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January 2, 2018

Anilao, Mabini, Batangas: Historical Data

Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the barrio of Anilao in the Municipality of Mabini, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.

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I. HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF THE BARRIO OF ANILAO

Part One: HISTORY

1. Present official name of the barrio – ANILAO

2. Popuar name of the barrio, present and past; derivation and meanings of these names. Names of sitios included within the territorial jurisdiction of the barrio.

a. Past popular name of the barrio –
Janao-janao – derived from the geographical shape and feature of the land and water comprising the barrio.

b. Present popular name of the barrio –
Dagatan – Name given by inland fish peddlers to the little body of water west of the peninsula of Buang.

c. Names of sitios –
 (1)  Puntang Kawayan  (6)  Tamauyanan
 (2)  Lagundi  (7)  Taal-taalan
 (3)  Perasan  (8)  Putol-na-Karsada
 (4)  Bukana  (9)  Tibagan
 (5)  Anilao Proper (Ilaya) (10) Gulod

3. Date of establishment – Latter part of the Spanish occupation.

4. Original families:
a. Buenviaje b. Evangelista c. Amboy d. Anter

5. List of tenientes from the earliest time to date:
Cabesang Venancio (from Bauan) Simon Axalan
Jose Evangelista Fausto Manalo
Feliciano Buenviaje Cirso Boongaling
Eusebio Amboy Celedonio Panopio
Guardiano Alcayde Felipe Boongaling
Ambrocio Boongaling Remegio Brucal
Jacinto Asilo Ignacio Casapao
Higino Masangcay Pablo Casapao
Nicomedes Guia Pablo Buenviaje
Santiago Axalan Bernabe Abanador
Daniel Alcayde

6. Story of old barrios or sitios within the jurisdiction that are now depopulated or extinct – None.

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7. Important facts, incidents or events that took place
(a) During the Spanish occupation – None significant.

(b) During the American occupation to World War II-
The coming of the American forces – March, 1901. Fighting and burning of Sinonog. The Filipino defense was under the command of Capitang Kiko Castillo. Many Filipino soldiers died.

(c) During and after World War II-
November 1, 1944 – Evacuation of the inhabitants to the neighboring barrios such as Solo, Bagalangit, to Culbo, to Loklok, to Maricaban Island and others to Mindoro. The whole barrio of Anilao was occupied by Japanese forces.

January 19 & 21, 1945 – Bombardment of Anilao by American Air and Naval forces.

March 14, 1945 – The coming of the American forces and the liberation of the barrio from Japanese rule.

8. (a) Destruction of lives, properties and institutions during wars, especially in 1896-1900 and 1941-1945.


During the occupation of the Japanese in this barrio from November 1, 1944 to March 14, 1945, all properties of the inhabitants were destroyed.

During the bombardment of the American Air and Naval forces, the whole village was burnt. However, there was no death casualty among the inhabitants.

(b) Measures and accomplishments toward rehabilitation and reconstruction following World War II.

War damage claims of the inhabitants in property were granted by the U.S. War Claims Commission.

Part Two: FOLKWAYS

9. Traditions, customs and practices in domestic and social life, birth, baptism, courtship, marriage, death, burial, visits, festivals, punishments, etc.

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TRADITIONS AND PRACTICES OF BIRTH AND BAPTISM
IN OUR LOCALITY (ANILAO)

B I R T H

In our small but picturesque barrio, there are various traditions and practices relative to birth which still persist even in this atomic era. These practices date back as far as the early days of the Spanish regime. Said practices now stand as an eloquent testimony to the superstitious nature of our ancestors, the same having been handed down from generation to generation. Although never recorded, clear traces of these practices have not been effaced by time and modernism.

Just as the mother is about to bring forth the child, it becomes imperative that she lives with her natural parents and not with the in-laws. It does not matter whether they leave the conjugal home and reside temporarily in her parents abode – the thing is, the mother should deliver her baby under the roof of the parents’ dwelling.

