cotton, which was bought by a Japanese corporation.

[p. 3]

During the Spanish and American regimes, all residents were Roman Catholics, but in 1949, a new sect preached its doctrine but a few adhered to it. This religion, which is known as Iglesia ni Kristo, have followers in the barrio.

In the early part of the 19th century, the authorities in this barrio were the tenientes and the cabezas. The distinction of the authorities from the others was that they carried their wooden clubs as symbols of their authority. During the Japanese occupation, people were forced to give foodstuffs and when they refused, they were tortured to the extent that some were disfigured.

The standards of living in the community are all the same. Every family owns a lot where the house is built and every farmer has a piece of land to till.

During the Spanish regime, the children were only taught the cartilla. Later during the American regime, elementary education was brought about. First, it was up to Grade Two, then up to Grade Three, and then to Grade Four. A school house of strong materials was built in 1926, when [the] Hon. Antonio de las Alas was a member of the House of Representatives. After finishing Grade Four, the children went to different towns to complete elementary education so that [a] few could continue studying. After liberation, many continued the secondary education because a high school was founded in the barrio.

About six or seven persons were killed during the Japanese Occupation. Their bodies were never recovered. After liberation from the Japanese forces, most of the male population engaged in the buy and

[p. 4]

and sell business. Most women also engaged in this business. Some are engaged in poultry and pigeon raising. There are five poultry and four pigeon projects in the barrio.

PART TWO

Most of the women in the barrio are only housekeepers. In the early days of [the] American regime, few persons went to town. The men in the barrio are mostly farmers. They prepare the farms during the dry season and in the early part of the month of May, they sow the grains, waiting for the rainy season to come. Social gatherings, especially dances, are seldom held in the barrio for the women are mostly occupied in household work. Except in very rare cases are women obliged by the men to help in preparation for a dance to be held; the men shoulder the expenses.



Birth – In this barrio, when one gives birth, chickens are killed and the relatives and neighbors of the family are invited. It is done as a celebration for a life is saved from the danger of giving birth and a new life is born. The delivery of the child is usually assisted by an unlicensed midwife.

Baptism – In selecting a godfather or godmother for a child during baptism, the husband and the wife and the old folks in the family to the selection. When they have selected a certain person, such person is informed by the father or grandfather or sometimes by a near relative of the child that said person is godfather or godmother as the case may be. In going to the house of the sponsor, they bring with them some drinks or cigarettes and, thus, the father or the one to tell the sponsor informs that he is selected to be the godfather and the child will be

[p. 5]

baptized on such a date. The godfather buys baptismal apparel and brings them to the house of the child. At the baptism of the child, it is the godfather who pays for the baptismal fees. When there is a celebration or party, the godfather gives family wine, some chicken or sometimes pig. The godfather gives the child a baptismal gift such as money or jewelry.

Courtship – In the early days, a man courting a women helped in the family of the girl in any kind of work. The parents of the girls, when they liked the man, they did not forbid the man from helping them, but when they did not like the man, they (parents) told him not to help. During evenings, the man went to the house of the girl, just to pay respects. He could not talk with the girl. In going to the house of the girl, the man, upon seeing the roof of the house, took off his hat and went directly to the house. The parents were the ones who decided if their daughters would love and marry the man. When the man was liked by the parents of the girl, the parents of both parties decided the date of the marriage, the things to be served during the marriage celebration. When everything was fixed for the marriage celebration, the girl, with her parents, and the boy, with his parents, went to town to file application for [a] marriage license. The godfather for baptism and for confirmation of the girl were given their respective gifts to which, in return, these godmothers would give their respective gifts to the couple. But when the bridegroom-to-be had the means, the parents of the girl asked for a donation (propter nuptias or capital of the husband).

Marriage – All marriages were solemnized by the priest. Before the solemnization of the marriage, all who will participate in the marriage

[p. 6]

ceremony go to town two (2) days before taking with them all that is needed for the ceremony. They stay in the house of the “fiscal.” In the house of the said fiscal, the would-be husband and wife were taught to say their prayers. While the marriage ceremony is being performed, the folks in the barrio prepare food to be served. After the ceremony, the whole party goes home, riding on horses. The newlyweds kiss the hands of the older relatives of both, and their relatives, in turn, give them small sums of money as a gift to the newlyweds. This practice is also observed nowadays by the people of the locality.

