January 4, 2018

Sinturisan, San Nicolas, Batangas: Historical Data

Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the barrio of Sinturisan in the Municipality of San Nicolas, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.

[Note to the reader.]

At the time when this document was created, the barrio of Sinturisan was still a part of Taal rather than San Nicolas. The latter did not become a separate municipality until the year 1955, after the passage of Republic Act No. 1229.

[p. 1]

Part I

HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF THE BARRIO – Sinturisan

Before the Spanish regime, the place so-called Sinturisan at present was a place without a name. It was just the place where [a] few houses were built along several pathways. One of the pathways leading to San Nicolas, the former poblacion, was the center of interest to the passerby. In this place, there were few citrus trees. It so happened that this place became the meeting place of the people whom we call Insurrectos, who were dominating this place [at] this time.

When they came to meet, they did not know what to call this place. It made them confused [about] which one to call it. Later, they agreed upon that this place be so named after the citrus which was called Sinturisan. After the argument, it was reported to the town official that this meeting in going to that destination, San Nicolas, was Sinturisan. So named because of the citrus for its significance that [it] gave to this place. Due to this report, the town officials who were under the supervision of the Spaniards, agreed to visit this place. After a week, this place was established and was given [a] full credential name as barrio Sinturisan in the year 1718. The promulgation of various laws in different barrios which were around the barrio (Sinturisan) was done through the agreement of different officials in this place. During the year 1718, Insurrectos has just found out seven houses erected already. When traced by the Spaniards, the aborigen [?] of the owner of the houses, Impong Sitrus what they called, came from Pulo with their youngest relatives who prepared this place as their residence. These people, before the Spaniards came, used to go around their native barrios to find various kinds of fruits as their daily food. Later, it was improved by the Insurrectos with the management of the town officials by giving the binhing-maiz, which was called corn crop, from Cebu. The establishment of the barrio was given under the hand of the Teniente del Barrio, who was the oldest nephew of Impong Sitrus. The Teniente del Barrio was supposed to promulgate the ideals of the Spaniards

[p. 2]

in any line of how they could live and in dealing with the Spanish Government. The second Teniente del Barrio was Mateo Dimailig, who gave many ideas to the barrio folks in tilling the soil so as to produce much crop for their own food. For several years later, it became two hundred persons. In this case, political enmity occurred and the town officials paid attention to this matter and they just made the selection of the Teniente del Barrio in accordance to the influence of the said personnel of the groups. During that regime, [the] years given to the Teniente del Barrio was in accordance to the will of the town officials and not to the will of the native folks. The Teniente del Barrio since the years of Mateo Dimailig were Graciano Landicho, Benito Maristela, Isabelo Mercado, Ricardo Mendoza, Leopoldo Maristela, Vicente Perez, up to Gregorio Perez who is under our present administration. One third of the land of this barrio is depopulated and still remains as it is. The outside work of the men and women besides tilling the soil was to web [weave] while at home and building houses and also what we call “nagdudugtong.” After the Spanish occupation, the people knew how to worship God. The people were taught religious toleration even in the remotest barrios. But, on the other hand, people in this community and different barrios were fully governed in such a way that they had no voice in the administration. They were not given free will as what we are now enjoying in our present government. The liberties that we are enjoying under the American regime was again interrupted by the occupation of the Japanese from 1941 to 1945. Houses were burned and the people suspected as guerrillas were killed.

[Sgd.] Miss Liceria M. Ilagan

[p. 3]

Part Two Folkways
According to information, it had been the custom and practices of the people during the early days, that when a certain person gave birth to a child, they at once killed a chicken. It was their old belief that the chicken’s life was an exchange to the mother’s life. When the newborn baby is the first child of the couple, the parents of the said couple would be the ones to select the godfather or godmother of the child. After their agreement, they would go to the house of the selected godfather to notify the parents of the godfather about the matter. In going there, they brought with them [a] bottle of wine, some buyo and cigars. They would offer a glass of wine, the buyo and the cigars. At the offering, they would be questioned. So, the visitors would tell the story.

As the story goes on, they would come to talk about the date of the baptism. They would select the lucky day. During that time, baptism was done in the form of a feast. Sometimes, the parent of the child killed a cow or two, or depend upon the situation of the couple. The godfather used to give a dowry to the baby. The dowry depended upon the expenses in the party.

In those days, courting was very different from now. When a man liked to court a lady, he used to go to the house of [the] woman he liked to court very often. Although he went there very often, he could not even talk with the lady. In going there, when he could see even the roof of the house of the lady, he should take off his hat. When he reached the house, he should kneel flat on the floor and say goodnight. The man would just sit by the door. He could only glance the lady but he could not express himself. He could help the lady in every line of work. As time went on, he continued helping without being questioned unless the parent of the man would bring something to be given to the lady or the parents. They would repeat giving regalo (gift) until they would be asked. When the courting was already known to both parties, they would talk over the matter. The parents of the girl would give them a term. Sometimes, the shorter period was one year. If the boy was willing to accept [the] term, he would stay in the house of the girl to serve.

When the term was about to finish, again the man’s parents would go [to] the house of the girl to recall their agreement. They would talk over about the marriage ceremony. They would also select the ninang and the ninong of the couple. They also selected the day of the wedding ceremony. Before the couple would [go] to the church, the mother of the boy would give some money to the girl and the mother of the girl would give some money back to the boy. In going to [the] church, the bride was accompanied by her ninang and the bridegroom [was] accompanied by his ninong. When the wedding ceremony was finished, the bride and the bridegroom would have to run a race to the door of the church.

In the early days, the people were severely punished if they did not obey the laws strictly. The forms of punishment were the “patubig” and the “cavanan.” The patubig was done by letting the criminal drink as much water as he could, then he would be told to lay flat on the ground, thus he would be stepped on the stomach until the told the truth. The cavanan was that the accused person would lay flat on the bench and to be whipped twenty-five times.

[p. 4]

S u p e r s t i t i o n s

1. Huwag mag-aabot ng kuwarta sa bintana.
2. Kapag may ipapanaog na bangkay ay huwag dudungaw ang mga naiwan.
3. Ang taong kakasalin ay di na dapat mag-aalis ng bahay.
4. Kapag may namatay sa bahay ay hindi dapat pagpatung-patungin ang pagliligpit ng kinanan hanggang hindi sumapit ang walong araw.
5. Kung ikaw ay may paruruunan ang makasalubong ka ng pusang itim ay huwag ka nang magtutuloy at may mangyayari sa iyo.
6. Kapag ang isang tao ay inaligiran ng paru-parong itim ay babala na may kamag-anak na namatay.
7. Ang unang pinaghinukhan ng bata ay doon ilagay sa puno ng hagdan upang huwag maging lampa.
8. Ang pagsusuklay ng gabi ay pagsusumpa sa magulang.
9. Huwag dadaan sa ilalim ng hagdanan.
10. Huwag magsusukat ng barong pangkasal ang dalagang ikakasal.
11. Huwag magwawalis ng hapon.
12. Huwag maghihinuko sa banig.
13. Huwag magsusulat kung lumulubog ang araw.
14. Huwag maglalagay ng kuwarta sa misa [mesa] kung kumakain.
15. Huwag magbubulag-bulagan kung lumalakad.
16. Huwag papatay ng pusa.
17. Kapag nakabasag ng salamin ay pitong taong magdaranas ng kahirapan.