If the mother’s labor period difficulty is felt, the father is asked to undo whatever he has built or planted in the last preceding days. He should loosen what has been tied or constructed. This, the old folks say, will induce an easy delivery for the mother. Visitors who flock at doorways on the occasion of a mother’s delivery are requested to come inside, with the least hesitation. Neither are they allowed to stay or loaf in the balcony or outside the main door, lest they prolong the suffering of the mother.

The infant’s first bath consists of warm water in a basin where a pencil, a piece of paper and coins of different denominations have been submerged. It is the belief that in this way, the baby will become a good learner and prosperous in the near future. As soon as the bath is over the baby is carried for a while in the arms of a prominent relative or visitor whose good moral traits and integrity, they say, are worthy of emulation by the newly born baby. They are not permitted to stay in the same spot where the delivery had been made.

The disposition of the baby’s placenta is also in strict accord with an old practice. It is kept in a drinking glass, also with a piece of paper and pencil. Then, the glass is buried in a standing position more preferable under the house not heated by the sun nor wet by the rain. Pre-

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caution should be noted that it will never be in the ground of low level. This, the superstitious folks will tell you, makes the baby intelligent and prominent.

B A P T I S M

In the choice of the child’s godfather or godmother, the paternal and maternal grandparents have the final say. This is particularly true if the baby is the first child of the couple. After the selection, the manner of informing the would-be godfather or godmother follows and old, old pattern. The paternal and maternal grandparents direct the affair again. In going to the prospective sponsor’s residence, they carry with them the traditional “hecho” consisting of ikmo leaves, lime, betel nut, and chewing tobacco. Cigarettes, too, are essential. To some, bottles of wine or just as necessary as the first two.

On the occasion of the baptism, there are also certain practices which the people of our barrio observed meticulously. Before the baby is brought to church, the mother makes it a point to talk under the baby’s outer wear some coins of the bigger denominations. Once inside the church, and especially during the baptismal rites, the sponsor cautiously keeps the candlelight burning. It is generally believed that the baby will not live a long life if the light goes off during the ceremony. Great care is also taken to ward off any possibility of the child’s cap or veil from falling while the rights are on for the same reason as given above.

Immediately after the ceremony, there is a rush for the door when the child has been baptized together with some other children. It is believed that the first baby to be carried out of the church will live an enviable life and will certainly be successful in every endeavor.

On the way home, the driver of the conveyance is under strict orders to refrain from making unnecessary stops. The vehicle must be driven directly home without picking up any rider. No turning back is allowed.

Upon arrival at home, the baby is handed over to the mother by the sponsor. Meanwhile, incense is burned and the holy scent is allowed to permeate the atmosphere. The mother finally takes care of undressing the baby. She neatly holds the baptismal apparel and returns the same to the innermost drawer of the family’s cabinet. By doing so, it is averred that when the child matures, he or she will never have [leave] the parental home without the express consent

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of the family head.

When the Ninong or the Ninang is about to leave, he [or she] tucks under the baby’s pillow something like money, jewelry, or dresses which is called gift or “pakimkim.”

The foregoing roughly illustrates practices of ancient origin and which may appear very ridiculous to us as they have stayed with our forefathers for generations.

Reported by:

(Miss) Lorenza M. Medrano
&
(Miss) Leodegaria Balino
Teachers

TRADITIONS, CUSTOMS, AND PRACTICES
OF COURTSHIP AND MARRIAGE IN OUR LOCALITY
(A n i l a o)

COURTSHIP

Courtship in our locality during the early days was very unique. This was done not by the young man alone but it was the parents who played an important role. The parents’ part was so important that at times, a young man was married to a girl without knowing each other except only at the time they were about to be married. Usually, they were married at an early age. This was accomplished in the following manner: a man who had a son tried to look for a girl to whom he would like his son for a life partner. Sometimes, if a young man happened to see a girl of his choice, he did not express his love to the girl but told his parents about it. The parents would then hire a wise man in the village called “maggagrado” or a prophet to foretell the future of the couple-to-be. When the prophecy was favorable, then the courtship began. (Before all courtships where started, the prophecies of the trusted “maggagrado” were first sought.) The parents of the young man tried to win the admiration of the girl’s parents by going often to the house of the girl to converse about social life and to bring presents. When intimacy was established, the mission of the girl’s father was expressed. Every now and then, lovable gifts are brought of the family of the girl. The specialties are “kalamay, marabuya,” sweets, squid, octopus and many other things that they thought would interest the family of the girl.

