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December 29, 2017

Documents on the Lipa Unit PQOG's Non-Recognition and Request for Reconsideration

The 1st Battalion, 38th Regiment, 35th Division, I Corps guerrilla unit of the President Quezon’s Own Guerrillas (PQOG), which purportedly operated out of the town of Lipa, was supposedly commanded by one Leodegario Mendoza. It failed to gain official recognition from the United States Army, although some members of the unit had already been recognized as having been part of the composite roster submitted by the overall headquarters of the PQOG. In this document are transcriptions of documents related to the Lipa Unit PQOG’s non-recognition by the United States Army and its subsequent request for reconsideration.

[p. 1]

APO 707

GSCPU 091 PI 1 NOV 1945

Mr. Leodegario T. Mendoza
219 Claudio, Baclaran
Parañaque, Rizal

Dear Mr. Mendoza:

The Commanding General has directed that you be informed that the “1st Battalion, 38th Regiment, 35th Division, President Quezon’s Own Guerrillas,” purporting to be a guerrilla organization under your nominal control, is not favorably considered for recognition as an element of the Philippine Army.

A set of general requirements for guerrilla recognition, established by General MacArthur during the liberation of the Philippines, has been used as a guide in considering the record of this unit. After careful investigation and full consideration of all substantiating records and testimony of witnesses having pertinent knowledge, recognition of this guerrilla unit is not deemed to be warranted because of the reasons mentioned below:

a. Record of service was not substantiated by sufficient acceptable evidence.
b. This unit was not maintained satisfactorily in the field in opposition to the enemy.
c. Activities of the unit did not contribute materially to the eventual defeat of the enemy.
d. Adequate records were not maintained (names, ranks, dates of enlistment or joining, dates of promotions, and necessary related information).
e. Unit did not show satisfactory continuity of activity and organization.
f. Members of the unit did not devote their entire effort to military activities in the field to the exclusion of normal civilian occupation and family obligations.
g. Many members apparently lived at home, supporting their families by means of farming or other civilian pursuits, and assisted the guerrilla unit on a part time basis only.

It is considered that the previous recognition of members of the 35th Division, President Quezon’s Own Guerrillas, which were recognized by the Commanding General, Sixth Army for their aid during the liberation of the Philippines, constitutes adequate and just acknowledgement of military service.

[p. 2]

It is requested that you comply with the provisions of Executive Order No. 68, by the President of the Philippines, dated 26 September 1945, copy attached.

Sincerely yours,

Lt. Col., AGD
Ass’t Adj Gen

1 Incl:

1 – Executive Order #68

[p. 3]

1st Bn. 38th Inf. Reg. 35th Div.

11 December 1946



   Commanding General, AFWESPAC


Kindly correct the injustice done to our unit on the question of recognition. Dissatisfaction within our ranks [is] prevalent due to the following facts:

1. Our unit, as a division of [the] PQOG, known as LIPA UNIT (for Batangas Guerrillas) consists of 5,000 men. Our movement to resist the enemy began from 1942. No criminal record can be shown concerning our unit. Our activities can be read in the attached narration. When the liberating forces came, we joined the 11th Airborne through Col. Mann and Major Slatts, the right hand man of Gen. Swing, and we fought and died with them in driving the enemy. But when recognition came, the situation became thus:

a. In Tiaong, the hometown of Gen. Umali, 5 or more companies were recognized, while of our more than 5,000 men, only 160 or even less were recognized and this with two or even three ranks demotions;

b. The ROTC guerrillas of Lipa who were very few and who became active only in the early months of 1944 or 1945, comparatively speaking had more men recognized than our unit; and

c. We hear of guerrilla organizations which rose like mushrooms when the liberating forces had already arrived in Manila and manufactured rosters, and granted full recognition.

We appeal through your good office to please give our unit the recognition due to it, that justice may once more rule us in order that this war may have not been fought in vain.

Respectfully yours,


[p. 4]

APO 707

GSCPU 091 P2 /77 22 JAN 1947

Mr. Leodegario T. Mendoza
Baclaran, Parañaque

Dear Mr. Mendoza:

This will acknowledge receipt of your letter dated 11 December 1946 in which you request reconsideration of the unfavorable decision rendered by this headquarters on 3 September 1946 with regards the recognition of the Lipa Unit PQOG (for Batangas guerrillas).

It is the desire of this headquarters to avoid all appearance of arbitrary decisions in the case of claimant guerrilla units. Your request for reconsideration is, therefore, accepted. It must be emphasized, however, that it would be extremely helpful if you were to forward as quickly as possible such additional pertinent documentary evidence as has not been submitted previously and which, you feel, reflects favorably upon your claim. The additional data should be original documents, or photostatic copies of the original documents, or true copies of the original documents certified to by United States Army officers of field grade on duty with the Guerrilla Affairs Branch, G-3 Section of this headquarters.

Your request for reconsideration will be placed on file in this headquarters to await appropriate action at the earliest practicable time. You must appreciate that hundreds of claimant guerrilla units are now being initially investigated, and that review of rejected units must necessarily follow them. It is, therefore, suggested that you defer further inquiry into the status of your reconsideration for at least four months.


Major General, U. S. Army

[p. 5]

Batangas Guerrillas

Baclaran, Parañaque, Rizal
24 April 1947


   Major General, U.S. Army
   Commanding, HQ PHILRYCOM APO 707

   Major Inf. Lipa Unit
   PQOG, Batangas Guerrillas


1. We acknowledge receipt of your communication dated 22 January 1947, informing that my motion for reconsideration was accepted. In order that injustice may not be committed again to my unit of the PQOG, I wish to mention some facts and papers to wit:

a. Herewith submitted is an AFFIDAVIT CERTIFYING MY SERVICE during the resistance movement, signed and sworn to by GENERAL ESTABAN M. MAYO;

b. I was included in the recognized roster of the 35th Infantry Division of the PQOG, but up to know I have not taken advantage of it, due to the fact that my men, who had fought with me in life and death, were not included, and my rank was reduced to a mere lieutenant;

c. I have served and fought side by side with Col. Sulit and his men in Labas, San Juan, and Ibaan, Rosario, Batangas, and the beauty of the sequence of events is that Sulit and his men were recognized, while we who fought with them are still lagging in darkness.

d. Further references which may be cited who actually know my services as a guerrilla, mention may be made of the following: General Umali, Col. Primo San Agustin, all of our unit, and also Col. David of STRAUGHN’S FIL-AMERICAN TROOPS.

[p. 6]

2. May I mention before I close that I and my men have never in the least doubted that we shall at last be recognized for things real and true cannot go hidden for long. We know, too, that America will never turn its back to those people who had served and sacrificed for democracy in the last war. Subterfuge is not our means to recognition. We appeal to reason and truth and we prefer to lose our case and our prayers unheard, than to get benefits through illegal and censurable means.

We appeal, therefore, to the conscience and justness of all those concerned, and with deepest, heartfelt gratitude, we rest our hope for success, I am

Respectfully your,

Major, Inf. Guer.

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Notes and references:

1 “1st Bn, 38th Regt, 35th Div, I Corps, PQOG,” File No. 271-16, online at the United States National Archives.

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