[p. 5]

Part II
Folkways

ANG PAG-ANYAYA SA PAGKAIN

“Ano mang gawain ng mga tao mararamay pati inapo.”

Isa ring mainam na ugali na laganap na umiiral dito sa ating bansa ay ang pag-aanyaya sa pagkain. Kung magkataon na may panauhing dumating at dinatnang kumakain ang isang mag-anak o kaya’y bago pa lamang magsisimula ang pagkain, ang panauhin ay pilit na aanyayahang makisalo sa kanila.

Sa ibang bansa ay hindi nakikita ang magandang ugaling ito. Ang katuwiran nila ay ang bawa’t tao ay mayroong kaniyang pagkain sa sariling tahanan. Mangyayaring iyan ay totoo, nguni’t sa ating bayan ay may palagay na kahit pagkahirap-hirap ng isang mag-anak ay pilit gaganapin ang kaugaliang iyan sa ngalan ng kagandahang loob na siyang tanging hiyas ng angkang Pilipino. Ito’y pagpapakilalang ang pagdalaw ng isang tao ay kinagigiliwan ng dinadalaw. Kung sakali namang ang panauhin ay di maaaring magpa-unlak sa matamis na anyaya ng may bahay, ay siya’y nagpapasalamat din at saka nagbibigay ng kadahilanan kung bakit di siya maaaring makisalo sa pagkain ng mag-anak.

Kung ang pagdalaw naman ay mataon sa oras na di kumakain, ang panauhin ay hanandugan ng ano mang makakain, tulad ng matamis, bungangkahoy o ano mang maiinom. Kung matanda ang panauhin ay karaniwang iniaalok ang hitso, sigarilyo o alak.

MGA SALAWIKAING PILIPINO

1. Ang hindi lumilingon sa pinanggalingan ay hindi makararating sa paroroonan.

2. Kung ano ang pagkabataan ay siyang pagkakatandaan.

3. Madali ang pag-aayos sa puno hanggang malambot; kung tumigas na’t tumayog, mahirap na ang paghutok.

4. Ang hipong tulog ay naaanod.

5. Ang lumakad nang matulin matinik man ay malalim.

6. Ang matimtimang birhen ay magaling manalangin.

7. Kapag may sinuksok ay may titingalain.

8. Magpakahaba-haba ang procession ay sa simbahan din ang urong.

9. Pag ang ama ay doktor ang anak ay abogado.

10. Ang maniwala sa sabi-sabi ay walang bait sa sarili.



Respectfully submitted:

[Sgd.] ISABEL MALALUAN

[p. 6]

Baptism

PAGBIBINYAG

Kailan ma’t isilang ang bata ay mayroon agad itinatangi ang mga magulang na dapat mag-anak sa binyag ng bata. Ang karaniwang gawain sa pagbibinyag sa mga bata sa nayon ay ang pagbubuhos. Ang pag-aabisa ng magulang sa mag-aanak sa bata ay may dala agad na mga inumin, katulad ng mga alak, serbesa at iba pang mga inuming pang-babae. At kung dumating na ang oras ng pagbubuhos sa bata, ang mga kamag-anak o kaibigan ng mag-aanak sa binyag ay nagbibigay ng kaunting abuloy sa maghahawak sa bata. Gayon din naman sa nagpapa-anak sa binyag na sila’y inaabuluyan din ng ano mang ikagagalak.

Ang pag-uumpisa ng pagbubuhos sa bata ay ang mga sumusunod:

1. Papagdasalin ng magbubuhos ng bata ang mga mag-aanak.
2. Maghahanda ng isang baso na may lamang tubig.
3. Maghahanda ng kaunting asin, bindita upang sa pagbubuhos ng bata ay gamitin.
4. Pagkatapos makapagdasal ang mga mag-aanak ay pahahawakan ang bata at magdarasal rin ang magbubuhos sa bata.
5. Sa pagbubuhos sa bata ang mga mag-aanak sa binyag ay may hawak na sinding kanila.
6. Habang hawak ng mga mag-aanak sa binyag ang bata at sinding kandila ang magbubuhos sa bata, ay may dasal na bibigkasin ang ngalan ng bata na bubuhusan ang ulo ng maka-ilang beses.
7. Pag ito’y naganap, paluluhurin ang ina ng bata, at aabutin ang bata sa naghahawak at may bibigkasing, “Ano po ang pangalan ng bata?” Sasagutin naman ng nag-anak ang ina ng bata, at sasabihin ang ngalan na may kagalang-galang na pagsasalita.

Pagkatapos ng pagbubuhos sa bata ay magkakaroon ng kaunting salu-salo. Ang mga kumbida ng nag-anak ang unang pakakainin. Habang natatapos naman ang salu-salo ay may kaunti pang kasayahan tulad ng pagkakantahan o di kaya’y kaunting sayawan.

Pagkaraan ng ilang araw saka [pa] pinabibinyagan ang bata sa simbahan. Dito ibibigay ng nag-anak ang ipakikimkim sa bata. At dito’y mayroon na namang salu-salo, at kung wala namang totoong handa ang nagpaanak ay pinadadalhan na lamang ng sabit, katulad ng mga manok at iba pang bagay na ikasisiya ng nag-anak. Dito’y hindi uso sa kanila ang sinasabing pahinaw sa mga nagsidalo sa binyagan.

