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January 4, 2018

Natunuan, San Pascual, Batangas: Historical Data

Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the barrio of Natunuan in the Municipality of San Pascual, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.

[Note to the reader.]

At the time when this document was created, the barrio of Natunuan was still a part of Bauan rather than San Pascual. The latter did not become a separate municipality until the year 1969, after the passage of Republic Act No. 6166.

[p. 1]

A COMPILATION OF HISTORICAL DATA OF NATUNUAN

I. History and Cultural Life of Natanuan

1. Present official name of the barrio - - Natunuan.

2. Popular name of the barrio, present and past; derivation and meaning of this name.

The present and past popular name of the barrio is “PUTOL.” According to the old folks, this barrio was called “PUTOL” because from the time of its establishment to the time of American liberation, the barrio was terminated at the boundary of the adjacent barrio to the north while the south and terminated at the boundary of Banaba, Batangas. The barrio road was “cut” from other barrios.

3. Date of establishment:

[The] Exact date is unknown. The oldest man of the barrio said it may be probable in the seventeenth century.

4. Original Families:

a. Gabriel Garcia’s Family
b. Aniceto Rosales’s Family
c. Isidro Perez’s Family
d. Mariano Arce’s Family
e. Claudio Ramos’ Family

5. List of Tenientes from the earliest time to date:

a.  Victor Castor h.  Geronimo Panopio
b.  Macario Perez i.  Bernardo Manalo
c.  Isidoro Perez j.  Eligio Perez
d.  Timoteo Perez k.  Bernardo Manalo
e.  Basilio Cantos l.  Clemente Manalo
f.  Leandro Panopio m.  Emilio Rosales
g.  Agapito Perez n.  Eligio Perez

6. Story of old barrios or sitios within the jurisdiction that are now depopulated or extinct.

No story is available as there is no sitio within the jurisdiction of Natunuan.

7. Data on sites, structures, buildings, old ruins, etc. - - None

[p. 2]

8. Important facts, incidents or events that took place.

(a) During the Spanish occupation:

(1) There was no school during the Spanish regime. Religion, Reading and Writing the native dialect were learned by children through private tutors who received one cavan of rice a year from every pupil.

(2) The animal rinderpest took place on the last year of the Spanish regime.

(b) During the American occupation to World War II.

(1) The early years of American occupation made the people evacuate to places near Bauan Poblacion. Those who resented [the] evacuation were sent to jail by American soldiers and classified “Insurgents.” After a few months, the evacuees returned home.

(2) There was a cholera epidemic but the Americans checked it.

(3) The building of a semi-permanent barrio school.

(4) The interest for giving children primary education was awakened.

(5) Home industries as embroidering and loom were much developed.

(c) During and after World War II:

(1) This barrio being a remote one became the temporary home of many evacuees from different places, especially during the time the Japanese were burning houses and massacring male persons.

(2) The Japanese soldiers came to get rice, fowls and cows. Many of the men in the barrio brought them to the mountains, where the Japanese headquarters were.

(3) The prices of commodities were very high so that there was plenty of money but little to eat. Cassava, corn, and bananas became substitutes for rice. The “sinamay” made into “pinokpok” became the popular clothing of the people.

[p. 3]

(4) The Japanese compulsory planting of cotton by the farmers even if the land was planted to rice. The Japanese watched the farmers plant cotton between rows of rice.

(5) The surrender of all firearms to the Japanese authorities. Once a person was caught with firearms, it meant torture or even death to him.

(6) The Americans’ return meant prosperity to the barrio people. Food as rice and canned goods were rationed.

(7) The opening again of the barrio school for the children’s education.

(8) Construction of the road which made the people travel and bring their farm products to market easier than before.

(9) Many farmers took advantage of fertilizing their farms by the use of commercialized fertilizers. They realized the high percentage of increased production.

9. (a) Destruction of lives, properties, and institutions during wars, especially in 1895-1900 and 1941-1945.

1896-1900 – 1900

The death of many persons and animals was caused by the cholera epidemic and animal rinderpest.

1941 – 1945

There was only one person who was killed by the Japanese soldiers. Not much property was destructed except for the animals and rice asked by the Japanese for their food.

(b) Measures and accomplishments towards rehabilitation and reconstruction following World War II.

(1) The construction of many houses mostly of semi-permanent type. The dilapidated homes were already being repaired.
(2) The improvement of the barrio road which made the people progress economically.
(3) The resumption of race-horse breeding which was a progressive sideline of the farmers before the war.