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Most cases, they often selected the octopus to be sent first. This, they said, was good because the tentacles of this octopus, once they clung to an object, could hardly be removed, so they correlated it with love. Other things being done were: the parents of the young man hired some men to bring bundles of firewood. These were placed under the house in the center. Other mean filled all the containers in the girl’s house and the relatives, likewise with water, while others did the pounding of palay. All these were surprise activities and done at night during full moon. After all things were done, the parents of the girl sent words to the man’s parents to come to their home. The man’s parents informed of the message, prepared at once to go to the girl’s house together with the hired mediator to talk about the matter. They usually brought with them, wine, rice, and boiled chicken and these where to be eaten by the girl’s family. Then, an agreement was entered into by the two parties. There were times when the agreement was to let the young man serve the girl’s family for a number of years. He was expected to do practically all the work of the family. The young man was in this stage, his parents during Christmas or fiestas sent meat about ½ or ¼ the whole size of a pig. Then, they were busy in the home preparing a special meal because someone had been sent to invite the girl surprisingly while she was on her way home from the church. When the young man learned that the girl would attend processions, he at once secured the biggest candle, decorated it with colored paper for the girl to use. In these early days, girls using very big candles during processions where understood to be having a suitor. During harvest season, the young man’s parents selected his best rice field for the girl and her family to harvest. They were the ones responsible for supplying the girl with nicely made baskets (takoyan) and knives (yatat) nicely decorated. Then, the young man with all the other members of the family, do the hauling and the threshing. This rice was sometimes not divided anymore but they were all given to the girl.

When the man had sufficiently served the girl’s family during this courtship days, the girl’s father might summon again the young man’s parents to talk about the marriage.

MARRIAGE

In the early days, contracts of marriage in this locality were arranged by the parents. That is, the families of both parties got their mediators for the contract. The mediators might be the same persons as those they requested during the courtship. As usual, the family of

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of the groom brings food and wine to the home of the bride and an agreement is entered into between the two families as to what the groom and his family should do for the household of the bride. Such agreements included the repair of the house, preparations they would have for the wedding, the amount of money to be spent in buying the matrimonial clothes, selecting the sponsors for the wedding, the dowry and many other things that the parents of the bride might like to ask. Usually, these were not finished in one meeting. It sometimes took 3 to 4 meetings before it became final. Then, finally a day was selected to file the application and prepare the wedding contracts in the church and in the municipal building. When this was done, the groom was no longer allowed to perform hard work for they said he was susceptible to accidents. Then, one or two weeks before the marriage, the bride and the groom, together with their relatives, arranged going to town to buy the wedding clothes. Then, a day is fixed for the sewing, and it should be done in the house of the girl. All trouble and expenses were shouldered by the family of the groom. When the dresses were finished, the bride was not allowed to fit it but to put it on right on the day of the marriage for the belief that something might happen and cause discontinuance of the marriage. A week also before the marriage, someone was sent to all the relatives of the bride to announce and invite them to attend the wedding. Weddings like this served as a family reunion. Then, on the day before the marriage, the family of the groom prepared the things to be used like plates, glasses and everything that were needed for the party. They usually prepared “suman” and “calamay.” Among the several hundred suman they cooked, they prepared a pair of the special size called “bugtong” which would be eaten by the couple after the marriage. On the eve of the marriage, the family of the groom took the food and everything to the home of the bride. They prepared dinner and served all the members of the family of the bride. The relatives of the groom, the cousins, uncles and aunts did the serving and entertaining in the home of the bride. On that day also, the family of the groom brought something to the house of their selected sponsor and this was the “dulot” as they called it. This usually consisted of bread especially made for the occasion, one or two dozen suman and a dozen chocolates nicely placed on a big winnower and nicely decorated together with a live pig which was entirely black. The pig was placed in a container resembling a float and on top of it were chickens on every corner.