Respectfully submitted:

Gerardo de Claro

[p. 7]

Part II – Folkways

SUPERSTITIOUS BELIEFS

1. Nang makakita ka ng damit na payong
Ang imbing anahaw pinatapun-tapon.
2. Pag nagtanim ng hangin, bagyo ang aanihin.
3. Pag kumakanta sa harap ng abuhan, ang magiging kabiak sa puso ay balo.
4. Huwag magwawalis sa hapon sapagka’t ang Mahal na Birhen ay napupuwing.
5. Huwag maglalagay ng pera sa lamesa kung kumakain.
6. Pag ang agos ng tubig ay matining ay nangangahulugang malalim.
7. Huwag mananaog ng bahay kung inabot ng hayin.
8. Pagkahaba-haba ng prosesyon, sa simbahan din ang urong.
9. Pagka may sinuksok ay may titingalain.
10. Kapag mabigat ang katawan ay magaan ang tiyan.
11. Ang taong hindi marunong lumingon sa pinanggalingan ay hindi makakarating sa paruruonan.
12. Aanhin pa ang damo kung patay na ang kabayo.
13. Ang lumakad ng matulin, kung matinik man ay malalim.
14. Ang maramot na tao mamatay man ay baluktot.
15. Mayaman ka man at walang kaibigan, magaling pa ang hirap na marami ang kaibigan.
16. Pag sa malalamon ay ang mata ay parang saga at sa trabaho naman ay katal ang baba.
17. Pag ang matanda ay may itinanim, ang mga bata ay may aanihin.
18. Walang matimtimang birhen sa matiagang manalangin.
19. Pag tumiktik ang butiki ay nangangahulugang may darating na panauhin.
20. Ang hindi marunong magmahal sa sariling wika ay higit sa hayop at malansang isda.
21. Ang naniniwala sa sabi-sabi ay walang bait sa sarili.
22. Pag masama sa iyo ay huwag mong gagawin sa iba.
23. Pag may namatay na tao sa inyong angkan ay huwag maggugulay.
24. Kung ano ang utang ay siyang bayad.
25. Huwag magpapanaog ng pera kung hapon.
26. Kung papanaog sa gab-i, at may nasalubong na pusang itim, ay huwag nang tutuloy sa pupuntahan.
27. Huwag magpipispis ng kinainan kung hapon at lumalayo ang biyaya ng Dios.
28. Kung may namatay sa inyong angkan, huwag magwalis hanggang hindi nakaka-apat na araw.
29. Pag ang pusa ay minamahal ay natai sa kalan.
30. Ang lumakad ng marahan matinik man ay mababaw.

Respectfully submitted by:

Gerardo de Claro

[p. 8]

PART II – FOLKWAYS

MARRIAGE (PAGKAKASAL

Ang mga tao sa nayong ito, karaniwang sinusunod ay ang sa kaunaunahang panahon sa pangingibig. Ang isang binata’y nais pumili ng kanyang maging kabiak sa puso. Nguni’t kung ang binata’y may nakasundo, ang magulang ng binata’y nais kitain ang kaanyuhan ng isang binibining yaon. Kung makita ng magulang ang binibining ito, at hindi niya nagustuhan ang kilos at kaanyuhan ng babae, ang magulang ng binata’y sasansalain ang kanyang anak na huwag pagpatuluyan ang babae. Nguni’t ang isang anak na binata’y susunod kaagad sa payong kanyang magulang.

Ang magulang ng binata’y siyang maglilingap ng isang babaeng karapat-dapat sa kanyang anak. Kung makikita ang magulang ng isang babaeng kanyang nagugustuhan, nandito ang pang-uudyok sa kanyang anak na binatang ligawan at ibigin ang babaeng yaon. Ang binata’y susunod sa payo ng magulang upang siya’y huwag mapasama. Pag-aaralan ng binata ang pangliligaw sa babae upang siya’y maging karapat-dapat sa kanyang ninanais.

Kung sila’y magkaroon ng unawaan, ang binata at babaeng kanyang nais, binata’y magsasabi ng tapat sa babae na sila’y magpapakita ng mabuti sa magulang ng babae. Magtatapat ang binata sa magulang niya.

Susuysuying ng magulang ang binata na manuyo sa magulang ng babae. Halimbawa: pag-igib kung walang tubig, pagsisibak ng kahoy kung may sisibaking kahoy. Kung maglilinang ang magulang ng babae’y tutulong din si binata. Kung ang nais ng binata’y matapos kaagad, pangungusapin ang kanyang magulang ng mga taong makatulong sa pag-aararo sa linilinang ng magulang ng babae. Ito’y ang tinatawag na “pa-araro.” Kung sakaling may kasiraan ang bahay ng babae, magulang ni binata’y ipagagawa ang kasiraan ng bahay ng babae. Ang makikilaam sa lahat nito [ay] ang magulang ng binata; maging sa pagkain, sa gastos at iba pa.

Pagkaraan nito ay magpapaisda ang mga magulang ng binata upang dalhin sa magulang ng babae. Ang mga magulang naman ng babae ay siyang magpaparte ng isda, upang mabigyang lahat ng anak nila. Ang kahulugan ng pagbibigay nito ay upang masabugan ng pera ang kanyang anak o di kaya’y sa pagpapakilalang hindi sila lumilimot sa mga kamag-anak. Ito ang sinasabing “pa-isda.”

Dito pupunahin ng magulang ng babae ang magulang ng binata na kung ano ang ibig sabihin ng lahat. Nguni’t sa kanyang pagpunang yaon ay nalalalaman na nila na may nais ang magulang ng binata sa anak niyang babae. Nguni’t bago sila magkaroon ng unawaan, nais ng magulang ng babae na matipong lahat ng kanyang mga kamag-anak at iba pa. [Ang] Magulang ng binata’y naghahanda sa haharaping dadaan. Sila’y maghahasi ng dalawang manok na puti; isa’y dumalagang manok na puti ang paa at mga balahibo, at sa isa nama’y tandang na gayon din ang kaanyuhan. Kung dumating ang kaorasan, itong dalawang manok ay kanilang lulutuin ng buo; kung maluto ay may usapan na ito’y ilalagay sa gitna ng bahay na pinapagitanan ng dalawang makikipag-usapan. Habang sila’y may usapan, bawa’t isa sa kanila’y may layang pumiraso sa nilutong manok. Itong manok na ito’y magkaharapan at magkatukaan, katulad ng binata’t dalagang nag-iibigan. Ito ang tinatawag na “panganga.” Tinawag itong panganga sapagka’t bawa’t isa sa kanila ay nagnganga.

Pagkatapos nito ay susunod naman ang sinasabing “bulungan.” Dito titipunin ang lahat upang pag-usapan kung kailan ang kaorasan ng kasal. Pipili sila ng mag-aanak sa kasal, magandang buwan, araw at pecha ng kasal. Dito’y hihingi ang magulang ng babae sa magulang ng lalake ng pinakabilang sa kanyang anak, upang pagsimulan ng magkasuyo. Halimbawa: lupa, bahay o di kaya’y iba pang ari-arian.