[p. 4]

10. Traditions, customs, and practices in domestic and social life, birth, baptism, courtship, marriage, death, burial, visits, festivals, punishments, etc.

B I R T H

1. A pregnant woman who feels labor pains during an eclipse will have difficulty in giving birth to the child and sometimes may cause her death.

2. A candle should be lighted and all doors of cabinets and aparadors should be opened when a pregnant woman lies on the bed in the act of giving birth, so that she will not suffer much the pain.

3. Nobody is allowed to stay at the doors of the house where a pregnant woman is living.

4. The first cry of the baby when very loud means its godmother or godfather will be from a far place.

5. The first cut nails of the baby is adhered to the ladder of the house with wax to prevent the baby from falling when he or she grows older.

B A P T I S M

1. The baby’s godmother or godfather is well-chosen because it is the belief that the baby inherits the characteristics of his godparents.

2. After the baptismal ceremony, the godparent carries the child hurriedly out of the church so that the child will always be alert and industrious.

C O U R T S H I P

1. A young man, to win the love of a lady, helps in the work in the lady’s house. He usually carries water and wood to the lady’s home. He helps feed the working animals of his in-laws-to-be. Sometimes, when there is a need for a repair of the house of his in-laws-to-be, he brings carpenters who will repair the house. If it is the time of weeding and planting season, the courting man brings many workers to work on the lady’s field.

2. A man who is admired by her in-laws-to-be is regarded as a member of their home. The man eats and works in the lady’s home.

[p. 5]

3. To show that a man likes to marry a woman, usually on one evening, the man and companions carry many cans of water to the woman’s house. When they reach there, they put them in the containers. The young man kneels in front of the young woman’s parents. Then he asks for the palay to be pounded. If he is liked by the parents, he is granted; if not, he is told to quit bringing water to them. After several days, the man’s parents or elders are called for to arrange the marriage. Before the marriage arrangements are done, gifts are sent to the woman’s house. Usually, the gifts are butchered whole pig or four of the largest fishes in the market, several plates of “kalamay,” and a bundle of “kakawate” firewood. These gifts, received by the woman’s parents, are distributed to her relatives. Later, the man’s elders make a call on the woman’s home to make arrangement for the wedding.

M A R R I A G E

1. Several days before the marriage, the couple to be wedded should not do hard work and go to far places because disaster may befall them.

2. The bridal clothes should not be worn until the wedding. These should be kept first by the groom’s relatives in the groom’s house. The is done for in the belief that the bride will be in harmony with her in-laws when she is married.

3. During the wedding ceremony, the groom should step on his bride’s foot so that he will not be dominated in the home by his wife.

4. The couple’s candles lighted in the church during the wedding ceremony should be twisted together to make their love lasting to the end.



5. The bride, upon reaching her parents’ in-laws’ home, should put out the fire in the stove so that there will be no heated discussion or trouble that will come between her and her in-laws.

6. Usually, the first work done by the woman after her marriage is making knitted abaca (“dinugtong”) to foster the couple’s relationship and increase their wealth in the future.

[p. 6]

D E A T H

1. The near relatives of a dead person do not take a bath until the fourth day.

2. Green leafy vegetables are not cooked by the relatives during the first four days of a death of a relative.

3. During the first nine days after the death of a person, his relatives do not place used dishes after eating one on top of the other. There is the belief that this will prevent the early death of another person related to the dead one.

P U N I S H M E N T

The old folks believe that punishment of an erring child by tying with a rope is not good because when this child grows old, he will be imprisoned for an act done.

DOMESTIC AND SOCIAL LIFE

1. Taking a bath and cutting of fingernails are not done on Tuesdays and Fridays.

2. Sweeping the yard is not done at dusk, and sweeping the floor with [a] broom is prohibited in the evening.

3. The family which has moved to a newly-constructed house prepares soft-boiled malagkit rice with coconut milk and invites its neighbors and relatives for the party.

4. There is always food served with coconut milk, usually beans or mongo with coconut milk after a farmer and his first sowing of his rice to his farm.

5. A married girl refrains for attending dances and parties.

6. When a late suitor comes to visit a girl, the early suitor gives way to the late one.

11. Myths, legends, beliefs, interpretations, superstitions.

The Legend of Malbarosa

During the days when bolos and spears were used by the Filipinos as their weapons, the leader was known as Sultan. Sultan was the administrative

[p. 7]

officer of [the] barangay. If the Sultan had any daughter, she was called Princess. At that time, a Sultan had a daughter named Rosa.

