Tanauan, Batangas: Historical Data - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore Tanauan, Batangas: Historical Data - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore

Tanauan, Batangas: Historical Data

Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the City of Tanauan, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.
Historical Data
[Cover page.]







The Local Committee

Tanauan, Batangas

June, 1953

[Cover page 2.]


of the


Compiled and Arranged


The Local Committee

Composed of




Tanauan, Batangas
June 30, 1953

[Letter of Transmittal.]

Bureau of Public Schools
Division of Batangas
District of Tanauan

Tanauan, June 30, 1953

The District Supervisor
Tanauan, Batangas


We have the honor to submit herewith the result of the work of your Local Committee on the History and Cultural Life of the people of Tanauan, Batangas, as required in Executive Order No. 486 by the President of the Philippines, and General Memorandum No. 34, s. 1952 of the Director of Public Schools, Manila.

Very respectfully,

Principal, Tanauan Elem. School

Principal, Boot Elem. School

Teacher, Tanauan Int. School



Tanauan, a town in the northern part of the province of Batangas, is replete with traditions and is rich in myth, legends and superstitions. While the site of the town proper had to be transferred from time to time in the past as a result of the eruptions of Taal Volcano, it has progressed and grown much in its present location.

Oranges, which had made Tanauan known not only in the province but also throughout the islands, are gradually replaced by the “calamansi.” Comparatively speaking, the people in the rural areas are much better off than their neighbors. This is mainly attributed to their industriousness, diligence and perseverance. Practically all the land are cultivated and are made productive throughout the year. The market abounds with farm products during market days and the people rush back to their barrios after selling their commodities to be able to work in their farms. Commercial fertilizers are used very extensively and the average annual consumption reaches as high as 70,000 bags.

Cooperatives are found not only in the poblacion but also in [the] barrios. A commercial bank which caters to the needs of the farmers and the merchants is found in the town proper. “Puroks” can be found in all the barrios and are instrumental in the social and cultural upliftment of the people in the rural areas. Tanauan is really a unique town. It is where Apolinario Mabini, the “Sublime Paralytic,” was born. It is also the birthplace of Dr. Jose P. Laurel.

The compilation of the data herein included is a great task. Acknowledgment has to be given to the teachers, head teachers, and the principals in the municipality of Tanauan and to Mr. Lucio Dimayuga who unselfishly helped in contributing the facts given. Special mention has to be made of the Local Committee headed by the Principal of the Tanauan Elementary School, Mr. Aurelio Valencia, who painstakingly and patiently corrected and compiled the facts submitted by the teachers.

District Supervisor




In the preparation of this book on the history and cultural life of Tanauan, Batangas, the local committee is greatly indebted to all teachers in the barrio and to those in the poblacion who have helped much in the collection of data in their “puroks.” Thanks also due to the many people who had willingly collaborated with the teachers in this arduous but interesting task.

Gratitude is especially due to Mr. Lucio Dimayuga, former Municipal Secretary of Tanauan, Batangas, who has furnished nearly all the data for the poblacion. Mr. Dimayuga also wrote the materials for Appendix A, B, and C of this book.

For typing the report, the committee feels greatly indebted to several persons who had volunteered to help in the work. Among these were Mr. Tereso Guevarra, a pharmacist; Mr. David C. Tapia, Principal of Boot Elementary School and a member of the committee; Mr. Jose Comprado, a teacher in the Tanauan Intermediate School; and Mr. Francisco A. Valencia, Head Teacher of Darasa Barrio School, also of this municipality.

A. V.

D. C. T.

J. C.

Tanauan, 6/30/53


Letter of Transmittal iii
Foreword by the District Supervisor v
Acknowledgments vii
History and Cultural Life of the:
 1.  Poblacion, Tanauan, Batangas 1
 2.  Barrio of Altura 19
 3.  Barrio of Ambulong 24
 4.  Barrio of Bagbag 34
 5.  Barrio of Bagumbayan 38
 6.  Barrio of Balele  45
 7.  Barrio of Balocbaloc 48
 8.  Barrio of Bañadero 56
 9.  Barrio of Bilogbilog 59
10. Barrio of Boot 65
11. Barrio of Bungcalot 82
12. Barrio of Cale 86
13. Barrio of Darasa 88
14. Barrio of Ik-ik 96
15. Barrio of Janopol 99
16. Barrio of Luyos 105
17. Barrio of Malaking Pulo 109
18. Barrio of Maugat 117
19. Barrio of Natatas 122
20. Barrio of Pantay 126
21. Barrio of Sala 133
22. Barrio of Sambat 138
23. Barrio of Santol 142
24. Barrio of Santor 146
25. Barrio of Sulpoc 152
26. Barrio of Suplang 158
27. Barrio of Talaga 161
28. Barrio of Tinurik 172
29. Barrio of Trapiche 175
30. Barrio of Ulango 186
31. Barrio of Wawa 192
Appendix A 197
Appendix B 199
Appendix B 201
- ooo0ooo -

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1. Present official name of the town – Tanauan.

2. Former name or names and their meaning or derivation:

“Tanawaan,” derived from “tanawa,” a kind of shrub or small tree that grew in abundance near the lake.

3. Date of establishment: 1583

4. Names and social status of the founders: Spanish missionaries who came to convert the natives to Christianity and spread the Gospel.

5. Names of people who held leading official positions in the community, with the dates of their tenure, if possible:

Of the many people who held leading positions in the community during the Spanish regime, only the following can be recalled, as all pertinent records were destroyed during the recent global war and lost forever.

Juan de la Cruz Nicolas Tolentino
Victorino Dimayuga Inocencio de Leon (Laurena)
Magdaleno Panganiban Mariano Laurel
Mariano Gonzales (Mayor) Mariano Gonzales (Menor)
Eligio Saguan Eusebio Gonzales
Lorenzo Dimayuga Santiago Lanting
Arcadio Laurel Macario Garcia
Pantaleon Gonzales Eleuterio Castillo
Paulino Hidalgo Casimiro Garcia
Ruperto Laurel Nicolas Gonzales
Florentino Collantes (Teniente Mayor)
Sixto Macaisa (Juez de Ganado Mayor)
Valentin Dimayuga (Juez de Sementera)
Sotero Laurel (Juez de Paz)

Fr. Martin Ruiz, O.S.A. Fr. Benito Varas, O.S.A.
Fr. Jose (Garrote), O.S.A. Fr. Jose Diaz, O.S.A.
Sixto Castillo y Gonzales 1898-1899 (Phil. Rep)
Pedro Carandang 1899-1900
Juan Gonzales Suizo 1900-1902
Florentino Laurena 1902- (½ year only)
Valentin Dimayuga 1902-1903
Florentino Collantes 1903-1904
Prospero Dimayuga 1904-1905
Pantaleon Gonzales 1905-1906
Francisco Oñate 1906-1907
Fulgencio Platon 1907-1908
Nicolas Gonzales 1908-1912
Crispin Garcia 1912-1916
George Collantes 1916-1922
Fulgencio Platon 1922-1925
Florentino Laurena 1925-1928
Antonio J. Dimayuga 1928-1937
Alfredo P. Magpantay 1938-1942 (Japanese Occupation)
Pedro B. Gonzales 1942-1943 (Japanese Occupation)
Nicolas Gonzales Jr. 1944-1945 (Japanese Occupation)
[p. 2]
Jose M. Corona 1945-1946 (Liberation)
George Collantes 1946-1951
PEDRO B. GONZALES 1952- to date
C U R A T E S</

