5. Cosme Malinay
6. Hilario Monilo
7. Mateo Laparan
8. Crisanto Lamano
9. Mariano Jonson
10. Mariano Malinay
11. Gregorio Jonson
12. Manuel Lama
13. Agapito Aquino
14. Sancho Villanueva
15. Arcadio Layosa
16. Hilarion Limjoco
17. Pedro Tinchuangco
18. Felipe Ramos
19. Francisco Lejano
Municipal Presidents During the American Time
N a m e|
1. Mr. Mariano San Agustin
2. Mr. Damaso Villadolid
3. Mr. Mariano San Agustin
4. Mr. Catalino Villadolid
5. Mr. Panfilo Jugo
6. Mr. Petronilo Ureta
7. Mr. Aurelio Oriondo
8. Mr. Petronilo Ureta
Rate of Tenure|
NOTE: From the year 1901 up to the year 1915, Lian was annexed and made part of Nasugbu; hence, the above-named persons were residents of the said town.
Municipal Presidents of Lian after Its Separation from Nasugbu, Batangas
N a m e|
1. Mr. Francisco Lejano
2. Mr. Galicano Limjoco
3. Mr. Francisco Limjoco
4. Mr. Teofilo Jonson
5. Mr. Damaceno Limon
6. Mr. David Lapitan
7. Mr. Hilarion Lejano
8. Mr. Damaceno Limon
9. Mr. Marcelo Apacible
10. Mr. Hilarion Lejano
11. Mr. Marcelo Apacible
Rate of Tenure|
Municipal Mayors During the Japanese Occupation
N a m e|
1. Mr. Gregorio Zarzoso
2. Atty. Meliton Lejano
Rate of Tenure|
Municipal Mayors after the Liberation
N a m e|
1. Major Lucas G. Baviera
2. Mr. Marcelino Apacible
Rate of Tenure|
Municipal Mayors under the Philippine Republic
N a m e|
1. Mr. Quirino Lejano
2. Mr. Lucas R. Nueve
Rate of Tenure|
Data on historical sites, structures, buildings, old ruins, etc.: The only remaining historical structures which had been spared by the flight of time and wars and, which had been up to the present standing on its feet are the Hacienda Lian and the Roman Catholic church, both of which are owned by the Colegio San Jose. Other than these, no more historical buildings or ruins could be traced.
Important facts, incidents or events that to place:
(a) During the Spanish occupation: There are no official records which show important facts, incidents or events that took place in the community, but it may be stated that there were many encounters made against the Spaniards by the revolutionary forces in their efforts to overthrow the government and establish a republic of their own. Many revolutionary veterans of Lian fought against the Spanish soldiers and suffered irreparable casualties because of the superior force of the enemy. It is worthwhile to mention that before the revolutionary period, Lian was made an hacienda by the friars, claiming legal ownership of the land and subjected the inhabitants to pay exorbitant taxes which were based on the Ecclesiastical Law.
(b) During the American occupation to World War II - During this period, many incidents or events are worthy of records, a few among them were the continued defiance of the inhabitants of Lian to recognize the legal ownership of the friars. In this agrarian trouble, the late President Manuel L. Quezon took time to come to this place to see for himself the social unrest of the people. The Colegio de San Jose was represented by Mr. Nelson V. Sinclair, while the inhabitants were ably represented by some civic-spirited leaders namely: Mr. Ambrosio G. Jonson (one of the 48 martyrs who died during the zonification of Lian by the Japanese M.P.), Mr. Francisco Lejano, better known as “Kapitan” Isko, Mr. Angel T. Limjoco, Mr. Hilarion Lejano and many others. The late President Quezon, after carefully considering the angles of the case, placed the town under martial law. However, in the ensuing years, the tension eased down and both parties did not resort to any extreme measures. This event took place sometime in the year 1935-1936.
The Rural Progress Administration, a branch of the government, had done splendid work in avoiding any possible bloodshed by buying some portions of land and reselling them to the occupants and/or tenants. Thus ended the problem of the inhabitants and the friars.
Another incident was the infamous conflagration which broke out when almost all the houses within the poblacion were razed to the ground, causing thousands of inhabitants to be homeless and finding themselves confronting insurmountable poverty. This had been considered as the worst calamity [that] ever happened in the history of Lian. That was on January 6, 1939.
(c) During and after World War II - After the treacherous attack of the Pearl Harbor by the Japanese on December 7, 1941, able-bodied citizens and reservists of this town of Lian rallied to the frontlines in defense of democracy. As the town is bordering the China Sea and considered [a] strategic point for military and naval operations, members of the Philippine Army then inducted to the USAFFE built their defense lines along the shores. They installed barbed wire trenches from the shores of Nasugbu to the shores of Lian, including its outlying barrios facing the sea. The town was protected by the members of the Philippine Army who were assigned in this area, but some of the civilians had evacuated to the mountains coupled with the spirit of patriotism and cooperation, the inhabitants of the town, particularly the male inhabitants, we organized into [the] Bolo Battalion headed by Mr. Teofilo L. Laqui.
It was fortunate enough that the Japanese invaders did not land on the shores of Lian and no fighting took place. Our forces moved to Bataan and fought against the ruthless invaders. When General Wainright issued an order to surrender, soldiers from this town, unwilling to submit to defeat to the Japanese, defied such an order and instead, beyond our expectation came home with experience of battle wrought on their faces. The fall of Bataan and Corregidor was a shock to the peace and liberty-loving people in this town. Part of the Japanese occupation forces occupied the town of Lian and appointed its officials. Appointed as Mayor-Treasurer by the Japanese military command was the late Gregorio Zarzoso, with Mr. Vicente Villafria as the Chief of Police. It is worthy to note that the elected mayor prior to the occupation, Mr. Marcelo Apacible, left the town and hid from the Japanese to evade rendering service during the Japanese time. Motivated by the undying love and devotion to the mother country, once again, the able-bodied male citizens of this town rallied to the underground movement. In the latter part of 1942, underground forces were organized in Lian. Worthy of mention among them was a unit under the Anderson’s Guerrillas able commanded by Mr. Conrado Limjoco. The men under him extended voluntary intelligent activities not only in Lian but also along the coast of Batangas province which at that time was being fortified by the enemy.