Rosa was gentle and kind, and with her gentleness and kindness made her so dear to her people. So dear that anyone would kiss the footprints of her. But although a princess, she was engaged to only one of the warriors of her father. He was Malbar, who was the bravest of his age. He had a well-built body, curly black hair, slightly round face, wide forehead, and possessed a China-like eyes.

The relation of Malbar and Rosa as sweethearts was a secret to the Sultan. They knew that the Sultan would like that the husband of his daughter must be the prince of a nearby island so that Sultan would widen his dominion and increase his governing power. One night in the secret meeting of Malbar and Rosa, they were too confident that it was only the fullness of the moon that could see and hear their conversation. But fate was so cruel to the two loving hearts, because it was not the moon alone but someone with envious eyes was sharing with the moon. He was the confidential captain of the Sultan. His name was Matanglawin who was also in love with the princess. Envy of what he had seen through the light of the moon, in his heart he related everything to the Sultan. The Sultan, upon hearing this, summoned Malbar immediately. The Sultan, still in doubt of the news, asked Malbar if there was truth in the news that he and Rosa were loving each other. Malbar, without hesitation, admitted that they were loving each other. The Sultan was very angry because Malbar was a mere warrior who belonged to a low class of family. During those days, a low class man could not marry nor court those that belonged to the royal family.

To what Malbar had heard, he courageously replied that, “In love, there is no such law whatsoever covering the love affair of two loving hearts.” He added that he would support Rosa and make her happy in spite of his being a mere warrior. The reply of Malbar made the Sultan blush in anger. He considered Malbar a disrespectful man. He called Matanglawin and ordered him to imprison Malbar and be beheaded after three days. The news of Malbar in confinement reached Rosa which made her approach her father. Her begging for the release of Malbar was not heard and, thus, made her very sad.

[p. 8]

In spite of the rejection of Malbar’s release, Rosa, without the knowledge of her father, approached the guards of the jail and begged them to allow her to visit Malbar. The guards took pity on Rosa and she was allowed to enter and to escape with Malbar if, in their escape, the guards would join them. They knew that death would be the lowest penalty if the Sultan would find out that the guards helped Malbar escape. But, upon their escape, they were seen by Matanglawin and without delay, the gong was rung to announce the escape of the prisoner. The hunting party was led by the Sultan himself. With the fear that they might be overtaken, Malbar prayed [to] his gods for their safety. His prayers were heard. Lightning was seen and darkness fell everywhere. Smoke covered Malbar and Rosa. And after everything turned clear, the two vanished. The Sultan was surprised at what had happened. He felt sorry and when he looked at the spot where the two disappeared, he found a plant of curled leaves which gave a sweet odor. Since that time, he tendered the plant and called it Malbarosa.

THE LEGEND OF (THE) MAKAHIYA

In a small town a long time ago, lived a rich couple with only one daughter who was courteous, polite, and obedient to her parents. But this daughter had a very peculiar characteristic. She was very shy to meet other persons besides her parents. Whenever they had visitors at home, she ran and hid among the plants and flowers in her garden. Her garden was famous in the town for its beauty. Her garden had a variety of beautiful flowers which were always in full bloom. The daughter loved to take care of her garden.

Then suddenly, the peaceful town was troubled by the coming of bandits from other places. All the people were worried and tried their means to escape. It was too late, the bandits came. They killed persons and stole properties. The home of the right family was no exemption to the bandits’ robbery. The couple was tortured and robbed of their belongings. The bandits looked for the daughter but the daughter had hidden in the garden. They thought she was taken also by the bandits. She was to be found nowhere. But, as a man was walking, his foot was struck by some thorns of an unusual plant. The couple bent over the plant and observed it. Slowly, it closed all its leaves. They concluded that the unusual plant was their daughter. God had helped their daughter by changing her to a plant, so she would not be seen by the bandits.

[p. 9]

The couple shed tears of love and pity for their daughter. Their tears fell on the plant and, to their surprise, each tear that fell on the plant was turned to a tiny flower. Since that time, the couple took good care of the plant. They named it “makahiya” in honor of their very shy daughter.