Death – In the early part of the 19th century, the dead were wrapped in white sheet covers and tied on bamboo poles by rope and then carried to town on the shoulders of the male persons who attended the funeral services. Later, the dead was put in coffins and carried to the cemetery by the men, who had to walk from the barrio to the town. Before a dead man was taken downstairs, a dipper of water was thrown to the ground. Nobody was allowed to look outside the window when the dead was brought downstairs. None of the relatives of the dead should take a bath when the dead was in the barrio. None from the house should wash clothes and sweep the floor, not until the fourth day from death.

Burial – The dead from this place are buried in town in the Roman Catholic Cemetery or in the Municipal Cemetery. When a person is to be buried, a relative or a person is requested by the kin of the dead to

[p. 7]

go to town to secure the necessary permits and to notify the grave digger to dig a grave. In the Spanish regime, all were buried in the Catholic Cemetery. When the dead had been brought to town, it was brought to church for the funeral rites of the priest. Then, he would be carried to the cemetery. Before the corpse was lowered into the grave, a last prayer for the soul was said. No person left the cemetery until the body was being covered with soil. Only those who were rich were buried with pomp.

Visits – With respect to visits, before one could enter the house, he should take off his hat and knock on the door. In the early days, one who entered a house he visited should kneel and pay respects to the old folks. He talked in a very low voice. Nowadays, these good habits and customs are not well-practiced. Children just greet you “good evening,” “good morning,” even when they go to one’s house. In the early days, children kneeled and asked for blessing and the old would answer, “God bless you.” When leaving the house, in the early days, one walked quietly downstairs and put on the hat when already downstairs.

Festivals – At festivals, when it concerns the whole barrio, a meeting is called to fix the date of the celebration and the amount of contribution. In fiestas, mass is celebrated in an improvised chapel. Relatives and friends in nearby barrios, sitios and towns are invited. The old folks help in the preparation of the food. There’s no social discrimination in the invitation. Children eat in tables segregated from the elders. When the guests leave, they notify the hostess. Festivals are celebrated with music. In the early days, string bands

[p. 8]

were used, but now, amplifiers are in vogue.

Punishment – Severe punishments were imposed on infractions of the law and good customs, during the Spanish times, by the barrio lieutenants. They were whipped or both feet were inserted in a piece of wood fixed hear a wall so that the body would not touch the floor or the ground. Now, criminals are accused before the courts by the Chief of Police, Fiscals or aggrieved party.

Songs and games – Songs were sung also during the early days. The popular songs in the barrio were kutang-kutang, Awit ng Magsusulid, Abaruray and Ang Tamo Neneng. Later, kundimans were learned, as Giliw Ko, Nasaan ka Irog, Ang Maya and many others. Some games played in the barrio during the past 18th and 19th centuries were supo, pata, tubig-tubig, lawin-lawinan, tukod languit, pusa-pusaan, kasal-kasalan, perong lapit and pataray.

Methods of Measuring Time – When a clock or watch is not available, the people usually tell the time by the position of the sun. They also determine the time by [the] crowing of the cocks. The cock crows [at] twelve o’clock midnight (12:00), three o’clock (3:00) and four o’clock (4:00) in the morning. When the patola flowers open, it is four o’clock in the afternoon.

RIDDLES
1. ay isang uhay na palay, sikip sa boong bahay. – ilao
2. Apat na magkaka-amigo, iisa ang sambalilo. – bahay
3. Nagsaing si katong-tong, nabulak walang gatong. – gugo
4. Nagsaing si kapirit, kinain pati anlit. – bayabas
5. May anak si Adan, sa toktok nagdaan. – saging
6. Nanganank si Adan, sa tagiliran nagdaan. – mais
7. Pag gabi ay dagat, pag araw ay bumbong. – banig
8. Ang dalawa’y tatlo na, ang maitim ay maputi na, ang bakod ay lagas na. – matanda.