Padre Modesto Corona
Padre Bernabe Macarandang
Padre Magdaleno Castillo
Padre Ricardo Gatdula
Padre Nicolas Gonzales
Padre Leonardo Depusoy
Padre Godofredo Marino (Present Parish Priest)


A. Municipal Secretary:
1. Pantaleon Gonzales
2. Buenaventura Tapia
3. Sergio Trinidad
4. Juan Liabres (Lipa)
5. Ruperto Laurel
6. Cayetano Laurena
7. Quintin L. Magsino
8. Andres Collantes
9. Jose M. Corona
10. Lucio Dimayuga
11. Marcelo F. Olfato
12. Bertin G. Olfato (Present Incumbent)

B. Municipal Treasurer:
1. Wenceslao Trinidad (Talisay)
2. Juan Muñoz (Sto. Tomas)
3. Agaton Burgos
4. Leonardo K. Gutierrez – May to June, 1945
5. Zacarias Maullon – July 1, 1945 to June, 1947
6. Higino Cusi – July, 1947 to Dec. 1947 (Acting)
7. Domingo L. Ferriols – Jan. 1948 to July, 1949
8. Daniel I. Pastor – July 21, 1949 to date

C. Justices of the Peace:
1. Sotero Laurel
2. Buenaventura Tapia
3. Ruperto Laurel
4. Cayetano Laurena
5. Eustacio Maloles
6. Primitivo L. Gonzales
7. Ladislao Tapia
8. Pedro M. Katigbac (Lipa)
9. Calixto Luna (Mataasnakahoy)
10. Marcelo V. Olfato
11. Anacleo Malabuyo (Present Incumbent)

D. Chiefs of Police:
1. George Collantes
2. Pio Encarnacion
3. Pablo del Prado
4. Artemio Rocamora
5. Gregorio Agoncillo
6. Lamberto Z. Burgos
7. Isabelo Zuño (Rosario)
8. Cipriano Magsino
9. Pedro B. Gonzales (Japanese Occupation)
10. Jorge Collantes Jr.
11. Marceliano K. Medina (Liberation)
12. Fidel del Pilar
13. Pedro B. Gonzales
14. Aquilino Villa (Present Incumbent)

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6. Data on historical sites, structures, buildings, old ruins, etc.

1 – The site of the present Our Lady of Fatima Academy was the oldest cemetery of the town.

2 – The site of the New Elementary School Building was also a cemetery up to 1898.

3 – In the square where the Tanauan Presidencia Building stands was erected the CASA REAL or town hall during the Spanish regime.

4 – In the lot of the late Don Ramon Genato where not stands the store of Dr. Salvador Laurena once stood the buildings of the TRIBUNAL and the CUARTEL during the Spanish regime.

5 – The birthplace of Apolinario Mabini, the “Sublime Paralytic,” in the barrio of Talaga.

6 – The pillars and stone walls of the temporary convent of Padre Godofredo Marino, actual Parish Priest, were the ruins of the old church of Tanauan since its transfer from the shores of Lake Bonbon after the eruption of Taal Volcano in 1754.

7 – Portions of the ruins of the old church of the town of Sala after its transfer from the shores of the lake may still be traced and seen in one of the lots of the late Capitan Paulino Hidalgo.

7. Important facts, incidents, or events that took place:

a. During the Spanish Occupation:

(1) No event of special importance occurred during the whole Spanish domination. However, the founding of this town of Tanauan, its destruction by the earthquakes and eruption of Taal Volcano in 1754, and its transfer to the present location may be mentioned under this caption. The establishment of a public school for boys under the initiative and guidance of Don Simplicio Avelino, and for the girls under his wife Doña Benita Laurel, and also the establishment of the ESUELA DA LATINIDAD by Padre Valeriano Malabanan, where Mabini and other prominent persons of this municipality, as well as from other municipalities of Batangas, such as the famous Don Benedicto de Luna of Batangas, Batangas, whom Rizal mentioned in his immortal book Noli Me Tangere, Don Luis Luna of San Jose, Don Braulio de Villa of Sariaya, Quezon (formerly Tayabas) and his two brothers and other studied, are considered important events because they constituted important milestones in the history of Tanauan.

Later, the government opened a school (schola pia), dedicated to open the minds of the children to the rudiments, principles and doctrines of the Catholic faith, to instill in their hearts submission and piety, and to initiate them in the practice of religion. The building housing the school still stands. It was repaired and is now converted to a primary school building. It faces the new Tanauan Municipal Building.

In the latter part of 1896, during the revolution against Spain, some revolutionary soldiers, in the belief that they would further the cause of the revolt, kidnapped Cabesang Sixto Castillo y Gonzales and some of his sons, Exequiel, then a young man of the ten. The kidnappers were from a neighboring town headed by one Roman Hernandez. They wanted to exact ten thousand pesos (₱10,000), Mexican currency, from Capitan Eleuterio Castillo, father of

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Cabesang Sixto, who was at that time the richest man of Tanauan. Cabesang Sixto and Exequiel were held in captivity in the slopes of Mt. Makiling for some months until certain negotiations for their release were terminated. The kidnapped were at last freed, and eventually became the only Municipal President during the short-lived Philippine Republic.


Of the many incidents that took place in this municipality attesting to the corruption and evils of the Spanish government, the following best depicts how the affairs of the government were run during the almost three centuries of the Philippines under the Spanish domination.

Antonio Villapando, a prominent citizen of Tanauan, was elected the CAPITAN MUNICIPAL, although not officially inducted into office. While he was strolling along the streets of the Poblacion, he happened to witness a game of “Panguinggue” in the house of Doña Maria Tapia, and influential and wealthy woman of the town. After a while, Mr. Villapando reminded the players that, upon his assuming office, or immediately after his “Simbang Varas” (attendance of Mass in the morning of his induction into office), the game would be stopped for good, with the stern warning that, otherwise, the players would be brought to justice for violation of the law. After saying this, the would-be Capitan Antonio left the place and went his way. The players, then, had their personal comments on the incident, all challenging to the prestige of the Tapia family. Doña Maria immediately ordered her coach and, without much ado, went directly to Manila, laden with gifts, and repaired to the house of her friend, Doña Vicentica Leyba with whom she went to the palace of the Capitan Heneral. It happened that Doña Vicentica was a close friend of the family of the Capitan Heneral, and also of his paramour, with whom they secretly conferred. The immediate suspension of Villapando’s assumption of office, and in his place the appointment of Leocadio Laurel, was laid at this conference. Then and there, the “querida” of the Capitan Heneral assured that their requests would be granted. In no time, after the giving of the costly gifts, two orders, one for the annulment of Villapando’s election, and the other, the appointment of Don Leocadio Laurel as the next Capitan Municipal of Tanauan, were issued and handed to Doña Maria Tapia. She returned to Tanauan and held a big fiesta to celebrate the affair. Maria Tapia became overnight Doña and Capitana Maria, for Don Leocadio Laurel was her own husband, and the game of “panguinggue” flourished as ever more.