BELIEFS AND SUPERSTITIONS

The people believed in various superstitions. The cry of a crow at night was associated with ill fortune. If a hunter or a merchant met a lizard in his way, it was believed that he should return home for the hunter would catch no game or the merchant would only lose his business. Dreaming of a tooth or some teeth removed meant that a near relative would die. Sneezing before leaving the house was a sign of misfortune.

The people also believed in the existence of “aswang,” “tigbalang,” and “tiyanak.” The “aswang” was believed to be a person who assumed other forms like that of a dog or pig in search of prey, particularly an expectant mother.

12. Popular Songs, Games and Amusements:
Songs Games Amusements
a.  Lullaby a.  Bulaklakan a.  Gossiping
b.  Paroparong Bukid b.  Tubigan b.  Reading
c.  Bahay Kubo c.  Baseball c.  Fiesta
d.  Fandango
13. Riddles:

1. Isang butil ng palay, puno ang buong bahay. – ilaw
2. Bato pa ang tawag ko, bato pa ang tawag ninyo. – bato-bato
3. Isang pusong nakabitin, masarap nakawin. – mangga
4. Puno’y bumbong, sanga’y kalbang, bunga’y gatang, lama’y lisay. – papaya
5. Munti pa si padre, nakakaakyat na sa tore. – langgam
6. Munti pa si Pepe, maalam na maglinte. – alitaptap
7. Munti pa si Nena, maalam nang magkanta. – maya
8. Munti pa si Totoy, maalam na mangahoy. – gulok
9. Payong ni kaka, hindi matingala. – noo
10. Mata kong lingos-lingosin, hindi ko abot-abotin. – taynga
11. Dalawang magkumpare, mauna’t mahuli. – paa
12. Hindi hari, hindi pari, [ang damit] ay sari-sari. – sampayan
13. Buhok ni Adan, hindi mabilang. – ulan
14. Buhok ng pari, hindi mawahi. – tubig
15. Nagsaing si Kapirit, kinain pati anglit. – bayabas
16. Nagsaing si Katongtong, bumulak ay walang gatong. – sabon

[p. 10]

17. Isang biyas na kawayan, puno ng kamatayan. – baril
18. Ang ibabaw ay araruhan, ang ilalim ay batohan. – kakaw
19. Lumabas si Rita, saya ay pula. – puso ng saging
20. May sunong, may kilik, may tukod ang puwit. – piña
21. Hindi madangkal, hindi madipa, uso ang lima. – karayom
22. Ang ina’y nagapang pa, ang anak ay naluklik na. – kalabasa
23. Sinarhan ko muna bago ko nilagyan. – labayan
24. Hinlalayog-hinlalayog, bunga ay namimilog. – santol
25. Himbaba-himbaba bunga ay mahaba. – kibal
26. Mata kong lingos-lingosin, hindi ko abot-abutin. – likod
27. Tubig ko sa digan-digan, di mapatakan ng ulan. – tubig ng niyog
28. Ako ay may alipin, mataas pa sa akin. – sombrero
29. Isa ang sinoutan, dalawa ang nilabasan. – baro
30. Nakadaan ang turo, di nakadaan ang bisiro. – bulos at kirkiran
31. Bahay ng hari, libot ng tali. – bilao
32. Taga-kitaga, walang tatal sa lupa. – bahay suyod
33. Isang malaking kalabaw, pinagsisibatan. – lusong
34. Nagtago ang Intsik, ulo lamang ang isiningit. – suhay
35. Pag bata’y nagtatapis, pag tanda ay naglililis. – labong
36. Isang punongkahoy, bunga’y galong, laman ay gulong. – lukban
37. Apat nga kaibigan, layo-layo ang bayan, pag kinakain ay umpugan. – nganga
38. Kahoy ko sa Mandaluyong, nasanga’y walang dahon. – sungay ng usa
39. Nagusong ay patay, ang inuusong ay buhay. – balag
40. May isang punong balite, may kabayong nakatali, tatlong kulay, pula, puti at dilaw, labingdalawa ang sanga, tatlumpu ang bunga. – buwan at araw
41. Dalawang ibong marikit, nagtitimbangan sa siit. – hikaw
42. Ako’y may kaibigan, kung hindi ko sakyan, hindi ako bibigyan. – kayuran ng niyog
43. Baboy ko sa pulo, balahibo’y pako. – langka
44. Kalabaw ko sa Maynila, abot dito ang unga. – kalugkog.