Kung dumating na ang oras ng kasal, dito’y muling titipunan ang mga kamag-anak ng bawa’t isa, sapagka’t may malaking pagsasaluhan. Kung ang

[p. 9]

dalawa’y magbibihis pangkasal, magulang ng babae’y babakayan ang hinubad na damit ng dalawang hindi pangkasal. Bawa’t isa sa kanila’y nag-uunahan, sapagka’t ito’y may kabulunan, at ito raw ay irihiya ng matatanda. At kung ang dalawa naman ay dumagsa na buhat sa simbahan, dito’y mag-uunahan ng pagtapak sa unang baytang ng hagdanan. Habang sila’y pumapanhik, may magbabagsak ng palyok sa hagdanan, tanda ng kanilang magiging anak sa buhay. Sa pagpasok naman sa loob ng bahay, may matandang magsusubo sa kinasal ng “matam-is o kramelo,” tanda ng pagsasama ng mahusay ng dalawang magkasuyo sa buhay.

Dito mag-uumpisa ang sinasabing salu-salo. Pagkatapos ng kainan, ang dalawang magkasuyo’y pagtatayuin sa harap ng mesang kainan, at tatawagin lahat ang partida ng babae at ng lalake. Doon sa mesang yaon ay mayroong mga inumin, katulad ng alak, sigarilyo, tabako at iba pang klaseng mga inumin para sa mga babae. Doon ay may matandang tagapagbigay ng lahat. At kung maabutan ang isang anak ng lalake ay anuman, doon magbibigay ng sabog sa babaeng kinasal. At kung ang anak naman ng babae ay maabutan ng ano mang bagay na nasa mesa, doon naman niya dapat ibigay sa lalakeng kinasal. At kung matapos na ang sabugan, ipabibigay ng matanda ang mga naipong sabog sa kanila, dito sa babae, na may bibigkasing pangungusap na: tanggapin mo ang unang hanapbuhay kong nakita sa ating ikabubuhay, at maluwag namang tatanggapin ng babae ang isinusulit na pera ng lalake. Ito ang tinatawag na “sabogan.”

Tungkol sa paglipat ng kinasal, ang babae lamang ang dapat ilipat na may kasamang namaysan patungo sa bahay ng lalake. Habang sila’y naglalakad, doon ay may pukpukan ng mga balde, hiyawan upang maipakilala ang kanilang kasiyahan, at upang mahugasan ang damdamnin ng babaeng kinasal. Ang lalakeng kinasal ay ayaw sa bahay ng babae na ito ay may taning na araw bago siya makadais sa babae. Ito ay hanggang ikatloo ika-apat na araw lamang. At kung ito’y maganap na ang mga araw, doon siya ngayon pahihintulutang makadais sa kanyang naging kasintahan.

Kinabukasan, ang magkasuyo’y manganganak sa bawa’t partido nila. Luluhod sila, upang ipakilala nila ang kanilang paggalang at pagtingin sa bawa’t nilalapitan.

Respectfully submitted by:

Gerardo de Claro

[p. 10]

SUPERSTITIOUS BELIEFS

1. Huwag maglalagay ng pera sa hapag kung kumakain.
2. Kapag may namatay sa isang bahay ay hindi dapat pagpatung-patungin ang pagliligpit ng kinanan hanggang hindi nakakawalong araw.
3. Huwag mag-aabot ng kuwarta sa bintana.
4. Huwag magwawalis ng harapan kung hapon.
5. Ang pagsusuklay kung gabi ay pagsusumpa sa magulang.
6. Ang taong kakasalin ay hindi na dapat mag-aalis ng bahay at baka may sakunang dumating.
7. Kapag may pupuntahan at makasalubong ng pusang itim ay huwag nang tutuloy.
8. Kapag inaligiran ng paruparong itim ay babala na may kamag-anak na namatay.
9. Huwag magsusursi ng damit sa katawan.
10. Huwag maghihinuko kung araw ng Martes at Biyernes.
11. Walang matimtimang birhin sa matiagang manalangin.
12. Aanhin pa ang damo kung patay na ang kabayo.
13. Walang mailap na pugo sa matiyagang magsilo.
14. Ang lakad ng matulin matinik man ay malalim.
15. Walang sunog na tutong sa taong nagugutom.
16. Magpakahaba-haba ang procesion ay sa simbahan ang urong.
17. Kung ano ang puno ay siyang bunga.
18. Pag hindi nilingon ang pinanggalingan, hindi makakarating sa pupuntahan.
19. Kitang kita sa labong ang magiging bongbong.
20. Walang mataas na bakod sa taong natatakot.




FOLKWAYS

ANG PAGLULUKSA

“Kung ang libingan ko’y limot ng madla
At wala na ni krus o bato mang tanda
Sa nangagbubukid ay ipaubayang
Bungkali’t isabog ang natiping lupa.”

Kung may mamatay ay karaniwang ginagawa ang pagluluksa. Ang lahat ng mga kapatid, magulang at kamag-anak ng namatay ay nagluluksa. Ang mga babae ay nagsusuot ng mga damit na itim at ang mga lalaki naman ay naglalagay ng gasa sabihin ng kaliwa. Kung minsan, ang mga lalaki ay nagsusuot din ng baro at salwal na itim kung ang namatay ay magulang ng nagluluksa. Ang tagal ng pagluluksa ay nasasalig sa lagay ng pagkakamag-anak o kung kaano-ano ng namatay ang nagluluksa. Ang pagluluksa ng mga kamag-anak ay anim na buwan at ang mga anak o asawa ay isang taon. Ang pagsisiyam ay idaraos din. Siyam na gab-i mula sa kamatayan ng ipinagluluksa ng pagsisiyam ay mayroong kaunting salu-salo. Matapos ang isang taon ay ginagawa naman ang paglalaglag ng luksa, at dito’y nagdaraos nang malaking handaan. Ang mga nandaan sa siyaman at sa pag-aalis ng luksa ay hindi na kinakailangan. Ang nararapat lamang gaw-in ay magdasal ng patungkol sa kaluluwa nang namatay at sa loob ng panahon ng pagluluksa ay mataimtim sa puso at isipan ang tapat na pamimighati.

[p. 11]

Ang pagluluksa ay siyang nagpapagunita sa mga naiwan upang alalahanin nila ang namatay. Ang ugaling ito ay dapat nating ipagpatuloy. Ito’y nagpapatibay sa pagtitinginan ng mga magkakamag-anak. Ang pagluluksa ay hindi pakunwaring kalungkutan. Yang ang nangangahulugan ng pagtitiis ng mga naulila, ng wagas na pagaalala, at pagtulong sa kaligtasan at kapayapaan ng kaluluwa ng sumakabilang buhay.




MGA PAGSAGOT SA MAGULANG

“Madali ang maging tao
Mahirap ang magpakatao.”