During the incumbency of Padre Jose Garrote as Curate of Tanauan, there occurred a robbery in the convent, resulting in the disappearance of several hundred pesos, all in coins, Mexican currency. From all the servants and jockeys of the friar were subjected to third degree torture, until they confessed. After so much grilling, one boy was at last pinned and made to confess the surrender the amount stolen. The boy, however, implicated in his confession, two outstanding citizens of the town, namely the two Mariano Gonzales (Mayor and Menor), in the robbery. These two involved persons were invited to the convent and screened for weeks and months, until the case was thoroughly investigated. As the two were innocent and which they stubbornly disclaimed any responsibility or participation in the crime, they were at last exonerated, freed and their names vindicated. The boy, at last, produced the stolen money

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and cleared that implicated the two, following suggestions and persuasions from some outsiders whose identities he consistently did not disclose. This event was the topic of conversation of the town of Tanauan and off other towns for a long time.


More than two hundred years ago, Don Juan dela Cruz, then Gobernadorcillo of Old Tanauan, give a big fiesta in his baronial home, where in the Curate, officials, prominent citizens and other persons of the town where cordially invited. As was customary among Filipinos, everybody was lavishly entertained with foods of all kinds, drinks, music and dancing until the wee hours of the following day, which was Sunday. Mr. dela Cruz requested the priest not to say Mass next morning until he (dela Cruz) had awakened from his sleep, in order that he could hear it. It happened, however, that the Gobernadorcillo did not wake up until twelve noon for which reason the good Padre was forced by the other parishioners to say Mass earlier. The priest, believing that he had [a] good excuse to comply with the wishes of the people, set the Mass without awakening the Gobernadorcillo. When Mr. dela Cruz woke up and found out that the Mass was over, he became very furious and mad at the priest, whom he branded as ignorant, disloyal and haughty. Dela Cruz immediately ordered a big, strong cage, and the unfortunate Padre was jailed in [it]. He gave orders to exile the Padre to a far place, and one him not to return. The order was complied with, and the party went up the mountains on their way to Manila. On reaching the summit of Mt. Sungay, they stopped awhile for a rest. At this juncture, the Padre took a handful of sand and scattered it to the spaces, cursing the whole town, especially the author of his martyrdom, and entreating God not to allow anybody from the said town to ever become a priest. The party continued their trip up to a place now called Zapote and the priest was released there. A few years thence occurred the violent eruption of Taal Volcano which destroyed once and for all the old town of Tanauan, and the people, remnants of the old population, took this calamity as an aftermath of the great injustice done to an old, native priest. The malediction fulminated by the priest was apparently heeded by the Divine Providence, for nobody ever became a priest until after more than forty years had elapsed.

b. During the American Occupation.

(1) For the first time in the history of Tanauan, the pastoral visit of the Archbishop of Manila, Monsignor Jeremiah J. Harty, took place in April, 1904.

(2) Public schools where established by the Americans since 1900. Highways and bridges were constructed, artesian wells drilled, market buildings erected, and a Town Hall (Presidencia) arose from the old site of the Casa Real. Tanauan was provided with a waterworks system and local investors organized the Tanauan Electric & Development Co. Inc. The late Dr. Juan V. Pagaspas founded the Tanauan Institute in June, 1924, the Cooperative Store and the Square Deal Banking Corporation, investing local capital. The establishment of the Our Lady of Fatima Academy, founded in June, 1948 and conducted by the Augustinian Sisters, marked also an important event in the history of the town.

(3) Mention should be made of the Vicarial Eucharistic Congress held in this town during the month of November, 1941, with His Grace, Mgr. Alfredo Versoza, Bishop of the Diocese of Lipa, officiating.

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(4) The eruption of Taal Volcano on January 30, 1911, killed many lives of the inhabitants and laid havoc and destruction on properties. The detonating sound of the angry and merciless volcano could be heard miles away, and hot ashes and molten rocks poured forth relentlessly, causing the total destruction and annihilation of the then flourishing orange industry of this town.

(5) Mention may also be made of the destructive typhoon which swept over this province of Batangas on November 25, 1926, raising to the ground all kinds of vegetation, including secular trees, and claimed hundreds of lives in the capital of Batangas. In Tanauan, many houses of light materials were destroyed, others heavily damaged, public services paralyzed, facts which caused great misery and distress among the people.

(6) Sometime in 1934, U.S. Congressman Hare, co-author of the famous Hare, Hawes-Cutting Law, granting independence to the Philippines, visited Tanauan and delivered a speech at the town plaza before a big audience.


(1) Occupation off the town in January, 1942. Ruthless massacre of innocent civilians and malicious burning of houses and wholesale looting of properties by the Japanese soldiers on February 10, 1945.

(2) The big Roman Catholic church and convent built by the friars of the Order of St. Augustine were completely destroyed during the war.

(3) About the latter part of February, 1945, the town of Tanauan was liberated by the United States liberation forces.

(4) Raid and burning of the entire market and the surrounding residential house and is inflicted by a strong Huk's force on March 29, 1950, a date which marks the anniversary of Communism. The total damage by this conflagration amounted to about a million pesos.

(5) Subdivision of the Leyba estate in the poblacion, and the sale of the lots on either cash or installment basis. Many people took advantage of the easy terms and bought lots on which they immediately erected residential houses. This subdivision, which is popularly called The New Tanauan (Purok No. 4), has enlarged and beautified the poblacion.

(6) Immediately after liberation, all pre-war schools were open and classes resumed. With more money for the opening of extension classes, new barrio schools where also opened. Among the newly opened schools are: Bagbag, Bañadero, Santol, Suplang, and Wawa. More complete elementary schools were allowed in the barrios, necessitating the appointment of full-fledged principals therein.

(7) Construction [of] a replica of the house where Apolinario Mabini was born in Talaga. Expenses for this house were shouldered by all school children in Tanauan. This replica is now declared a national shrine.


Not much loss in lives and properties were suffered by the people during this period. However, it must be stated in this connection that the people experienced great hardships because of the zonification effected by the Americans

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to force the insurgents to resist domination to surrender. There was not enough food, water, and shelter in the zone. Some persons were killed by the Americans as insurgents when found outside of the zone; others who were already in the zone were liquidated by the insurgents because of spying for and helping the American forces.