The Wedding Day – The couple woke up very, very early to dress up for the wedding. The ceremony was done in the church solemnized by a priest. Before leaving for the church, the parents of both parties gave the bride and groom coins which were placed under their feet inside

[p. 8]

the shoes. They went to church together with some relatives of both parties who would act as the “flower girl, best man or sponsor” of the wedding. This sponsor was responsible for all equipment needed like cushions, veil and ribbon to be used during the wedding ceremony. He was also [responsible] for the transportation. Upon reaching the church, the couple would receive Confession and Holy Communion first. Sometimes, there were many pairs to be married at the same time. After the marriage ceremony, the pairs raced rushing out of the door of the church for the belief that the first pair to go out would be lucky. During the putting of the veil on the married couple, the groom tried to step a little on the bride’s shoes, they said, the man would not be overpowered by the bride. After reaching home from the church, somebody with some sweets or calamay and a glass of water, waited at the foot of the stairs. With those, she asked the marriage couple to take some and then drink. This, they said, the couple would have a sweet life. When they were about to go up the stairs, the parents threw some rice to the couple so that they would have many children, they said. Upon entering the house, each one of them was given a lighted candle and they knelt in front of the parents, aunts, uncles, grandfathers, grandmothers and relatives of both parties. The light of the candle told them of their future. If the candle burned brightly, they would have a bright future; and if the candle was put out without blowing out, then everybody became gloomy because the prediction was that that they would have bad luck. The one whose candle was put out would be the first one to die. As the wedding party went on, the bride tried to entertain the visitors by going around the giving them some cigarettes. At this time of the wedding, the sponsor or the ninong seemed to occupy a very important place. He carried with him a bottle of wine and a glass and tried to let every visitor drink so they could enjoy. When the feast was almost through came the climax which was the “Sabangan.” It was done in the following manner: the married couple sat on opposite sides of the table, each having a plate containing cigarettes or cigars. Then, the Ninang and the Ninong sat beside and called the attention of all the relatives of both parties for their gifts. The gifts were usually in terms of money, jewels or pieces of furniture. The relatives of the bride gave their gifts to the groom while the relatives of the groom gave their gifts to the bride. Thus, a short competition was aroused, much to the favor of the couple. As the couple received the gifts, they expressed their thanks and offered cigarettes or cigars to the giver. The Ninang and the Ninong also gave their gifts and they took into account the value of the dolot. When practically all the relatives had given their gifts, the sponsor counted all the money. He then wrapped it in the handkerchief of the groom, gave it to the groom and the groom, in turn, gave

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it to the bride and ask her to keep it as their first money. After this, they are now ready to go to the groom’s house. Now those people who helped in the party prepared the leftover meat and rice, the plates, the pots, the silverware, the labels and even the pot rings and rags and practically everything that had been used to be brought to the house of the groom together with the bride. The bride, with the relatives of the groom and all others who assisted in the party, led the parade to the groom’s house. The relatives of the groom shouted with joy as they went waving flags made out of their handkerchiefs or sometimes from towels used in the party, while the other people who carried the pots, the plates, the leftovers and all the utensils followed trying to make some fun. Upon reaching the house of the groom, pots where from into the air and when they broke into pieces, the presumption was that they would have many children. Rice was again scattered on the stairway. The bride was then led to the kitchen where she was offered a dipper of water and told that she should clean the stove after she had changed her wedding dress. While this time, the groom was left behind the house off the bride to help returning borrowed benches, tables, chairs and other equipment used. He might follow his bride the next day. The wedding day usually occurred on Monday and in the “Martisan” (Tuesday), when the groom was already in the house of the bride, the parents of the groom prepared the “maharuya.” This was made from ground sticky, ripe bananas and sugar. The first cake was exclusively made for the newly married couple. If the cake would not break, this they said, the couple would have children soon after. From that day, they would always go together for the bride to be introduced to the relatives of the groom and vice-versa. The relatives, then, of both parties usually give chickens to the couple to start a poultry with.