Ang mga batang Pilipino ay tinuturuan ng isang magandang ugali. Ito ang pagsasalita ng marahan kung nakikipag-usap sa magulang. Ipinalalagay na isang kalapastanganan ang magsasagot sa ama’t ina kung ang isang anak ay pinangangaralan. Ang mga magulang ay walang nais na masama kung di pawang kabutihan ng mga anak. Ang pag wika ng magulang sa anak ay bunga ng pag-ibig na maiwasto ang kabuhayan ng pamilya. Isang pagpapakilala ng kawalan ng bait ng isang anak kung mataas pa ang tinig ng kanyang pagsasalita kay sa pagsasalita ng mga magulang.

Bukod sa paghalik ng kamay sa mga magulang, ay mayroon pang isang kaugalian ng pagbibigay-galang sa mga magulang. Halimbawa, ang isang anak na ibig magpasyal o maglaro sa labas ng tahanan, ay kailangang munang magpaalam sa mga magulang. Kung nais na dumalo sa anumang kasayahan, tulad ng sayawan, panooran, lungkasan, o handaan, ang anak ay humihingi muna ng kapahintulutan ng mga magulang bago manaog ng bahay. Itinuturing na malaking kamalian at mabig-at na kasalanan ang sumaway sa mga tagubilin ng mga magulang. Ipinalalagay na malapit ang kapahamakan sa mga anak na di tumatalima sa mga payo at utos ng mga magulang.

Prepared by: Kultihan Teachers

Submitted by:

[Sgd.] Jorge Atienza

[p. 12]



FILIPINO PROVERBS AND SAYINGS

I. Courtesy

“A crow in the East
Is also a crow in the West.”

This means that a rude fellow is unpleasant wherever he goes. A boar who holds a high social or political position is indeed a sorry sight.

Character traits depicted by proverbs:

II. Honesty and Truthfulness –

a. An honest man’s word is as good as his bond.

b. Be always ready to recognize the good points of another.

c. Let us love one another, for love is of God.

III. Courtesy and Helpfulness –

a. Kind hearts are more than coronets.

b. Courtesy gains all and costs nothing.

c. All doors are open to courtesy.

IV. Cleanliness, Neatness and Orderliness –

a. Keep yourself clean and bright through which you must see the world.

V. Courage and Courtesy –

a. [A] Greater love hath no man than this that a man may lay down his life for his friends.

VI. Punctuality and Promptness –

a. Seize time by the foreclock.

b. One today is worth two tomorrow.

c. Procrastination is the thief of time.

VII. Thrift and Economy –

a. Buy not what you want but what you have need of; what you do not want is dear as a forthing [?].

b. Practice thrift or else you’ll drift.

VIII. Cheerfulness –

a. The best medicine a family can keep in the house is cheerfulness.

IX. Labor and Industry –

a. In the event of thy face shall thou eat bread.

b. Three helping one another bear the burden of six.

c. Doing nothing is doing ill.

d. Light is the task when many share the toil.

[p. 13]

X. Patience and Perseveranc –

a. Many strokes, though with a little ax, hew down and fell the hardest timbered oak.

b. Every task can be accomplished by patience and industry.

XI. Sportsmanship –

a. He lost the game – no matter for that

He kept his temper and swung his hat

To cheer the winners with a laugh.

XII. Self-Control –

a. When angry, count ten before you speak; if very angry, count a hundred.

b. I* count him braver who overcomes his desires than him who conquers his enemies; for the hardest victory is the victory over self.

c. Who so keepeth his mouth and his tongue

Keepeth his soul from troubles.

XIII. Obedience –

a. He who has not learned to obey cannot hope to command.

XIV. Patriotism –

a. To die for one’s country is a bliss indeed.

[p. 14]

LIST OF PROVERBS (TAGALOG)

1. Kung wala ang pusa, naglalaro ang daga.
2. Ang pangako ay utang, huwag kalilimutan.
3. Kasama sa gayak, di kasama sa lakad.
4. Lalong mabuti ang agap sa liksi.
5. Ang hipong tulog ay tinatangay ng agos.
6. Kung ano ang itinanim ay siyang aanihin.
7. Nasa Diyos ang awa, nasa tao ang gawa.
8. Ang agap ay daig ng sipag.
9. Ang maniwala sa sabi-sabi, walang bait sa sarili.
10. Munti ma’t matindi, daig ang malaki.
11. Kung sino ang matiyaga ay siyang nagtatamong-pala.
12. Pag may hirap, may ginhawa.
13. Kapag maaga ang lusong ay maaga ang ahon.
14. Ang langay na tumutuntong sa kalabaw ay mataas pa sa kalabaw.
15. Kung ano ang ginawa mo sa kapuwa mo ay siyang gagawin sa iyo.
16. Walang pagod magtipon, walang hinayang magtapon.
17. Pag may isinuksok, may madudukot.
18. Ang kasipaga’y kapatid ng kayamanan; ang katamara’y kapatid ng kagutuman.
19. Kung ano ang lakad ng alimangong matanda ay siya ring lakad ng alimangong bata.
20. Ang kapalaran ko’y di ko man hanapin, dudulog, lalapit kung talagang akin.
21. Walang utang na di pinagbabayaran.
22. Ang sakit ng kalingkinga’y damdamin ng buong katawan.
23. Kung ano ang hinala ay siyang gawa.
24. Kapag ang dagat ay maingay, asahan mo’t mababaw.
25. Ang buhay ng tao’y gulong ang kabagay, kung minsa’y mapailalim, kung minsa’y mapaibabaw.
26. Kung ano ang pagbabataan, siyang pagkakatandaan.
27. Ang hindi marunong lumingon sa pinanggalingan, ay di makararating sa paroroonan.
28. Ang lumalakad ng marahan, matinik man ay mababaw.
29. Ang lumalakad ng matulin, kung matinik ay malalim.
30. Pagkahawi ng ulap, lilitaw ang liwanag.
31. Hindi lahat ng kumikinang ay ginto.
32. Ang taong walang kibo, nasa loob ang kulo.
33. Ang matibay na kalooban, lahat ay magagampanan.
34. Kung ang tao’y matipid, maraming maililigpit.
35. Kung ano ang masama sa iyo, huwag gawin sa kapwa mo.
36. Huli man daw at magaling ay naihahabol din.
37. Kung tunay na tubo, matamis hanggang dulo.
38. Sa maliit na dampa nagmumula ang dakila.
39. Walang binhing masama sa mabuting lupa.
40. Nakikita ang butas ng karayom, hindi ang butas ng palakol.
41. Bago gawin ang sasabihin, makailang isipin.
42. Ang pagmamahal sa sarili ay nakakabulag.
43. Di man magmana ng ari, magmamana ng ugali.
44. May tainga ang lupa, may pakpak ang balita.
45. Wika at batong ihagis, di na muling babalik.
46. Kung pinukol ka ng bato, ang iganti mo’y puto.
47. Ang di marunong magbata, walang hihinting ginhawa.
48. Ang taong mapagbulaan and hinlog ng magnanakaw.
49. Walang matibay na baging sa mabuting maglambitin.
50. Walang mataas na bakod sa taong natatakot.
51. Ang maikli ay dugtungan, ang mahaba’y bawasan.
52. Pag ikaw ay nagparaan ay pararaanin ka naman.
53. Ang bayaning nasugatan ay nag-iibayo ang tapang.
54. Hindi lalaki ang daga kundi maglaglag sa lupa.
55. Ang natatakot sa ahas ay huwag papasok sa gubat.
56. Malakas ang loob, mahina ang tuhod.
57. Ang taong tamad ay lalakad nang hubad.
58. Kung sino ang masalita ay siyang kulang sa gawa.
59. Gawaing hindi dinadahandahan, karaniwa’y nasasayang.
60. Ang hanap sa bula, sa tubig nawawala.

