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tion that [an] earthquake is a result of a very sudden change of temperature.
Sea waters, ocean, lakes, springs and river waters when evaporated and then saturated fall as droplets, as rain. This is an explanation of science but to the men of conservative minds, rains fall when the guilt of man is so great, or rain falls as symbols of the tears of the souls of the dead, especially on All Saints Days.
Scientists have been sparing and devoting their lives, convincing others to believe sciences by giving actual proofs and explanations to existing theories, but still many prefer in what science says to be superstitions. Take for instance the giving birth to two children at the same time or what is termed as twinning. Because this gave wonder to mankind, both scientists and superstitious men are digging their knowledge to seek its explanation. Science believes that this is the result of two ova being fertilized at the same time or an ovary fertilized but was split during the two-cell stage. Triplets or quadruplets may result in accordance to the number of parts into which the fertilized egg is being split. On the other hand, twinning is explained as either a punishment or compensation to the parents. If the parents had been good, they bear children, either twins or triplets to console them. Dual child-birth may also result if the parents had misbehaved through their lives. The children come in twos or more so as to burden these parents. Bad children come out of them to punish their deeds.
Another belief which science absolutely does not admit is witchcraft. Whether true or not though, knowledge of this proves to be an asset as it commands others. For instance, a lady in love with a young man can make this man crave for her. She offers prayers to certain spirits and begs for their help in order that she may carry on her wish. The spirit may, in turn, give her some medicines to be placed in the young man's drinks. This is sufficient to make the man like her. People who know this also can make their enemies sick and cannot be cured by physicians unless he is treated by a powerful quack doctor. This quack doctor performs what is called “tawas,” in order to determine the cause of the sickness. He gets [a] candle, lights it and melts it drop by drop on a basin of water. But before he does this, he utters prayers to spirits. Not all who wish to observe are allowed to witness this performance, but it is exclusively for the believers. Out of the melted candles, he can picture the things which caused the sickness. He even offers prayers now and then and begs the spirits to cure the sick. Sometimes, the sickness is not caused by spirits but by witchcraft by an enemy. He then tries to utter names of the enemies of the sick. The curing is then completed when the troubles with their enemies ended. Another way of determining the cause of sickness is by what we call the “Iniitlog.” the quack doctor gets a newly laid egg, makes signs of the cross at
the forehead, palms and soles of the feet of the patient. Then, the egg is divided into two and then poured the contents on a cup of water. There, the quack doctor we'll vividly see the cause. If the cause is due to some kinds of food, a piece of this is being toasted till half-burned. This is placed in a cup of water to be drunk by the sick person.
Vampirism is a type of witchcraft which until now is being feared by many people. [A] Vampire attacks persons especially the sick and the pregnant ones. Human blood is said to be the food of vampires.
In spite of this evil knowledge of man, the Divine Creator is also pleased as men remains interested in his Creator. He seeks several wonders and worships them as he greatly respect Him. For his devotion, he worships the sun, the moon, and other heavenly bodies. He also regards some animals as sacred beings such as the dove and the sheep. He believes in the presence of spirits, fairies, goblins and other spirits in oceans, rivers, hills, caves and forests. Give the foot of the hills, fairies are present, called the tianaks. These are small fairies which will confuse man who steal others’ things. They pour perfumes of forgetfulness on the air near the men with bad intentions so that they forget and lose their ways. Spirits are also present near the hills or at the forests and are meant to punish the impolite ones. If a man tries to cross a cross-branch of trees without begging permissions from the spirits, he gets wounds which cannot be cured by physicians.
There are plenty more, myths and legends on recorded so that whether these beliefs are true or not, it is always a good idea to hand this to the younger sets as customs and traditions blended with present scientific knowledge are a perfect guidance to man’s moral and spiritual life.
XII. Popular Songs, Games and Amusements –
To soften the hardships during the busy times, both the young and old folks do some forms of recreation. The old and the conservative types have entirely different forms of recreation from the younger and smarter set, whom they believed to be.
In social gatherings, old men and women amuse themselves by singing the “Kotang,” the “Passion,” dancing the “Pandanggo” or playing on the harp from early evening to the wee hours of the morning. Those who do not have the special abilities to sing, to dance or to play any musical instrument, amuse themselves by playing cards such as “Baklay,” “Tres y Siete,” and “Pangguengue.”
Still others play “Bingo,” the “Tupada” and the “Huego de Anillo.”
During the day, old folks have other forms of amusement such as the “Pata,” the “Tupada” and the “Huego de Anillo.”
The younger and smarter set now entertain themselves by singing love songs, usually with the accompaniment of the guitar or piano. They even use a loud speaker from morning till the next morning if the occasion is very grand. Sometimes, they dance with the music furnished by radio phonographs.
Still others amuse themselves by tuning the radios and playing basketball and softball against teams of other barrios during community fiestas.
XIII. Puzzles and Riddles –
Old barrio folks at night entertain their small children by giving some puzzles and riddles.
2. Noong umalis ay lumilipad
Hindi na umuwi. – (lura)
11. Baboy ko sa pulo; balahibo ay pako. – (langka)
12. Isang butil na palay; sikip sa boong bahay. – (ilaw)
13. Dala mo, dala ka, dala ka pa ng iyong dala. – (sinelas)
14. Buhok ni Adan, hindi mawahi. – (ulan)
15. Isda ko sa Mariveles
XIV. Proverbs and Sayings –
And difficult to swallow.”
XV. A. Methods of Measuring Time
In the old days, the people in the barrio did not possess precious watches and clocks as they do these days. They had, however, different ways of telling time as follows:
B. Special Calendar
People long ago remembered dates of births and some other significant events by associating them with the seasonal crops, and the incumbency of different officials.
Pedro was born during harvest time. And since five harvests had passed since he was born, he was already five years old. Or Pedro was born during the time of Capitan Juan so he was now ten years old. You would hear the old folks say: “Si Pedro ay tao na noong tayo’y pumasok sa zona. Si Juan ay noong ianak ay nakalabas na tayo sa zona kaya matanda si Pedro kay Juan. Si Maria [ay] inianak noong pumutok ang bulkan. Si Luisia inianak noong hindi pa naputok ang bulkan. Kaya si Luisa ay matanda kay Maria.”
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