But today, as civilization advances, as the people are getting more and more educated, these costumes are being modified if not entirely disregarded.

Reported by:

(Mrs.) FORTUNATA A. REYES
(Miss) GLICERIA C. DIMAAPI

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DEATH AND BURIAL

Since the prehistoric period of ancient time and from time immemorial, the habits and customs in our place (Anilao) with respect to death and burial have never been modified or changed up to the present.

When someone dies without any written or verbal statement to his wife in the case of a married man, it has been the belief that the dead husband will return to his home to talk with his wife about the significant things which the former did not state before his death.

Near the corpse is placed a pair of scissors to prevent the big bird commonly called “ike” from getting the intestines of the courts. If the body of the corpse is soft, it is the presumption that a near relative will soon follow. All his children are passed over him from left to right or from right to left so that those children will forget their dead parent, and so that the children will not be bereaved or lament for a long time.

In the particular house where the corpse is, the occupants of the said house do not cook or eat any kind of leafy vegetables particularly “malunggay.” Nobody is allowed to sweep the house or yard even though how dirty the home is, not feel after the fourth day of death. On that very day (fourth day), all dirty clothes are washed and all members of the family bathe believing the gone body will bathe too in heaven, hence, knowing he is already in the next life. The plates used in the particular house are not filed one after the other until the lapse of the ninth day.

If the wife happens to die ahead of her husband, the husband is not allowed to go to the window and vice versa, when the body of the deceased (corpse) will be carried downstairs for the common belief that the days will not be far, in the case of a husband, to look for the second wife. In this case, when the mother is gone, the youngest child is dress in red to prevent her from being taken by the dead mother. The child is well taken care off especially at night for fear that the mother, who died, may come and let the child suck from her breast which will cause the child’s immediate death.

Another common belief is that no amount of tears must wet the corpse for it will cost his sufferings. He must be totally forgotten after his burial for by so

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remembering him all the time, will cause his disturbance in his resting place and will cause more sufferings on his part.

As the corpse is being carried downstairs, a dipper of water is thrown down following the corpse and immediately, all windows are closed. On the way to the grave, if the corpse is carried by persons, no carrier must utter or say that it is heavy for the belief that it will be heavier than before. All people who attend the funeral are dressed in black or in mourning attire.

In all homes, no black clothes are hung near the images of saints and virgins for the presumption that the death of another near relative is expected. No member of the family of the deceased is allowed to look at the mirror or to comb his hair thoroughly.

When an adult person died, the neighbors and relatives father to pray for the salvation of the soul of the deceased. They usually do this on the 4th, 9th and 40th day of the death. The final gathering for praying is on the death day after one year called the “wakasan.” When the family of the deceased is well-to-do, [a] big preparation is done, resembling a big party. It is the belief that when many people come, many will pray for the salvation of the soul of the deceased, so the kin of the deceased are very happy, thus, the big amount of expenses incurred in the gathering is no longer felt by the family. When the family of the deceased is poor, the preparation is simple. When children died, the praying is done only on the 4th day. During the praying dates, the altar is adorned with mourning attired with lighted candles in it. After all these mourning and praying activities, the deceased is remembered by praying nine successive days before Halloween date (Nov. 1) and every year hereafter.

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PROVERBS AND SAYINGS
(English and Tagalog)