[p. 15]

MGA BUGTONG – (RIDDLES)

1. Bulsikot si kaka, punong-puno ng lisa. – kalamansi o dayap

2. Narito na ang kinaon, wala pa ang kumaon. – bunga ng niyog na inilaglag ng pumitas.

3. Bahay ng hari, libot ng tari. – puno ng lukban

4. Hayan na, hayan na, hindi mo pa nakikita. – hangin

5. Buto’t balat, nguni’t lumilipad. – saranggola

6. Ha-bilog, ha-pandak, ha-mata, ha-dilat. – atis

7. Heto na, heto na, sa dahon nakikita. – hangin

8. Ate ko, ate mo, at ng lahat ng tao. – atis

9. Gayong nag-iisa, lalarawan ng lahat na. – salamin

10. Aso kong puti, inutusan ko ay hindi na umuwi. – dura

11. Lahat, ako ang minamahal; mang-aawit ang aking tatang, suot ay putian, ang puso ko ay diilaw. – itlog

12. Ik, hindi naman biik, mo, turingan mo. – ikmo

13. Heto na si kaka, bubuka-bukaka. – gunting

14. Kung araw ay bumbong, kung gabi ay dahon. – banig

15. Aling pagkain sa mundo ang di pinagsasawaan ng tao? – kanin

16. Bahay ni kaka, hindi matingala. – noo

17. Itagilid mo’t itiwarik, hindi maligwak ang tubig. – tubo

18. Nang wala pang ginto ay saka nagpalalo, nang magkagintu-ginto ay saka sumuko. – palay

19. Isang pinggan, laganap sa buong bayan. – buwan

20. Hindi hayop, hindi tao, walang gulong ay tumatakbo. – agos ng tubig

21. Puno’y layu-layo, dulo’y tagpu-tagpu. Bahay

22. Kung kailan ko pa pinatay, saka bumaba ang buhay. – kandila

23. Bato na ang tawag ko, bato pa rin ang tawag mo, turingan mo kung ano? – batu-bato

24. May alaga akong isang hayop, malaki pa ang mata kaysa tuhod. – tutubi

25. Takba ng hari, binuksan ko’y hindi na nauli. – itlog

26. Naghanda ang alili ko, nauna pang dumulog ang tukso. – itlog

27. Tangnan mo na ang buntot ko, at sisisid ako. – tabong may tangkay

28. Naunang umakyat, nahuli sa lahat. – bubong

29. Nasabot na ang kamay, iginawa pa ng tulay. – kubyertos

30. Kung pabayaan ay nabubuhay, kung himasin ay namamatay. – makahiya

31. Tumutulo ang balisbisan, tuyo ang bubungan. – tungtong

32. Kaisa-isa na’y kinuha ko pa mandin ang isa, ang natira’y dalawa. – tulya

Mrs. Liceria M. Ilagan

[p. 16]

SUPERSTITIOUS BELIEFS

As a proper [?], the Filipinos are not inherently superstitious. It is rather parabolic to believe that these beliefs were introduced and encouraged by a certain group of people who were profited by the ignorance and fanaticism of a colonized race.

The belief that some days would bring luck and others the opposite is prevalent the world over and has its origin in astrology. Few intelligent people are free from superstitious beliefs.

The town of Taal is not lacking in beliefs that are unfounded. Progressive though it is, some of its people, especially those belonging to the older generations, still believe in superstitions. Here are some of them:

A. Planting vegetables, crops and trees:

1. It is believed that when corn is being planted, it best for the planter not to open the mouth or laugh so that the corn cob will have many big, even grains.

2. When vegetables are planted, it should be done early in the morning before breakfast time. People say that vegetables will be healthy and will bear big, broad leaves and seeds.

3. Farmers usually coincide their planting of rice with the coming of a new moon. They believe that the rice plants will be resistant to diseases and will not be easily eaten by insects. The grains will be big and the harvest will be bountiful.

4. Dead animals, like dogs, cats and pigs are often buried near the roots of the fruit trees. They say these dead animals will make the fruit trees grow well and the fruits will taste sweet.

5. People often build a small bonfire to smoke the plants. The plants will bear many big fruits. This is very common among people who plant mango trees.

6. People believe that hanging empty cans, bottles, and pots under trellises will make the plants bear plenty of fruits.

7. When orange or tamarind trees are planted, sugar is placed into the hole so that the fruits will taste sweet.

8. Farmers do not work on their farms on San Isidro Day. If they do work, they will incur the displeasure of San Isidro, the Saint of Harvest. Hence, their harvest will be poor.

9. When planting bananas, it is bad to look up because if you do, the plant will grow tall before bearing fruit.

[p. 17]

10. When watering a newly-planted tree, put a lump of sugar in your mouth so that the fruit will be sweet.

11. When planting rice, carry with you some betel nuts so that the rice will bear big grains.

12. When planting ampalaya, have a lump of sugar in your mouth so that the fruit will not be bitter.

13. Do not plant an ilang-ilang tree near a house for if you do, a member of the family will die.

14. When planting coconuts, carry as many children as you can on your back so that the coconut tree will bear plenty of fruit.

15. When an owl makes a hooting sound, it is time for us to plant. Our harvest will be bountiful. But when you see a monkey, it is better not to plant anything because we shall have a very poor harvest. Set the planting for another day.

16. Farmers believe that the best days to begin plowing the rice fields are Tuesdays and Fridays. They believe they would get a good harvest.

17. A farmer who had just planted his rice fields should not sweep the floor at night. The rice plants will not continue to grow well. The plants will wither.

18. People believe that in planting banana plants, one should carry a baby on his back. The banana plants will bear big clusters of fruit.

19. Many farmers believe that when they had planted their seed beds, they should not prove their haircut. Cutting the hair will cause the young seedlings to have short stems.