[p. 11]

45. Sa parang ay saksakan, sa bahay ay bunutan. – amorsico
46. Lalabas, papasok, may dalang panggapos. – karayom
47. Ako’y may kabayong puti, sa puwit may tali. – karayom
48. Nagsaing si Judas, itinapon ang bigas, itinira ang hugas. - gata ng niyog
49. May isang magandang dalaga, nakatindig ay walang paa, nabuhay ay walang mata. – kandila
50. Dalhin kung makalimutan, kung maala-ala ay maiwan. – amorsico
51. Itinapon ko ang itinanim, pinagtamnan ay kinain. – manok
52. Hindi hayop, hindi tao, nagsasabi ng totoo. – radyo
53. Pag bata’y submarine, pag tanda’y eroplano. – lamok
54. Pag bata’y sibat, pag tanda’y yabat. – kawayan
55. Ako’y walang itinanim, taon- tao’y nakakain. – kabuti
56. Alin dito sa mundo ay nasa ibabao ang buto. – kasoy
57. Ang ama’y kanturas, ang ina’y kantura, nag-anak ng puti, ang bituka’y pula. – itlog
58. Alin dito sa mundo nalakad ay walang anino? – hangin

14. PROVERBS AND SAYINGS

1. Ang sakit ng kalingkingan ay damdam ng buong katawan.
2. Ang kapalaran ko’y di ko man hanapin, lalapit, dudulog kung talagang akin.
3. Magaling pa ang taga ng itak, kay sa masamang pangungusap.
4. Nagpapakain man at masama ang loob, ang pinakakai’y hindi nabubusog.
5. Ang tunay na paanyaya, dinadamayan ng hila.
6. Ang salitang matatamis, sa puso’y nakaaakit, at nagpapalubay ng galit.
7. Ang marahang pangungusap sa puso’y nakakalunas.
8. Di man magmana ng ari, magmamana ng ugali.
9. Ang mahinhing dalaga, sa kilos makikilala.
10. Ang babae sa lansangan, gumigiring parang tandang.
11. Ang bayaning masugatan, nag-iibayo ang tapang.
12. Ang tunay na bakal, sa apoy nasusubukan.
13. Makikilala mo ang taong may bait sa kilos ng kamay at sabi ng bibig.
14. Sumalubong ka na sa lasing, huwag lamang sa bagong gising.
15. Nakikilala sa labi ang paglangagat ang hindi.
16. Wika at batong ihagis, hindi muling babalik.
17. Ang masamang wika, pagtama sa tao’y nagsisilbing pasa.
18. Kung ano ang bukang bibig, siyang laman ng dibdib.
19. Ang magandang asal ay kaban ng yaman.
20. Madali ang maging tao, mahirap ang magpakatao.
21. Hindi ka sukat maniwala sa mga sabi at wika, patag na patag ang lupa, sa ilalim ay may lungga.
22. Ang lalaking tunay na matapang di natatakot sa pana-panaan.
23. Ang lihim na katapangan ay siyang pinakikinabangan.

[p. 12]

24. Ang pag-ilag sa kaaway, siyang katapangang tunay.
25. Kahoy na babad sa tubig, sa apoy huwag ilalapit, kapag nadarang ng init, ay pilitang magdirikit.
26. Kung ang tikling at labuyo, sakdal ng ilap magtago, sa marunong magpaanyo, nahuhuli rin sa silo.
27. Kahoy na babad ay basa, nasa kalan nakahanda, magaling na di kawasa, sa tuyong hindi madama.
28. May dalahirang banayad, may mahinhing talipandas.
29. Ang matapat na aruga, ay ang higpit at alaga.
30. Nagmamakipot ay maluwang, nagmamapino’y magaspang.

15. METHODS OF MEASURING TIME

1. Rising of the morning star at four o’clock in the morning.
2. The plant known as “rosas de alas dies” opens its tiny flowers at ten o’clock in the morning.
3. The opening of the patola and “inorascion” flowers is at four o’clock in the afternoon.
4. The first crow of the cocks in the evening is eight o’clock, the second crow is ten o’clock, the third crow is twelve o’clock midnight and the last frequent crow is four o’clock in the morning.
5. The group of stars known as “timbangan” or the scale shows it is exactly midnight when its beams are balanced in the sky.

Submitted by Miss Sofia Laygo

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Notes and references:
Transcribed from “A Compilation of Historical Data of Natunuan,” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.

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