(b) DURING THE WAR OF 1941-1945:

Tanauan suffered much when the Japanese came in. Bridges were blown up by the retreating Fil-American forces, and all properties of the U.S. Army which could be of some use to the Japs were either burned or destroyed. The water tank is Santor was destroyed, and the entire waterworks system of the poblacion paralyzed at the time. All the public roads and highways remained unrepaired for three long years. Our personal freedom and liberties were curtailed, and the citizens were humiliated and treated as slaves by the invaders. Food products were controlled and later commandeered. Work animals and hogs were forcibly purchased by the Japs with their Mickey-Mouse money. As the occupation neared its end, food became very scarce and costly. To appease hunger and avoid starvation, our people had to eat coconuts, boiled corn, balinghoy (cassava), and other root crops. But this town suffered much more when the Japs were being expelled. Eight hundred fifty (850) persons – men, women, and children of tender ages (actually counted), were mercilessly massacred; others who survived were brutally wounded. One thousand six hundred sixty-five (1,665) houses were burned, and two thousand families were rendered homeless. The actual value of the properties destroyed can never be estimated. After eight years of liberal aid from America, the people have not as yet fully recovered nor rehabilitated, and the ill effects of the war, such as banditry, highway robberies, murders, kidnappings for ransom, and other serious crimes are very rampant, and the sky-high prices of prime commodities are still keenly felt and likely to be felt sometime more.

Outstanding among those massacred by the Japanese soldiers on February 20, 1945 are the following:

(1) Dr. and Mrs. Juan Pagaspas, founder of the Tanauan Institute, the Square Deal Banking Corporation, Tanauan Retailers’ Association, and the Tanauan Cooperative Store. Mrs. Pagaspas, nee Josefa Poblete, was a high school teacher in the same institution where her husband was the Director. The couple were very prominent civic leaders.

(2) Mr. and Mrs. Manuel Gonzales. Mr. Gonzales was a lawyer by profession. He was Chief, Special Agents Division, Bureau of Internal Revenue.

(3) Mr. and Mrs. Ernesto Vallejo. Mr. Vallejo was internationally known as a violin virtuoso.

(4) Every member of these respective families mentioned were also killed.

(b) Measures and accomplishments toward rehabilitation and reconstruction following World War II:

(1) The reconstruction and rehabilitation of private houses were effected mostly through war damage payments from the War Damage Commission.

(2) Bridges, roads and public schools were reconstructed through rehabilitation projects.

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(3) A loan of ₱200,000.00 has been secured from the RFC for the expansion of the present public market.

(4) The waterworks system and electric lights were repaired and made to function again.

(5) Through private enterprise, a banking institution and a Farmers’ Cooperative were established to promote agriculture.

(6) A municipal library has been put up in the municipal building.

(7) The poblacion has been divided into puroks with a reading center in each. This was achieved under the leadership of public school teachers.

(8) A recreation center has been established by Purok Mabini (Purok No. 5).

(9) Purok No. 3, Riverside, constructed a natural swimming pool, equipped with bathrooms, dressing room, and a social hall.



The woman usually gives birth in the house of her parents. The placenta of the newly born baby is buried in a spot under the house with paper, pencil, and a page of any book or magazine. The baby is expected to be talented when it grows up.


(a) It was the belief of some people that a pregnant woman cannot stand as sponsor in a baptism. Should she do so, she will die during her delivery or a serious illness will befall her.

(b) Another baptismal practice is the racing of the sponsors to the church door in case there are two or more babies to be baptized. As soon as the ceremony is finished, there is a sudden rush to the door by the sponsors. The child whose sponsor reaches the door first will be healthy, prosperous and intelligent, and will be a leader among men.

(c) The godfather or godmother gives some gifts to the child. During the baptism, the ninong or ninang blows the forehead of the child, believing that in doing so, the child will inherit the character and other traits of either.


(a) The “suyuan” system is practiced. The man works in the house of the girl. He chops wood, fetches water or works in the field. The man serves the family of the girl for a period of time. If there is a party or “palusong” at the girl’s house, the man must be ready to offer some chickens, a goat, or a pig or even money.

(b) Suitors should begin their courtship by helping the parents of the girl they love. Every evening, the suitors, before entering the house, should kneel at the threshold and await the blessings of the parents of the girl. Formerly, when a girl was serenaded, the serenaders were not allowed to enter the house. They merely crooned under the girl’s window, and if the suitor was successful, the girl appeared at the

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window and threw him a flower or handkerchief.

(c) A man should visit a woman and should show respect to be appreciated by the old.

(d) Men, during the early age, could not court directly the girls they loved. Instead, the men helped the parents in household duties, especially in working in the farm, mending fences, getting water, cutting wood. Men and women could not talk with each other.


(a) The groom presses the hand of the bride during the ceremony in order for him to be dominant.

(b) To sweep the rooms beginning from the stairs in order to have a steady income throughout the year. This is to be done by the bride after the wedding ceremony.

(c) To offer sugar and water to the groom and the bride in order for them to live sweetly, harmoniously and happily throughout life.

(d) To break pots during the marriage so the couple will have many children.

(e) After the marriage ceremony, the bride and the bridegroom make a dash for the church door, believing that the one who comes first will dominate the other.

(f) The groom’s party gives a dowry to the bride.

(g) Before the marriage, the family of the groom and his relatives bring firewood, water and other necessities to the family of the girl. [The] Culmination of these tributes does not mean, however, that the marriage is already sure. All the closest relatives of the girl are to be consulted first, and if they all approve, marriage will be consented, too.

(h) Coins are placed in the shoes of the couple, believing that in doing so, they will live prosperously.

(i) After the party, the girl departs for the house of the groom, and the groom stays at the house of the bride for four successive days. After this, the groom will fetch his bride from his parents’ home, and take her to his own house which was built and given by his own parents.


(a) When a person dies, all the relatives are informed. No member of the family is allowed to sweep the floor or take a bath within four days.

(b) A dead person with open eyes is waiting for a relative who has not come. If the cadaver is soft, somebody in the family will follow.

(c) When the corpse is brought down from the house for burial, a woman throws water downstairs and closes all the windows.

(d) The family does not eat ginger or one kind of sticky rice to prevent more deaths within the family.

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(a) Children closely related to the dead are passed over the remains of the dead so that the ghost will not visit them.

(b) A coffin too big for the body of the dead signifies that someone in the family will follow. Coffin makers, therefore, make sure that their coffins are of the right size.

(c) [The] Fourth, ninth and fortieth days are days of praying, mourning, and feasting.


(a) When there are visitors in the house, the family should talk in low tones, avoid scolding, clattering of the plates and beating of dogs and cats. Guests are served first.

(b) When visiting a sick person, the visitor should bring something to the sick or to his family.


Marriages, baptisms, death anniversaries, birthdays, town fiestas (Dec. 27), New Year’s, and the reading of the passion during the period of Lent, and the Holy Week are occasions for festivals.


(1) Kneeling on grains with arms outstretched.

(2) Whipping a child twenty-five times.


(a) There is a belief that Tanauan will have no native priest who will live long because there was a curse heaped upon this town.

(b) It is the belief that no wealthy person in Tanauan can maintain his wealth for many, many years because the San Juan River is striking the town, which means that wealth cannot be maintained.

(c) A person with [a] chico tree near his house will have his wealth till his elbow because they say that the chico means elbow.

(d) The squealing of a rat, the howling of a dog, the singing of a lizard, and the crashing of old trees at midnight are omens of death or misfortune.

(e) Sneezing while starting on a journey is considered a bad omen, for it means death or accident on the way.

(f) When a young girl sings before a fire while cooking, she will marry an old widower.