B. War, pestilence, calamity:

1. When an owl alights on the steeple of a church, pestilence will soon come.

2. If a comet is seen, it means that war or pestilence is liable to occur.

3. A hooting owl in the town plaza means that the town will soon be attacked or the town will meet a great calamity.

C. Visitors:

1. If the house lizard makes a noise near the doorway, a visitor will soon arrive.

2. If a house cat washes its face, visitors are expected.

3. When the fire in the stove sizzles, visitors are coming.

[p. 18]

[Note to the reader: Although this section is included in the “historical data” for Sinturisan, Batangas History suspects that this is the missing second section of the “historical data” for the barrio of Munlawin.]

EARLY COURTSHIP, BETROTHAL AND
MARRIAGE CUSTOMS

In the days of our grandmothers, a young man who won the love of a girl in a very different way. He did not speak of his love to this girl in words but only in meaningful looks and glances. If he loved a girl, he went to her house to help do the daily household chores by fetching water, pounding the palay or chopping wood for fuel. If the parents wanted him to be their daughter’s husband, they did not make any comment and so, after a length of time, he was asked to inform his parents that the girl’s parents want to talk to them as regards their son’s intention. If the girl’s parents thought othewise, they advised the young man to stop. Occasionally, the young suitor brought small gifts of the choicest fruits, chickens, vegetables or anything to please the girl and her parents. Usually, months and years passed before the marriage was proposed. This was to test the industry and sincerity of the young man’s love.

When the time to propose the marriage came, the young man’s parents prepared delicious food and gifts to be taken to the girl’s house. They usually asked the help of a person of influence in the locality who was called the “humlang” who would intercede in their behalf should the girl’s parents refuse or demand from them something which they could not afford to give. The group, upon reaching the girl’s house, greeted the people with utmost respect and courtesy. They were careful in their manner of speech and movements for a displeasing word or act was enough to change the minds of the girl’s parents. If the two parties came to a final agreement, the young man’s parents promised to build a new house for the would-be couple and give a gift or dowry in the form of money, jewels, or land depending upon their ability to give such a demand. The parents set the date of marriage and it was only the time when the girl learned of the approaching marriage. Even if she did not love the man, she did not raise any objections for it meant an act of disloyalty and irreverence to her parents.

The marriage feast was held in the girl’s home. A day before the marriage, all the food preparations were made in the man’s home. After all preparations were finished, they were taken to the girl’s house. They invited all the relatives of the girl, taking care not to omit anyone. The bride and groom were accompanied by the sponsors to the church where the ceremony was performed by the priest. It took the reluctant bride a long time to say “I do” so she had to be coaxed by the “Ninangs” or pinched by her mother. After the ceremony, they went home and were met with shouts and rejoicing. The new couple, together with the guests, partook of all the food that was served generously.

After the feast was over, the groom’s parents and relatives took the bride away to their home while the groom stayed at the bride’s home for 3 days. On a full moon, the new couple moved to their new home, taking with them all the gifts that they received from friends and relatives on their wedding day.

If a young man is unknown to a young girl, and he wishes to be acquainted with her, he serenades her with some of his friends. This is called “harana.” This evening serenade is usually done under the girl’s window. The serenaders sing songs of love and pity. This becomes an opening rite of acquaintance, leading to courtship between

[p. 19]

the young man and the young girl.

Some young men, when they do not become successful in winning the love of a young woman, enlist the aid of witchdoctors who, from mystic herbs and roots and outrageous subtances, make a love-potion called “gayuma,” guaranteed to soften the hardest female heart and to turn the proudest maiden into [a] man’s amorous slave. This love potion is put in the drinks or mixed with the food of the young woman.

Oftentimes, a young man asks the help of his parents in courtship. He requests his parents to go to the parents of the girl he adores to have a heart-to-heart talk about his love affair. The parents of the man usually bring with them some good “eats and drinks.” During the “ceremony-talk,” the man’s father tells the girl’s parents the motive of their mission. He asks the parents’ consent for their daughter’s marriage. If his proposal is accepted, plans for the marriage are discussed. This is called “namumulong” in the dialect.

Courtship is not always done between the two young lovers. Sometimes, the youjng man courts the consent of the girl’s parents. If he is appreciated and liked by the parents of the woman, the daughter’s hand is promised in wedlock to the man on probation. During this period of probation, which lasts indefinitely from weeks to months, the young man does many kinds of household helps for the girl’s family, like fetching water, mending fences, plowing the field, chopping wood, repairing the house and many others. During this period of serving, the man is careful in his speech and actions in order to please the parents and relatives of the girl. When the girl’s parents find that he is sincere in marrying the daughter, the wedding ceremony takes place.

If a man admires a girl who is totally a stranger to him, he tries to find a way by which she could be his acquaintance. He introduces himself through somebody who is a personal friend of the girl. Then, he proposes a friendly visit to her home. During fiesta, Christmas or birthday parties, he brings some “regalo” in the form of material gifts. This is one way of expressing his love to the woman. Then, his courtship begins. During this stage, the young man behaves very well in order to win the sympathy of the girl’s parents. If the girl gives her consent, an engagement ring is given to the woman as a symbol of the love that binds them.

A bride or bridegroom, before being married, should not travel far so as to avoid accidents. They marry during a full moon.

During the marriage ceremony, care should be taken. If the light of the candle fades out, it foretells misfortune for the couple. When putting on the veil, and cord, they should be careful not to let them fall so that it will bring them long life.

After the ceremony, the first to go up the stairs will dominate the other. It is a habit among the newlyweds to run faster in going upstairs to outrun or overtake the other. Usually, visitors and near relatives throw grains of rice at the couple to wish them [a] life of plentyin the future. It was

[p. 20]

also believed that brothers and sisters are not good to be married in the same year for each will push each other to bad luck or early death.

When the newlyweds reach home, they are showered with flowers so that they will have a happy married [life[ with many children.

Sweets and water are offered to the couple so that they will have [a] harmonious relationship throughout life.

After the feast in honor of the newlyweds, the parents of the bride should not go together with the couple to the home of the bridegroom. It is believed that the bride may return to the home of the bride’s parents.

The wedding dress of the bride should not be worn for a try-out before the wedding ceremony. Marriage may not be solemnized or [an] accident may befall the bride.

During the marriage ceremony, care should be taken that the candles are lighted with equal intensity. If the candle held by the bridegroom is dimmer than the candle held by the bride, it is presumed that the man will be under the control of the woman. If one of the thirteen pieces of silver given by the bridegroom to the bride during the ceremony falls to the floor, there lives will be the one of hardships. It may mean also an early death of one of them.

It is said that when a young man sings while in front of the stove [while] cooking, she is liable to marry an old man or a widower.