1. WHAT WE OWE, WE PAY.
Kung anong naging utang ay siya ang kabayaran.

2. SPEAKING SOFTLY SOOTHES THE HEART
Ang marahang pangungusap sa puso’y nakalulunas.

3. IT IS EASY TO BECOME A MAN; IT IS DIFFICULT TO BEHAVE AS ONE.
Madali ang maging tao, mahirap ang magpakatao.

4. WHAT FROM THE DEW YOU GATHER MUST VANISH WITH THE WATER.
Ang hanap sa hamog sa tubig naaanod.

5. BETTER A GLUTTON THAN A THIEF.
Mabuti pa ang matakao kay sa magnanakao.

6. HE WHO WILL NOT TOIL SHALL NOT LIVE.
Maghirap kang mabuhay kundi ka magtatrabaho ng husay.

7. THE SLEEPING SHRIMP IS CARRIED AWAY BY THE CURRENT.
Ang hipong tulog ay nadadala ng agos.

8. PATIENCE IS BITTER BUT ITS FRUIT IS SWEET.
Ang pagtitiis ay mapait nguni’t ang bunga ay matamis.

9. THE TREE FALLS WHERE IT IS INCLINED.
Ang kahoy ay nabubuwal sa kinahihiligan.

10. BORROWING IS THE MOTHER OF TROUBLE.
Ang panghihiram ay simula ng hinanakitan.

11. WHEN YOUR BLANKET IS SHORT, LEARN TO CROUCH.
Pag maigsi ang iyong kumot, mag-aral kang mamaluktot.

12. A BIRD ON A PLATE IS BETTER THAN A THOUSAND IN THE SKY.
Ang ibong nasa pinggan na ay mabuti kay sa sanglibong nasa himpapawid pa.

13. HE WHO HAS SAVED FOR THE RAINY DAY HAS SOMETHING TO FALL BACK ON.
Magsimpan ka na kung tag-ulan nang sa tag-araw ay may maaasahan.

14. NEVER MAKE [A] PROMISE THAT YOU CANNOT FULFILL.
Huwag mangako ng hindi mo matutupad.

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15. PAIN IN A FINGER IS FELT BY THE WHOLE BODY.
Ang sakit ng kalingkingan ay damdam ng buong kataway.

16. IF YOU FEEL A FRIEND’S MISERY AS YOUR OWN, THEN YOU ARE HIS GOOD FRIEND.
Kung tapat kang kaibigan, damdamin mo ang kanyang kahirapan.

17. IT IS MORE BLESSED TO GIVE THAN TO RECEIVE.
Masarap pa ang magbigay kay sa pagbigyan.

18. NOTHING DESTROYS IRON LIKE RUST.
Walang nasira sa bakal kundi ang sariling kalawang.

19. TRUTH IS MIGHT AND WILL PREVAIL.
Ang katotohanan ay makapangyarihan at kailan man ay hindi malulupigan.

20. TO WALK RAPIDLY IS TO FALL HEAVILY.
Ang lakad ng dagasdas malakas kung bumagsak.

21. IF YOU WALK SLOWLY, YOU WILL BE HURT SLIGHTLY.
Ang lumakad ng marahan, matinik man ay mababaw.

22. CONTINUOUS DROPLETS OF WATER MAY WEAR AWAY EVEN GRANITE.
Bato mang buhay na sakdal ng tigas sa ulang tikatik pilit maaagnas.

23. GOD IS WITH ONE WHO PERSEVERES.
Ang Diyos ay tumutulong sa taong tumutulong sa kanyang sarili.

24. BE THRIFTY IF YOU WANT TO BE WEALTHY.
Ikaw ay magsimpan kung gusto mong yumaman.

25. WHAT YOU SOW, YOU REAP.
Kung anong itinanim ay siya ring aanihin.

26. SOW KINDNESS AND YOU WILL REAP LOVE.
Ang maghasik ng kabaitan ay mag-aani ng pagmamahal.

27. KIND HEARTS ARE THE GARDEN,
KIND THOUGHTS ARE THE ROOTS,
KIND WORDS ARE THE FLOWERS,
KIND DEEDS ARE THE FRUITS.
Ang magadang puso’y parang halaman,
Ang magandang isip siyang ugat bilang,
Ang magandang salita’y bulaklak naman,
Ang magandang gawa’y bunga’y maiinam.