(g) When a hen cackles at midnight without any apparent cause, an unmarried woman nearby is giving birth to a bastard baby.

(h) When a woman on the family way curls her hair, she will give birth to a hairless baby.

[p. 11]

(i) When a cat rubs its face with its paw, a visitor is coming to the house.

(j) When a girl has white spots on her fingernails, she is not constant in her love.

(k) When a married woman eats twin bananas, she will give birth to twin children

(l) When a comet flashes in the sky, pestilence or war will come to pass.

(m) When a fork or spoon falls on the floor while eating, a visitor is coming.

(n) Rivers were dug by the giants supposed to be the first people of the world. Anything or anyone old is referred or compared to those who dug the rivers.

(o) Moon spots on a full moon are women spinning cotton.

(p) When an eclipse occurs, it is believed that the moon is being swallowed by a monster locally called “Laho.” When the moon comes out through the mouth, next harvest is plentiful; when through the rectum, the reverse.

(q) When the quarter phase of the moon appears like a banca, that is, the arc is downward, child delivery is very dangerous.

(r) Bereft children should wear very red clothes so that the dead will not visit them.

(s) Bystanders should not stand in front of goods for sale for it is believed that those goods cannot be sold.

(t) When [going on an] outing, it is bad to point at anything in the belief that the “nuno” or spirits living under the ground will cause the one that points to be sick or insane.

(u) It is believed that earthquakes are caused by the movements of a giant, Bernardo Carpio. He lays prostrate on the ground guarded by four angels. The slightest movement of his fingers causes a great tremor on the earth.

(v) It is believed that lightning and thunder are young white elements in the shape of pigs that spring from the ground. They roll fast on the ground and explode when bumped against any hard object. The sound of the explosion is the thunder.

(w) St. Lorenzo, the god of the wind, when angry, spouts so much wind that causes typhoons.

(x) Many people still believe in [the] “nuno” and other bad spirits. Souls of the departed relatives when angry or fond of their living kin cause the sickness. Some believe that when a person remarks about some peculiarity or feature of a baby, this person causes the baby to be sick, and only his saliva can cure the illness.

[p. 12]



During the Spanish regime, the belief was widespread that the island volcano of Taal was enchanted, together with the lake itself and the surrounding areas. It was the conviction of the masses, above all the illiterates, that the island volcano was inhabited by supernatural beings, endowed with supernatural powers who were responsible for all the activities of [the] said volcano. It was a common belief that there were golden calves, cows, sheep and goats pasturing along the slopes and crevices of the island, kept by enchanted giants, all visible only to a privileged few. The boatmen plying their trade along the shores of the lake were careful enough to advise their customers or travelers not to point out with their fingers whatever they would see or notice anywhere around, nor would talk loudly and too much about anything unnatural they might see on the way, lest the winds would insanely roar, heavy rains would pour, the day would darken, the boat would capsize and the travelers would be drowned. It was also the belief of the people that there were hidden treasures such as gold coins, doubloons and jewels buried by the “tulisanes” or mountain brigands in the slopes and caves of Mt. Gonzalo and in the crevices of the island volcano. These beliefs still subsist among the old generation living in the neighborhood of the lake and elsewhere.


One day, Badong was promenading around when he chanced to meet a beautiful damsel. Because of his great love for the girl, he began to propose to her and plead for his heart’s cause. Instead of accepting his love, however, the girl told him to get first the heart of his mother before he could ever love him. Badong, in his eagerness to win the girl’s love, went home hurriedly to get his mother’s heart. When Badong reached home, he found his mother praying intently before an icon hanging by the wall of the house. He unsheathed his sharp dagger and sneaked behind his praying mother noiselessly. With cat-like agility, he sprang upon her, killed her instantly, and got her heart. As he was going downstairs, it happened that the heart he was carrying fell on the ground. The heart began to bounce and bounce. Badong reached for it but he could not take hold of it. He stumbled many times in his effort to get the heart. In his last attempt, he fell again. This time, he could not get up anymore. The frustrated figure of Badong was suddenly transformed to a small crawling animal, which was later on called “butiki” or house lizard.


(a) SONGS:

Sit-si rit sit alibang bang
Salaginto’t salagubang
Ang babae sa lansangan
Kung gumiri’y parang tandang.

(1) Sungka (2) Huwego de Prenda (1) Cockfighting
(3) Luksong Lubid (4) Tubigan (2) Serenading
(5) Tayakad (6) Pasa Hardin (3) Playing Cards
(7) Luksong Tinik (8) Hulog Mi Ginto (4) Passion Play
[p. 13]


1. Nagtanim ako ng dayap sa gitna ng dagat
Marami ang humanap, iisa ang nagkapala. – Dalaga

2. Ako’y nagtanim ng isip sa ilalim ng tubig
Daho’y makitid, bunga’y matutulis. – Palay

3. Lahat ako’y minamahal, mang-aawit ang tatang
Suot ko’y putian, puso ko’y dilaw. – Itlog

4. Maitim na parang uwak, maputing parang busilak
Walang paa’y lumalakad, at sa hari’y nakiki-usap. – Sulat

5. Nang maglihi’y namatay, nang manganak ay nabuhay. – Senigwilas

6. May tatlong babaing nagsimba, ang una ay puti
Berde ang pangalawa, at ang pangatlo ay pula
Nguni’t nang nagsilabas sila,
Ay pare-parehong nakapula. – Apok, Hitso at Bunga

7. Mataas pa ang ibinitin kaysa pinagbitinan. – Saranggula

8. Buto’t balat, lumilipad. – Saranggula

9. Bahay ni giring-giring, butas-butas ang dingding. – Bithay

10. Aliwan kung buhay, binuhay ng namatay
Itinapon ng may buhay. – Sigarilyo

11. Nagsaing si Judas, kinuha ang hugas
Itinapon ang bigas. – Kinayod na niyog

12. Maitim na parang tinta, pumuputi ay hindi naman ikinukula. – Buhok

13. Nang hawak ay patay, nang ihagis ay nabuhay. – Trumpo

14. Iisa-isa na, kinain ko pa, ang natira ay dalawa. – Tulya

15. Alisto ka pandak, daratnan ka ng mabigat. – Dikin

16. Naibigan pa ang basag kay sa buong walang lamat. – Kamatsili

17. Baston ni Adan, hindi mabilang. – Ulan

18. Hindi tao, hindi hayop, tumatakbo. – Agos ng tubig

19. Dahong pinagbungahan, bungang pinagdahonan. – Pinya

20. Isang bumbong gugulong-gulong,
Pag nagbango’y doctor. – Hihip

21. Kung araw ay tutulog, kung gabi’y naglilibot. – Kuwago

22. Hindi madangkal, hindi madipa
Pinagtutulungan ng lima. – Karayom

23. Isang prinsesa na nakaupo sa tasa. – Kasoy

24. Heto-heto na, hindi pa nakikita. – Hangin

25. Dalawang bilog na bato, malayo ang naabot. – Mata

26. Isang bayabas, pito ang butas. – Mukha

[p. 14]

