US Army Letter Informing Zobel of Non-Recognition, September 1946 - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore

US Army Letter Informing Zobel of Non-Recognition, September 1946

The Zobel Guerrilla Unit was a guerrilla organization that supposedly operated from the western Batangas town of Calatagan. It was supposedly commanded by one Guerrilla Lt. Colonel Jacobo Zobel. The reader is advised that this unit failed to obtain official recognition from the United States Army and that many of its claimed achievements as well as manpower were found to have had overlaps with Emilio Macabuag’s Unit, another guerrilla organization that operated in and out of Calatagan. In this document1, one Lt. Col. W. P. Moore wrote to Zobel to inform the latter that his guerrilla outfit had not been favorably considered for official recognition.

[p. 1]

Guerrilla Files jpeg
HEADQUARTERS
UNITED STATES ARMY FORCES WESTERN PACIFIC
OFFICE OF THE COMMANDING GENERAL
APO 707

GSCPG 091 3 September 1946

Jacobo Zobel
Office of the President
Malacañan, Manila

Dear Mr. Zobel:

The Commanding General has directed that you be informed that the “Zobel’s Guerrilla Unit,” purporting to be a guerrilla organization under your nominal control, has not been favorably considered for recognition as an element of the Philippine Army.

A set of general requirements for guerrilla recognition, established by General MacArthur during the liberation of the Philippines, has been used as a guide in considering the record of this unit. After careful investigation and full consideration of all available substantiating records and testimony of witnesses having pertinent knowledge, recognition of this guerrilla unit is not deemed to be warranted because of reasons mentioned below.

a. The unit was not maintained satisfactorily in the field in opposition to the enemy.

b. Activities of the unit did not contribute materially to the eventual defeat of the enemy.

c. Adequate records were not maintained (names, ranks, dates of enlistment or joining, dates of promotions, and necessary related information).

d. Sphere of operations and unit strength claimed by the unit were not commensurate with the nature of the terrain, limitation of communication facilities, and the degree of anti-resistance activities of the Japanese in the area during the period concerned.

e. Members of the unit did not devote their entire effort to military activities in the field to the exclusion of normal civilian occupation and family obligations.

f. Many members apparently lived at home, supporting their families by means of farming or other civilian pursuits, and assisted the guerrilla unit on a part time basis only.

It is requested that you comply with the provisions of Executive Order No. 68, by the President of the Philippines, dated 26 September 1945, copy attached.

Sincerely yours,

W. P. MOORE
Lt. Col., AGD

1 Incl: Executive Order #68

[p. 2]

Lt. Col. Hugh L. Carnahan:

1. The “Zobel’s Guerrilla Unit,” consisting of 565 members under the command of Lt. Col. Jacobo Zobel, has not been favorably considered for recognition. None has previously been recognized.

2. Basis for non-recognition:

a. The Unit was not maintained satisfactorily in the field in opposition to the enemy.

(1) The majority lived at home and carried on normal civilian occupations.

b. Activities of the unit did not contribute materially to the eventual defeat of the enemy.

(1) Very little activity of any sort took place in the area where the unit is located.

c. Adequate records were not maintained (names, ranks, dates of enlistment or joining, dates of promotions, and necessary related information).

d. Sphere of operations and unit strength claimed by unit were not commensurate with the nature of the terrain, limitation of communication facilities and the degree of anti-resistance activities of the Japanese in the area during the period concerned.

(1) There were very few guerrillas in western Batangas before the liberation and in the town of Calatagan, there was practically none. There was very little combat in that vicinity.

e. Members of the unit did not devote their entire effort to military activities in the field to the exclusion of normal civilian occupation and family obligations.

(1) Members were employed during the occupation.

f. Many members apparently lived at home supporting their families by means of farming or other civilian pursuits, and assisted the guerrilla unit on a part time basis only.

(1) Many members were working for the Zobel de Hacienda in Calatagan, Batangas.

3. a. Commander George F. Rowe, Advance Party, GHQ, SWPA, located in Mindoro, does not remember the activities of the Zobel Unit.
b. Col. Quintin Gellidon, Staff, Guerrilla Affairs Section, 11th AB Division, stated that he did not know of the Zobel Unit during the occupation nor during the liberation.

Max L. Brabson, 2nd Lt.

Concurred in by Chief of Investigation Section (Maj. D. C. Murray)



Notes and references:
1 “Zobel’s Guerrilla Unit,” File No. 137, online at the United States National Archives.

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