[p. 9]

9. Nagtanim ako ng isip sa gitna ng dagat, dahon ay makitid, ang bunga ay matulis. – palay
10. Nagsaing si Hudas, kihuha ang hugas, itinapon ang bigas. – gata ng niyog
11. Di man isda, di man itik, nakahuhuni kung ibig, maging sa kati, maging sa tubig, ang huni’y nakabubuwisit. – palaka
12. Hugis puso, kulay ginto, mabango kung amuyin, masarap kung kanin. – mangga
13. May puno, walang sanga, may dahon walang bunga. – sandok
14. Aling itlog ang may buntot? – lisa
15. Di madangkal, di madipa, pinagtutulungan ng lima. – karayom
16. Bunga na’y namgunga pa. – puno ng bunga
17. Lumalakad walang paa, lumuluha’y walang mata. – pluma
18. Hindi matatalupan, nanganganinag na ang laman. – kamatsili
19. Dahong pinagbungahan, bungang pinagdahunan. – pinya
20. Nakaluhod ka na kung gawain, nakasamba kung lutuin, nakatingala kung inumin. – tsokolate
21. Kitang-kita ang nakamatay nguni’t hindi matalian. – hangin
22. Hindi hayop, hindi tao, ate ng lahat ng tao. – atis
23. Buto at balat na lumilipad. – saranggola
24. Naunang umakyat nahuling sa lahat. – bumbong
25. Mataas kung nakaupo, mababa kung nakatayo. – aso

PROVERBS
1. Ang kasipagan ay kapatid ng kayamanan.
2. Pagkaraan ng ulap, lilitaw ang liwanag.
3. Ang matibay na kalooban, lahat ay nagagampanan.
4. Kapag ang tao ay matipid, marami ang naililigpit.
5. Kung ano ang masama sa iyo, huwag gagawin sa kapuwa mo.
6. Ang maagap, daig ang masipag.
7. Ang walang pagod magtipon, walang hinayang magtapon.
8. Huli man daw at magaling, naihahabol din.
9. Kung tunay ang tubo, matamis hanggang dulo.
10. Sa maliit na dampa nagmumula ang dakila.
11. Ang tulog na hipon ay tinatangay ng agos.
12. Walang binhing masama sa mabuting lupa.
13. Nakikita ang butas ng karayom, hindi ang butas ng palakul.
14. May taynga ang lupa, may pakpak ang balita.
15. Di man magmana ang hari, magmana ng ugali.
16. Ang maniwala sa sabi, walang bait sa sarili.
17. Wika at batong ihagis, di na muling magbabalik.
18. Nasa Diyos ang awa, nasa tao ang gawa.
19. Pag ang punla ay hangin, bagyo ang aanihin.
20. Walang mataas na bakud sa taong natatakot.
21. Ang maikli ay dugtungan, ang mahaba ay bawasan.
22. Pag ikaw ay nagparaan, pararaanin ka naman.
23. Ang hindi lumingon sa pinanggalingan ay hindi makakarating sa paroroonan.
24. Kapag tinawag na utang, sapilitang babayaran.
25. Ang naglalakad ng matulin, kung matinik ay malalim.

[p. 10]

WHY IS THE MANGO SHAPED LIKE A HEART?

A long, long time ago, the mango tree had fruits which were round like the santol fruit. The fruits were all very sour and were not fit to be eaten. The poor mango tree envied the other fruit trees because the children loved these fruit trees more than they loved the poor mango tree.

One day, the great Bathala descended to the earth in the form of a butterfly to test the kindness of his creations. While he was flitting from tree to tree, a great storm arose. He went to the duhat tree. He asked the big tree to give him shelter as there was [a] storm, but the duhat tree turned him away. He went to the other trees but he met with the same refusal. Drenched and tired, he went to the mango tree. This kind tree willingly sheltered him under its large trunks.

Suddenly, the sky cleared. The mango tree became illumed with a holy light. The poor butterfly became the Bathala himself. He spoke thus, “Because you have been kind and helpful to the helpless, o mango tree, from now on your fruits will be sweet.” To show you my gratitude, you will have heart-shaped fruits to show my creations that in your heart there dwells nothing but love and kindness. After saving these words, Bathala vanished.

Since that time, the mango fruit has been sweet and has assumed the shape of a heart.

BAKIT ANG MANGGA AY HUGIS PUSO
(Translated in Tagalog)

Noong kauna-unahang panahon, ang bunga ng mangga ay katulad ng bunga ng santol. Ang kaawa-awang mangga ay naiinggit sa mga ibang

[p. 11]

bunga nang kahoy dahil sa ito ay hindi napamahal sa mga bata, katulad ng pagmamahal sa ibang kahoy o bunga.