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SALAWIKAIN

1. Likas na sa tao na pagkamahirap, ay matahing lagi ng ibang mapilak.

2. Ukol sa mabuti kaya mo ginawa subali’t mali rin sapagka’t masama.

3. Iyang panalangin kahit di habaan mabuti pa ang maikli mabisa lamang.

4. Ang kapalaran ko ay di ko man hanapin, dudulog, lalapit kung talagang akin.

5. Tubig na lumabo pagka’t nalabusaw saka ng tining na ay muling luminaw.

6. Pagka ang buhay ay namatay ay hindi pa kahanga-hanga, pag ang patay ang nabuhay yaan ay isang balita.

7. Sapagka’t makinang ang iyong dinampot, nguni’t nang suriin ay saka mo natalos, isa palang tanso may gintong kalopkop.

8. Madalas magkamali ang padalos-dalos, limit mapawasto ang marahang kilos.

9. Mabuti pa ang aso ng isang mayaman kay sa isang taong walang hanap buhay.

10. Kay gandang tanawin sa gunam-gunam, kay pangit ng kuwadro sa katotohanan.

11. Sundin moa ng utos pag talagang tumpak, nguni’t kundi wasto ay di baling lumabag.

12. Pag tinangka mong inomin ang tubig ng buong ilog, ang tiyan mo ay lalaki, at pag lumaki ay sasabog.

13. Ang kaboy na babad sa tubig, sa apoy huwag ilalapit, kapag nadarang ng init, sapilitang magdirikit.

14. Kinakailangan pa munang magkasukat itong puso bago maging maligaya sa larangan ng pagsuyo.

15. Iyang bata na marunong mahabag sa kapuwa, ay dinudulotan ng Diyos ng ibayong ganting pala.

16. Ang matulugin ay papatayin; ang magisingin ay mabuhayin.

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17. Ang kita sa bula-bula, sa bula-bula rin mawawala.

18. Ang taong masipag, daig ang maagap.

19. Kung manliligo ka’y sa tubig aagap at nang huwag abutin ng tabsing sa dagat.

20. Kapirasong tabling iyong inihagis tinangay ng agos, dinala ng tubig, subali’t nang minsang ikaw ay manganib, upang di malunod doon ka kumapit.

21. Ang tao’y yuyuko ng yukod na yukod oras na ang ulo niya ay mauntog.

22. Kahit maantala iyang katarungan ay mananaig din pagdating ng araw.

23. Ang dalagang bagong kita ay matamis pa sa pantusa. Pag tumagal at sumawa na ay mapait pa sa ampalaya.

24. Ang hindi lumingon sa pinanggalingan ay hindi makararating sa paruruonan.

25. Aking kapalaran di ko man hanapin, ako’y lalapitan kung talagang akin.

26. Umibig ay parang nagsusugal lamang, kung may panalunan ay may katalunan.

27. Ang taong masikap daig ang maagap, at sa taong tamad malayo ang palad.

28. Batong tipak-tipak kahit anong tigas, sa ulang tikatik pilit maaagnas.

29. Huwag kang maniniwala sa tabil ng mga dila, kung ang lupang patag na nga nasa ilalim ay may lunga.

30. O yamang hindi na yata matatapos, magbibinhi ng lagim na katakot-takot.

31. Upang igalang ka’y iyong patunayang makakatindig ka hindi man tulongan.

32. Kain mang mainit na isusubo, nalalaglag pa rin kung mapaso.

33. Ang pilak na kita sa masamang hanap ay tulad ng manok labuyong hinuli sa gubat, na kahit kulungin mo ay magpupumiglas.

34. Ang panahon ay samantalahin sapagka’t ginto ang kahambing.

[p. 16]

SUPERSTITIOUS BELIEFS

In farm life:

1. In planting squash, the dipper seed container should be rolled several times on the ground for it is believed that many squash fruits will be rolling on the ground.

2. The opo [upo] and sponge guard seeds must be passed through a blower so that the fruits will be long.

3. The succeeding fruit of any kind of tree will become sour if tasted by a woman who is conceiving.

4. In planting eggplants, the stem of the calamias must be used for digging the hills so that it will bear many fruits.

5. In planting bananas, we should not look up so that the plants will not become tall and should be done during full moon to produce big bananas.