The strength and frontier of the Japanese forces, their arms and supplies were meticulously plotted on maps and relayed to General Headquarters. Captain Mamerto Jonson also played an important role in this underground resistance with Mr. Faustino G. Jonson supplying him with all the pertinent documents and maps pilfered from the Japanese Headquarters.
In the latter part of 1944, American planes began strafing the Japanese positions along the seacoast, inflicting heavy damages. But, before these men could realize the fruits of their labor, they were apprehended by the enemy among whom where the 48 martyrs. They were subjected to all forms of inhuman punishments that only men with the convictions to see their country free could withstand. The 48 men were killed just two weeks before the Americans landed but they did not die in vain the town was liberated by the Americans on January 31, 1945.
(d) >Destruction of lives, properties and institutions during wars, especially in 1896-1900 and 1941-1945 - No records or information are available regarding the distractions cost during the war in 1896-1900. During the war in 1941-1945, the following distractions of lives are given based on the inscriptions on the marker-symbol in the town plaza which is dedicated for the purpose:
DEDICATED BY THE PEOPLE OF LIAN TO
THE MEMORY OF THEIR MARTYRS WHO
WERE EXECUTED BY THE JAPANESE ON
JANUARY 16, 1945
THEIR ONLY CRIME WAS LOYALTY TO
THE ALLIED CAUSE
JONSON, GREGORIO S.
JONSON, GREGORIO V.
LEON, CORNELIO DE
LUIS, JUANITO DE
On the other side of the marker-symbol are inscribed the following:
DEDICATED BY A GRATEFUL PEOPLE TO THEIR
IMMORTALS WHO DIED IN BATTLE
HEROES OF BATAAN
(e) Measures and accomplishments toward rehabilitation and reconstruction following World War II - There have been marked accomplishments toward rehabilitation and reconstruction of the town following World War II. Despite the insurmountable poverty of the inhabitants caused by the last war, through their industry and hard work, they were able to stand on their feet. Their homes where reconstructed, farms were cultivated and increased their production through the application of fertilizers distributed by the government. Those whose properties we're wantonly destroyed by the ravages of war where paid by the War Damage Commission. Similarly, heirs of deceased veterans and their dependents filed claims with a different agencies of the U.S. Government such as the U.S. Veterans administration, the War Claims Commission, and a considerable number already receiving pensions are enjoying these benefits.
Part Two: FOLKWAYS
Traditions, customs, and practices in domestic and social life; birth, baptism, courtship, marriage, death, burial; visits; festivals; punishments, etc.
(a) Traditions – The inhabitants of Lian hold tightly to the fundamental concepts that day constitute themselves the primary virtues of life. A few among the common traditions which had been to this time embraced and adhered to by the people are the following:
1. Religious festival – It is the common practice among the people of the town especially the poor to hold religious banquets in honor of the image of St. John the Baptist. They would get the image of the same from the church, bring it home and pray for it. At the same time, they would prepare a feast, invite many prominent citizens in the neighborhood and entertain them lavishly, especially at the table. This
tradition is believed to bring prosperity and good health to those who stick to it, while a few regard the same as pure idiocy because it only makes the poor still poorer.
2. Celebration of the Crucifix – A great majority of the people still cling to the tradition of celebrating the black crucifix which was reportedly found in Barrio Cruz of this town, many hundred years ago. It is the religious conviction of the folks that this crucifix shows miracles to devout Catholics. Since then, a sort of commemoration is held during the month of May of each year. They would construct a small chapel, usually called as “kubol,” place the crucifix inside, make floral offerings and the like. But the most peculiar offering in this celebration is the native dance, participated in by many pairs of men and women, either young or old, to the accompaniment of music, mostly of string instruments. This rare occasion attracts many spectators to their delight.
3. Customs in domestic and social life. – The customs regarding the domestic and social lives of the people are rarely found in other towns. They still adhere to their old practices which they consider as the best. Examples of which are the kissing of the hands of the old folks by the younger set during vesper hours or at night, the hospitality shown to visitors, etc. They are also a hardworking and peaceful people. They do not divert themselves from this kind of life and are not influenced by other undesirable factors because humility and courtesy are their primary virtues. The only defect of the people is that they would not want to separate from the old tradition of confining their children to the same place where they first saw the light of day. Family attachment had been so dear to them so that the young generation were not given a break to pursue higher education and learning in other places. However, a few among them are beginning to learn this custom to be destructive to the economic and social advancement.
4. Birth, baptism, courtship, marriage, death, burial, etc. – From time immemorial, verbs of infants in this town are attended by unregistered midwives locally known asn "hilots," aided by attendance called "salag." It is customary on the part of the father of the child just born to celebrate the delivery by displaying fireworks, so much so when the child happens to be a boy. Immediately after the delivery of the child, both husband and wife talked about the future godparents. Once they have selected, the husband goes to them and with due respect and in all humility, informs them of his mission which is always delightfully accepted. After a week or two, the pre-baptismal celebration is held. This is called "buhos-tubig." The services of the "manang" are requested for the temporary baptism of the child. Usually, the parents prepare some food by killing two or three chickens for the "compadre" and "comadre" to feast.