27. Isang senyora, hila-hila ang suga. – Karayom at sinulid.

28. Di man itik, di man isda, nakatira sa ilog. – Palaka

29. Hindi hayop, hindi tao, sari-sari ang kinakain. – Kawale

30. Magkabila ay bubong, ang gitna ay alolod. – Dahon ng saging

31. May ulo, walang tiyan
May leeg, walang baywang. – Bote

32. Kung babayaan mong ako’y mabuhay
Yaong kamataya’y dagli kong kakamtan
Nguni’t kung ako’y pataying minsan
Ay lalong lalawig ang ingat kong buhay. – Kandila

33. Isang uling, bibitin-bitin. – Duhat

34. Isang butil ng palay, sikip sa buong bahay. – Ilaw

35. Taga nang taga, walang tatal sa lupa – Humahabi

36. Ako’y nagtanim ng saging sa tabi ng birhen. – Kandila

37. Alin sa buong katawan na sa likod ang tiyan? – Binti

38. Ang kabayo kong si Muheno, na sa puwit ang preno. – Karayom

39. Ang anak ay nakaupo na, ang ina ay gumagapang pa. – Kalabasa

40. Baboy ko sa pulo, balahibo’y pako. – Nangka

41. Bahay sa Kapampangan, malapad ang harapan. – Pantalan

42. Baras ng kapitan, hindi mahawakan. – Ahas

43. Balahibong binalot ng balat, balahibong bumalot sa balat, lamang binalot ng balat. – Niyog

44. Bahay ni Kaka, hindi matingala. – Noo

45. Bahay ni Da [Ka?] Ote, haligi’y bali-bali
Ang bubong ay kawali. – Alimango

46. Baka ko sa Maynila, abot dito ang unga. – Kulog

47. Alago ko sa Marigundong, may sanga’y walang dahon. – Usa

48. Dalawang urang, nag-uunahan. – Paa

49. Dalawang ibong malayo ang layon. – Mata

50. Dalawang balon, hindi malingon. – Taynga

51. Dalawang libing, laging may hangin. – Ilong

52. Hindi naman hari, hindi naman pari,
Nagsusuot ng sari-sari. – Sampayan

53. Hinigit ko ang baging, nagkokora ang matsing. – Kabyawan

54. Puno ay layu-layo, dulo ay tagpu-tagpo. – Bahay

55. Nagtanim ako ng isip sa ilalim ng tubig,
Dahon ay makikitid, bunga ay matutulis. – Palay

56. Binatak ko ang baging, bumuka ang lilim. – Payong

57. Lahat ako ay minamahal, mang-aawit ang aking tatang, suot ko nama’y putian, ang puso ko ay dilaw. – Itlog ng manok

[p. 15]

58. Isda sa kilaw-kilaw, di mahuli’t may pataw. – Dila

59. Maliit pa si kapatid, marunong nang umawit. – Kuliglig

60. Haba mong kinakain, lalo kang gugutumin. – Pauga [purge?]

61. May alaga akong isang hayop, malaki pa ang mata sa tuhod. – tutubi

62. Mayroon akong alipin, sunod ng sunod sa akin. – Anino

63. Tatlong Aeta, nagbabata. – Tungko ng kalan

64. Hindi naman bulag, di makakita sa liwanag. – Paniki

65. Isang bias na kawayan, maraming lamang kayamanan. – Alkansiya

66. Pumutok ay di narinig, tumama ay di nakasakit. – Pamimitak ng araw sa umaga.

67. Ako’y nagtanim ng dayap sa tapat ng dagat,
Walang puno, walang ugat, humihitik sa bulaklak. – Bituin

68. Manok kong pula, inutusan ko nang umaga, nang umuwi ay gabi na. – Araw sa langit

69. Manok kong pula, umakyat sa sampaga
Nagpakitang ganda. – Araw sa langit

70. Nagsaing si Bitang, kumulo’y walang gatong. – Gugo o sabon

71. Dalawang pipit, nakadapo sa isang siit. – Hikaw

72. Wala sa langit, wala sa lupa, ang dahon ay sariwa. – Dapo

73. Bato na ang tawag ko, bato pa rin ang tawag mo. – Bato-bato

74. Ako ay may kaibigan, kasama ko kahit saan. – Anino

75. Isang munti kong kumpare, maaaring umakyat kahit sa kahoy na malaki. – Langgam

76. Apat na tao, iisa lamang ang sambalilo. – Bahay

77. Kung araw ay bumbong, kung gabi ay dahon. – Banig


1. Ang hipong tulog ay nadadala ng agos.

2. Ang kayamanan ay bunga ng pagtitiis.

3. Pag may hirap, may ginhawa.

4. Huwag mong ipagpabukas ang magagawa mo ngayon.

5. Ang bayaning masugatan, nag-iibayo ang tapang.

6. Pag may tanim ay may aanihin.

7. Ang malumanay na pangungusap, sa puso’y nakalulunas.

8. Kahoy na babad sa tubig, sa apoy huwag ilalapit, kapag ito’y nag-init, saplitang magdirikit.

9. Kung ikaw ay maliligo sa tubig, ay umagap para huwag abutin ng tabsing ng dagat.

[p. 16]

10. Ang taong hindi marunong lumingon sa pinanggalingan, ay hindi makararating sa paroroonan.

11. Ang labis sa salop ay dapat kalusin ang labis sa sukat ay dapat putulin.

12. Anumang taas ng lipad ng pugapog ay sa lupa di pupulpog.

13. Pag may burol, may labak.

14. Ang mahaba ay maganda, may puri at may buhay pa.

15. Pag may kasayahan ay may kalungkutan.

16. Ang tubig na lagaslagasan, arukin ma’y mababaw; ang tubig na matining, aruking may malalim.

17. Ang kapangahasan ay bunga ng pag-asa.

18. Ang lakad na matulin, matinik ma’y malalim; ang lakad na marahan, matinik ma’y mababaw.

19. Bahaw man at magaling, daig ang bagong saing.

20. Maputi man at durog, daig ang garingang subok.

21. Aanhin pa ang damo kung patay na ang kabayo?

22. Ang laki sa layaw, karaniwa’y hubad.

23. Ang santol ay hindi bubunga ng mabolo.

24. Kung anong bukang-bibig, siyang laman ng dibdib.

25. Ang kamay na manipis ay may hawak na hapis.

26. Ang kasipagan ay kapatid ng kayamanan.

27. Pagkaraan ng ulap, lilitaw ang liwanag.

28. Kapag may isinuksok ay may madudukot.

29. Kapag ang tao’y matipid, maraming maililigpit.

30. Ang matibay na kalooban, lahat ay nagagampanan.

31. Ang taong maagap ay daig pa ang masipag.

32. Ang walang pagod magtipon, walang hinayang magtapon.

33. Kung tunay na tubo, matamis hanggang dulo.

34. Huli man daw at magaling, ay naihahabol din.

35. Di man magman ng ari, magmamana ng ugali.

36. Walang binhing masama sa mabuting lupa.

37. Sa maliit na dampa ay nagmumula ang dakila.

38. Nakikita ang butas ng karayom, hindi nakikita ang butas ng palakol.

39. Kung pinukol ka ng bato, pukulin mo naman ng tinapay.

40. Ang naglalakad ng matulin, kung matinik ay malalim.

41. Kapag tinawag na utang, sapilitang babayaran.

42. Ang hindi lumingon sa pinanggalingan ay hindi makararating sa paroroonan.

[p. 17]