6. In planting bananas, the fingers of the planters must be spread out so that the bananas will not be twins.

7. In planting any kind of plant, it must not be done during low tide so that it will not be leafy.

8. In planting plants, the best day is the second day after full moon so that the plants will bear fruits continuously.

9. In sowing or broadcasting the palay seeds, the farmer must not have a haircut before doing so. It I believed that the young palay seedlings will have cut leaves when they germinate.

10. To produce full coconut (makapuno), the planters must fill his mouth with porridge.

Fishing life:

1. Do not allow anybody to step over the hook and line. It is believed that the fisherman will not be able to cut fish.

2. When you intend to go fishing, do not smell the bait for the fish might just do the same.

3. When you happen to see a snake biting a frog, cut it and get the head with the frog in the mouth. It will be good for any kind of fishing craft.

4. Do not request for some fish from those who will still go fishing for they will not be able to catch.

[p. 17]

5. Do not drop any metal in the corrals (baklad) for the belief that it will not catch anymore. The fish is afraid of metals.

6. Do not crawl under the net so that the fish will not learn to escape under the net.

In the home:

1. Do not winnow or clean your rice at the doorway for the graces of God will be far from you.

2. Do not brush your teeth at night for the belief that your teeth will be exposed when you die.

3. When you bite your tongue while eating, someone is talking about you.

4. The bag of rice should be opened during high tide so that it will produce full capacity.

5. Do not carry the chupa when borrowing rice in the belief that you will borrow rice all the time.

6. When a lizard enters your house, some misfortune will come to the family.

7. Placing [a] water container full of water and every corner and middle of a new house for the family to bathe on the fourth day so that the family will always be in good health and prosperous.

8. When you sneeze while eating, someone is talking about you.

9. While walking, if you tip over a stump of a tree or on a stone, someone is talking about you.

10. When you drop spoons or forks while eating, some more visitors are coming.

11. Do not leave the house when somebody is still eating for something might happen to you on the way.

12. It is not good to sweep or clean the house at night because the house creatures or insects will fall on the roof.

13. When rice is not well cooked, it is a sign of a bad voyage.

14. In going to some places, if a lizard crosses your way, it is a bad omen.

[p. 18]

15. When a cat washes his face facing the doorway, a visitor is coming.

16. When pullets or hens cackle at night, someone will elope.

In Birth:

1. Do not tie the neck of the husband with [a] handkerchief when laboring so that the baby will not be wrapped by the umbilical cord.

2. After giving birth, the baby must be wrapped with papers used by bright students so that the baby will be bright also.

3. The placenta should be placed in a glass and covered by papers containing reading materials for the belief that the baby will be intelligent.

4. So that the baby will have strong teeth, when he grows old, his placenta should be buried deep.

5. If the mother is laboring hard, the husband must blow the center of the head so that the mother will deliver easily.

6. When washing the things used during delivery, one should not scratch any part of his body so that the baby will not be itchy.

7. After the delivery of the first child, the mother and the baby should step on the crowbar so that the mother and the baby will be sturdy and strong.

8. When the pregnant mother is laboring hard during delivery, the elders would tell the husband to loosen all the things he tied and to uproot the new plants he planted.

9. Inasmuch as the eggs and the young fruits of cacao are slippery, the pregnant mother should be told to eat them when she is laboring to ease her in delivering.

10. It is believed that eggplants of any variety should not be eaten by the pregnant mother so that the mother and the baby will not have beri-beri.

11. During the state of conceiving, the mother should be given all the beautiful things or pictures and interesting reading materials so that the offspring will be beautiful and learned.

[p. 19]

During Baptism:

1. The parents select on with good moral character, influential, or well-to-do for a compadre or comadre. They say that the baby acquires the traits of the godmother or godfather.

2. The veil used by the priest during [the] baptismal ceremony should be protected not to drop. The belief is, if it drops, the baby will not live long.

3. When there are several babies baptized, they rush to be first in going out of the church for the belief that the baby will be aggressive and alert when he grows up. If she is the only girl, she will have many suitors and vice-versa.



Respectfully submitted:

[Sgd.] TOMAS B. RAMIREZ
Principal



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Notes and references:
Transcribed from “History and Cultural Life of the Barrio of Anilao” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.

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