After the marriage ceremony, the bride and the bridegroom race each other in going up the house where a feast is being held in their honor. It is believed that the spouse who reaches upstairs first will dominate and control the other.

Before a couple is married, each selects a godfather and a godmother. The godfather, as a custom, pays for the services of the priest. After the wedding ceremony, the newlyweds, the godfather and godmother, go to the house of the bride where a feast awaits them. The godfather and godmother usually give them some gifts, like money or material things so that the couple may have something to start with in their new life. Very often, the couple receives material gifts from relatives and closest friends.

Marriage Customs and Traditions

The bride always makes it a point to be the first one to go up the house after the marriage ceremony. She never allows the bridegroom to be ahead of her for it is the belief that if the bridegroom reaches the house first, he will rule the house, while if it is the bride, it will be the wife’s wishes which will be followed.

The sponsor for the veil should take care that the veil does not fall. Pin the veil fast for if it falls, it is the belief that the bride will not live long.

The month of February [is] not a good month for marriage because couples married in one of the days during the month becomes poor. Maybe the underlying reason is that February has only 28 days.

[p. 21]

It is the belief that the couple who strongly resembles each other will make [a] success of their marriage. Those who have similar features like the same shape of faces, the same curve of nose, and brows will get along together nicely.

To bring prosperity and happiness throughout their wedded life, it has been the custom to throw some rice to the newlyweds after the ceremony in the church and upon reaching the house.

It is the belief that to sow one’s own wedding gown or to try the same before the wedding will bring bad luck. For some reason or another, the wedding ceremony may not be solemnized.

Single ladies or bachelors should not act as sponsor in marriage or they will not get married anymore.

After the marriage ceremony, the bouquet is thrown to the bridesmaids. The lady who catches the bouquet will be married soon.

The brothers or sisters should not be married within the same year. If this happens, one will not prosper in life.

It is not good to get married during the period of mourning for either party. If this happens, the couple will not have a happy life.

To ensure the prosperity and success of a married life, the best time to get married is when there is a good moon.

[p. 22]

[Note to the reader: As with the previous section, while this last page is bundled along with the historical data for the barrio of Sinturisan, Batangas History cannot ascertain that, in the original document, it really belongs there or with another barrio or document. The top of the page is torn.]

Noong panahon ng [page torn]
bago mapa-ibig ang isang binata [page torn]
watig ng binata sa dalaga ang [page torn]
kundi sa makahulugang tingin at [page torn]
na siya ay pumunta sa bahay ng [page torn]
mga gawain sa bahay, gaya ng pagkuha ng [page torn]
palay o di kaya ay pagsisibak ng kahoy na [page torn]
ang binata ay nagugustuhan ng mga magulang ng [page torn]
sila kumikibo sa paninilbihan nito. Pagkalipas ng [page torn]
panahon ay ipapatawag ng mga magulang ng babae ang mga magulang ng lalaki, upang mapag-usapan ang layunin ng binata. Sa kabilang dako naman at hindi nagugustuhan ng mga magulang ng dalaga ang binata ay pinagsasabihan itong tumigil sa kanyang paninilbihan. Minsan, ang nangingibig na binata ay nagpapadala ng regalo na pinakapiling bungang-kahoy, manok, gulay, o anumang ikasisiya ng dalaga at ng mga magulang nito. Karaniwan ay buwan at taon ang lumilipas bago ang pamumulong sa kasal. Ang dahilan nito ay upang masubok ang sipag at kataimtiman ng pag-ibig ng binata.

Sa araw ng pamumulong sa kasal, ang mga magulang ng binata ay naghahanda ng masasarap na pagkain at regalo na dadalhin sa bahay ng babae. Sa pamumulong, karaniwan ay humihingi ng tulong ang mga magulang ng lalaki sa isang taong pinagpipitaganan sa bayan na kung tawagin ay humlang. Ang humlang ang taga-pamagitan sa panig ng mga magulang ng lalaki kung sakali’t may hihilingin ang mga magulang ng babae na hindi nila makakaya. Sa pagdating ng mga mamumulong sa bahay ng babae ay buong galang at pagpipitagang binabati ng mga dumating ang sino mang taong maratnan nila doon. Maingat silang lahat sa pananalita at sa pagkilos sa kagustuhang huwag silang mapintasan ng mga magulang ng babae na kung hindi magustuhan ang kanilang kilos at pananalita ay baka pa magbago ng isipan. Kung ang mga magulang ng babae and lalaki ay nagkasundo na, ang mga magulang ng lalaki ay mangangako na ipagpapagawa ng bagong bahay ang ikakasal o bibigyan ng regalo o pakimkim na pera, alahas o lupa sa kasunduang makakayang ibigay ang mga hinihiling. Ang araw ng kasal ay itatakda ng mga magulang at saka lamang malalaman ng dalaga ang nalalapit niyang kasal. Kahit na hindi iniibig ng dalaga ang binatang kanyang pakakasalan ay hindi siya tumututol sapagka’t ang pagsuway niya sa kagustuhan ng kanyang mga magulang ay nangangahulugan ng paglapastangan at pagkawalang galang sa kanila.

Ang kasalan ay idinaraos sa bahay ng babae. Isang araw bago dumating ang kaarawan ng kasal, lahat ng pagkaing ihahanda sa kasal ay iniluluto muna sa bahay ng lalake bago dalhin sa bahay ng babae. Lahat ng kamag-anakan ng babae ay inaanyayahan at buong-ingat na tinatandaang wala isa mang malilimutan. Sa araw ng kasal, ang kakasalin ay sinasamahan ng ninong at ninang sa kasal sa simbahang pagkakasalan ng pari. Ang umaayaw pang nobya ay natagalan bago sumagot ng oo kundi pa inamo ng ninang o kinurot ng ina. Pagkatapos ng kasal, ang bagong kasal ay babalik sa bahay ng babae at doon ay sasalubungin sila ng sigawan ng nagagalak na mga panauhin. Ang bagong kasal ang unang hahainan kasama ng mga panauhing nagpaunlak sa masaganang pagkaing inihanda para sa lahat.

Pagkatapos ng pagdidiwang, ang nonya ay isasama ng magulang at kamag-anak ng nobyo sa bahay ng lalaki samantalang ang nobyo naman ay maiiwan sa bahay ng nobya ng mga tatlong araw. Sa pagbilong ng buwang ang bagong kasal ay ililipat sa kanilang bagong bahay na dala ang lahat ng regalong natanggap buhat sa kanilang mga kaibigan at kamag-anak noong araw ng kasal.

[Sgd.] Mrs. Liceria M. Ilagan

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Notes and references:
Transcribed from “History and Cultural Life of the Barrio (of Sinturisan), Taal, Batangas,” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.

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