43. Wika at balong ihagis, di na muling magbabalik.

44. May tainga ang lupa, may pakpak ang balita.

45. Nasa Diyos ang awa, nasa tao ang gawa.

46. Ang maikli ay dudugtungan, ang mahaba ay babawasan.

47. Ang pagmamahal sa sarili ay nakabubulag.

48. Ang maniwala sa sabi-sabi, walang bait sa sarili.

49. Bago gawain ang sasabihih, maki-ilang isipin.

50. Walang matibay na baging sa magaling umalambitin.

51. Walang matiagang birhen sa matiagang manalangin.

52. Kung pinukol ka ng bato, iganti mo’y puto.

53. Walang mataas na bakod sa taong natatakot.

54. Pag ang punla ay hangin, bagyo ang aanihin.

55. Ang taong mapagbulaan, ay hinlog na magnanakaw.

56. Kapag may isinuksok, may titingalain.


(a) Methods of Measuring Time:
(1) The position of the sun.
(2) The crowing of the cocks at night.
(3) The length of the shadow by day, and at night when there is a moon.
(4) The homing of the fowls.
(5) The position of the stars, the constellations and the moon, whenever there is, at night.

(b) Special Calendars: None





No information on books and documents treating of the Philippines and the names of their owners can be gathered owing to the last global war which caused the total destruction of all important records and documents made by some of the illustrious sons of Tanauan. It is, however, very certain that Apolinario Mabini, although born in Talaga, a barrio of Tanauan, is considered the first and foremost son of the community. Of the outstanding books Mabini had written, “The Rise and Fall of the Philippine Revolution” is considered Mabini’s masterpiece. The book is at present to be found at the Philippine National Library and Museum. Mabini’s “True Decalogue” was and still is the food for thought for small children. Printed forms of this Decalogue had been furnished each school during the pre-war days in almost every classroom.

[p. 18]


Note: Please refer to the preceding number regarding this information.

[Note to the reader/researcher: The next five pages were filed by the National Library of the Philippines under Barrio Balele/Wawa, but are apparently appendices to the main document about the Municipality of Tanauan. Hence, they are moved her.]

[p. i]


Lucio Dimayuga

The old Municipality of Tanauan, province of Batangas, was located in the southwestern part of what is now the town of Talisay of the same province. It was founded and organized as a community by the Augustinian missionaries, who undertook the gigantic task of Christianizing and then civilizing the natives whom they found scattered along the shores of Lake Bombon and in the interior, with fishing, hunting, and tilling the land with their own hands (kaingin) as their means of livelihood, passing for the most part an almost nomadic life.

Juan de Salcedo, together with Martin de Goiti and several soldiers and missionaries, on his way to Manila from the Island of Panay in 1572, enter the Pansipit River up too Lake Bombon (now Lake Taal) and explored the neighborhood of the island volcano. They found the dwellings of the natives scattered and far apart. The party explained to the people that they came and the name of the King of Spain to civilize and to spread the blessings of the true religion among all of them. The natives, however, resented the warlike, arrogant, and insolent behavior of the newcomers, especially when the latter asserted that they came to stay as lords of the whole country. In the skirmish that ensued, their leader, Salcedo, was slightly wounded in the leg. The party repaired to their boats and proceeded to Manila.

Eleven years later, that was, in 1583, the missionaries returned and began their work of spreading the Gospel to the whole region. They baptized the natives and directed that all their houses be grouped together in a planned site to constitute a village. In this way, it was easier for the missionaries to accomplish their aims. The site selected for the future town was called “Tanawaan” by the natives for the reason that “tanawa,” a kind of shrub or small tree, was growing in abundance near the lake. Wild animals that roamed in the open, when hard pressed by the hunters, used to run and be lost to their pursuers in the thick underbrush off “tanawa.” So, it came to pass that the village was called “Tanawaan,” later contracted into “Tanauan.” Other missionaries came and founded the towns of Taal and Lipa, both near the lake. The town of Sala, which was later incorporated to Tanauan, was founded years later by the same missionaries. It took many years before these villages were constituted as independent entities, but in the early part of the 17th century, Tanauan was organized as a regular town or municipality with its church, a town hall commonly called CASA REAL, its TRIBUNAL and CUARTEL, and began being ruled or governed by a Governadorcillo, with an ALFEREZ or Lieutenant of the GUARDIA CIVIL, by Cabezas de Barangay, and as rural communities were created, Tenientes del Barrio were also appointed. The town with to the earthquakes and subsequent eruptions of Taal Volcano until 1754, when the violent and destructive eruption which took place in that year wiped out the whole town and its suburbs. The entire place was swallowed by the waters of the lake, sinking the place permanently to its bottom. Today, the old ruins of the church and some houses can still be seen during summer seasons when the sea is calm and crystal clear. The remnants of the old Tanauan were moved to its present site.

[p. ii]


Tanauan is a first class municipality, with thirty (30) barrio and a center or poblacion, off the local government. It has one Chief of Police, with the rank of Capitan, one Police Lieutenant, two Sergeants, one corporal and fifteen soldiers well equipped with arms and ammunition. The barrios are under the immediate supervision and responsibility of two lieutenants (first and second), who are in turn responsible to the Municipal Mayor. With the advent of the “community-centered-school,” the poblacion and the barrios have been divided into “puroks” or “pooks” through the leadership of public school teachers, who wear the purok organizers and now purok enablers. Each purok has its own set of constitution and by-laws as well as a set of officials duly elected by the members. All barrio schools and the schools of the poblacion as well have Parent-Teachers Associations looking after the welfare of the school population, and responsible for the many improvements that we see today in the form of better buildings and fences, and enlargement of sites, all of which are urgent but which the government fails to provide. With the establishment of the “puroks” and the Parent-Teacher Associations, it has become easier to disseminate information, promote better understanding and closer cooperation, eliminate illiteracy, and improve the health and living conditions of the people. Tanauan has a population of 31,894 as of July, 1952, an area of 12,332 Ha. divided into 12,307 lots surveyed and registered under Act 496. The municipality has an annual income of more than one hundred thousand pesos, or ₱139,964.93 during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1952. The public schools register a total enrollment of 5,791 pupils, while the privates have about 1,200. The number of public school teachers is 132. Tanauan also boasts of having four private high schools: The Tanauan Institute, Our Lady of Fatima Academy, Mabini High School, and the Altura High School. There are twenty-one public and four private artesian wells, ten rice mills and two travelling rice hullers. Of the twenty-five school buildings, four are home economics buildings.

The leading products of Tanauan are rice or palay (not sufficient for local consumption), corn which is sold in Manila in large quantity, bananas, coconut, mongo, upo, amargoso, patola, squash, eggplant, tomato, patani (lima bean), string beans, garlic, avocado, a variety of citrus fruits, green leafy vegetables and other crops in minor quantity. It has also a big supply of chickens and poultry products, hogs and large cattle.