Isang araw, si Bathala ay nanaog sa lupa. Ito ay tumulad sa paruparo at tinikman niya ang kabaitan at ang kanyang magagawa. Nang siya ay padapo-dapo sa mga kahoy ay dumating ang bagyo. Nakisilong siya sa duhat Nguni’t siya ay tinanggihan. Nagpunta siya sa ibang punong kahoy nguni’t gayon din ang nangyari. Hindi siya tinanggap. Ang paruparo ay pagod at tigmak sa basa ay nagpunta sa puno ng mangga. Dito siya pinasilong at kinanlungan pa siya ng malalaki niyang sanga.

Bigla na lamang nagliwanag ang langit. Nagkaroon ng liwanag ang puno ng mangga. Ang kaawa-awang paruparo ay muling nag si Bathala. Nagsalita siya at ang sabi ay ito, “Dahil sa ikaw ay mabait at matulungin sa mga nangangailangan, ay simula ngayon ay magiging matamis ang iyong bunga." Upang maipakilala ko sayo ang aking pasasalamat, magkakaroon ka ng hugis puso, at upang maipakilala ko rin naman ang aking naisagawa, na walang nalalabi sa iyong puso kundi ang pagmamahal at kabaitan.” Pagkatapos makapagsalita ay tuluyang nawala si Bathala.

Simula noon ay naging matamis kung kanin ang mangga at nagkaroon ng hugis puso.

ANG BATANG TAMAD

Si Juan ay sinoysoy ang ama ng pagsimba; nguni’t hindi alam ni Juan ang simbahan. Ang wika ng ama ay kung saan matao ay doon sumunod at sumama at iyon ang simbahan. Kaya’t si Juan ay may nakita ng maraming tao at doon nga sumama. Nang dumating siya, tinanong ng ama at ang

[p. 12]

sabi ay matigas ang tatawanan at sigawan at hindi naman nagdadasal sapagka’t iyong pala ay sabungan. Pinaalis na naman at doon pinasama sa maraming babae. May nakita siyang dalawang babaing nagdadasal sa loob ng simbahan at siya’y nagpagitna. Ang mga dalaga ay may hawak ng kuwintas at may nakasabit sa leeg na karmen. Sila’y mahinang nagdasal kaya’t hindi marinig ni Juan, nguni’t siya’y sumagot at winika, “Kuwintas, kuwintas, kabi-kabila’y butas; karmen-karmen, kabi-kabila’y hapin.” Ang dalawa’y napatingin at sinabing ang mama ay nakakatukso sapagka’t binabadya sila. Umalis sila at lumipat ng ibang tayo at doon pumunta sa harap ng altar. Sumunod si Juan at habang dumarating ay nagkukurus ang dalawa kaya’t sinabi at gumaya si Juan at hinarap pa sila. Kaya’t sinabi niya na saan man pumunta sila’y susunod. Nagyayakag na ng pag-alis at umalis din si Juan. Humiwalay siya at umuwi sa kanila. Tinanong ng ama kung nagdasal at ang sabi ay “oo.” Sinabi rin niya yaong mga sinagot niya kaya’t napatawa na lamang ang ama.

Kinamamayaan ay sinugo siya upang humiram ng kawali. Siya’y nakahiram nguni’t hinila-hila niya ito sa lupa kaya’t nabasag. Sinabi ng ama na kung may uling at malukom ay susunungin at kung malanday ay bibitbitin.

Sinugo uli upang yumakag ng mga tao at makagamas. Pumunta siya sa kanilang linang at nagtarak ng mga kahoy at sinawingan. Tinanong ng ama kung may kausap at sinabi niya na mayroon at pinatingnan pa. Umuwi at pinapaghanda ang ama ng pagkain, pagkatapos ay ipinadala ito kay Juan sa maggagamas. Noong siya ay pupunta na sa linang ay huminto siya sa isang mayabong na punongkahoy at siya ang kumain ng lahat niyang

[p. 13]

dala. Nalaman ito ng kanyang ama at gayon na lamang ang galit kay Juan. Si Juan ay pinalo ng ama. Simula noon ay nagkaroon ng bait si Juan.

PART THREE

No books and documents treating of the Philippines are available in this country.

There is no author born or residing in this community.

Informers:

[Sgd.] Benigna Hernandez

[Sgd.] Marcelino de Gracia

Respectfully submitted:

[Sgd.] (Miss) Enfemia Castillo

[Sgd.] (Miss) Nenita M. de Gracia

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Notes and references:
Transcribed from “History and Cultural Life of the Barrio of Calumpang,” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.

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