[p. iii]



I Deceased

1. APOLINARIO MABINI. One of the greatest thinkers and patriots the Malayan race has ever produced. Known to all Filipinos, especially to school children.
2. SOTERO LAUREL. Lawyer; Delegate to the Malolos Revolutionary Congress; Appointed Judge, Court of First Instance by the Aguinaldo Government.
3. NICOLAS GONZALES. General of the Philippine Revolution; twice Capitan Municipal; Ex-Provincial Governor of Batangas; twice Municipal President of Tanauan.
4. JULIANO PANGANIBAN. Col. of the Philippine Revolution. Captured single-handed on Spanish gunboat in Lake Bombon in 1897.
5. PROSPERO DIMAYUGA. Major, Philippine Revolution; ex-Cabeza de Barangay; ex-President Municipal and during his time, was one of the leading political figures of the province. Helped Dr. Jose P. Laurel in his campaigns for Senator and Delegate to the Constitutional Convention and also Jose B. Laurel Jr. in his first campaign for Representative. Former Philanthropist.
6. Padre EXEQUIEL REVIRA. Scholar, very eloquent preacher and exalted priest (Canonigo) of the Cathedral of Manila.
7. Padre CEFERINO BURGOS. Scholar, Bachelor of Canon Laws; Chaplain of the Philippine Army; Imprisoned in Capaz, Tarlac at the O’Donnell Concentration Camp, where he died of malaria and dysentery on June 22, 1942; a martyr and a hero.
8. Don SIMPLICIO AVELINO. Scholar; Educator; established a private school for boys and girls in his own house. For meritorious services rendered to humanity, he was made a KNIGHT by the King of Spain and awarded the GRAND CROSS of the Order of Isabel la Catolica (Caballero Gran Cruz de la Orden de Isabel la Catolica).
9. Doña MARCELA LAUREL. Civic leader; was imprisoned by the Americans in 1899 for buying ammunition from the U.S. soldiers and supplying same to the Filipino forces.
10. JUAN V. PAGASPAS. Doctor of Jurisprudence; Founder of the Tanauan Institute, the Square Deal Banking Corporation, Tanauan Retailers’ Ass’n, and the Tanauan Coop Store; a civic leader.
11. FRANSISCO OÑATE. Doctor of Medicine; Municipal President, 1906-07; Col. & Chief Surgeon, Phil. Constabulary; Adjutant to former Gov. Gen. Francis Burton Harrison. Together with his friend, Teodoro R. Yangco, he urged the practice of eugenics to improve the race.

II Living

1. DR. JOSE P. LAUREL. Senator; scholar, jurist, philosopher, educator, statesman. One of the greatest leaders of our country.
2. SERVILLANO PLATON. Ex-Congressman from Laguna; judge, Court of First Instance.
3. RAFAEL CASTILLO. Lawyer; Delegate to the Constitutional Convention; ex-Judge Court of First Instance.
4. MODESTO CASTILLO. Ex-Provincial Governor, ex-Executive Secretary; Judge, Court of Industrial Relations.
5. ALFREDO L. YATCO. Ex-Collector of Internal Revenue; ex-Under Secretary of Finance; ex-Governor, Rehabilitation Finance Corporation.
6. GAUDENCIO GARCIA. Doctor of Civil Laws; Law Professor and author of Law books; former Private Secretary to Pres. Manual L. Quezon.

[p. iv]


7. JOSE B. LAUREL JR. Doctor of Civil Laws; Law professor; Congressman; Minority Floor Leader of the House of Representatives.
8. VICENTE V. SABALVARO. Ex-Manager, National Development Co.; ex-member, National Economic Council; Chairman, Board of Directors, Square Deal Banking Corporation, & Pres., Farmers’ Cooperative Marketing Association, Tanauan, Batangas; Member, Board of Directors, Marsman & Co.; President, Mayer Trading Co.; Vice-President, Philippine Abaca Dev. Co.
9. APOLONIO S. MAGSINO. Pharmacist, Industrialist, Merchant, Vice-President, Board of Trustees, Tanauan Institute, Philanthropist, and Civic Leader.
10. PRIMITIVO L. GONZALES. Jurist; Ex-Provincial Fiscal, Judge, Court of First Instance, La Union Province.

[p. v]



Lucio Dimayuga

1. Servitude

During the entire Spanish domination, and possibly even before the arrival of Magellan, there existed in this place two kinds of servitude (or slavery in its mildest form). This where the voluntary and involuntary servitude. Voluntary servitude consisted of services rendered freely and voluntarily by any young man, of his own volition, submitting to and surrendering himself to the disposition, power and authority of the family of a young woman he wanted to marry. The lass [?] lives with the family of the girl, always ready to do any kind of work no matter how big or difficult it may be. He undergoes all kinds of privations and sufferings just to win the graces, favor, goodwill and the much coveted “YES” off the lady he is wooing. This servitude (PAGSISILBI) is absolutely without compensation, even when his efforts proved unsuccessful in the end, and it usually lasts from one to, say, three or more years. If successful, the parents of the young man are invited by the parents of the girl to a conference to lay down the conditions and plans of the marriage. In this conference, the past services of the lass are not taken into consideration; oftentimes, the girl's parents ask for money (BILANG) amounting to from one hundred to five hundred pesos, according to the charm and beauty of the lady love, plus the expenses of the marriage ceremony and off two days wedding celebration. When plans are ready, the future benedict is required to deliver a certain amount of the choicest firewood and water to the relatives of the bride, and even to her padrinos and madrinas. Cases were known, however, of bitter disappointment, when on the eve of the wedding, the bride elopes with another luckier young man, and the preparations come abruptly to an end, and the disappointed lass beats his way home, there to weep his misfortunes and nurse his wounded feelings.

The involuntary servitude consists of the payment of debts. A person contracts a debt from another in the amount of, say, fifty pesos. As a condition of the loan, the creditor imposes that same should be paid in services to be rendered by the debtor’s son or daughter (usually a daughter of age), to whom the sum of ten pesos would be credited annually (BABA). In other words, the obligation should be settled after five years. The agreement is closed, verbally of course, and the daughter begins to live with the creditor’s family until the obligation is fully paid. But, it happens that, more often than not, the parents of the maid servant continue for more years, and cases were known that these daughters served for [an] indefinite period of time, against their will, in some cases, until old age. This servitude was due to ignorance of the masses as to their rights as individuals and citizens, and the utter failure of the government to protect the people. Only after the arrival of the Americans, with the principles and practices of democracy, did these evils begin to be corrected with appropriate legislation.

2. The “Compadre System”

With the implementation of Catholicism in the islands, [the] “Compadre” and “Comadre” system was also instituted. It consists of becoming spiritually relatives, as the words “co-father” and “co-mother” indicate, the sponsor of the baptized child and its (child) parents. If the sponsor is a married person

[Note to the reader/researcher: The document ends here. The succeeding pages of the appendices appear not to have been scanned or included.]

Notes and references:
Transcribed from “Report on the History and Cultural Life of the Municipality of Tanauan,” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.
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