January 4, 2018

Lumil, San Jose, Batangas: Historical Data

Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the barrio of Lumil in the Municipality of San Jose, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.

[p. 1]

THE BARRIO OF LUMIL

Part One - - History

1. The present name of the barrio is Lumil.

2. No known history could be had as to the ethnology or origin of the name. However, many of the oldest folks interviewed are of the belief that the name was adopted from the long and deep ravine that crosses the barrio almost in the middle from north to south. This ravine, since the earliest time, was known to be called LUMIL.

3. The establishment of the barrio dates back about a year after the founding of the poblacion (San Jose) in the year 1767.

4. Of the first families known, the Perezes, the Aguilas and the Hernandezes were the most influential and wealthiest in the barrio. At present, the Perezes and the Aguilas have almost gone to oblivion. From the Ozaetas came Don Roman Ozaeta, who at different times during the incumbency of the late President Quezon, President Osmeña, and the late President Roxas, was among the national figures in the Philippines. He became judge of the Court of First Instance of Nueva Ecija, then Solicitor General, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, and then Secretary of Justice of the Cabinet of the late President Roxas. When Roxas died, Elpidio Quirino, then Vice-President, assumed the presidency. Because he could not, in conscience, toe to the whims of the Quirino administration, he resigned. However, in the words of Justice Recto, Quirino could not easily dispose of a good man, so he returned him to the Supreme Court. It was in the Supreme Court that he rendered his last services to the government. He was for some time Acting Chief Justice. At present, he is Dean of the College of Law, University of the East. He is the senior partner of the law firm Ozaeta, Roxas, Lichauco and Picaso.

5. The different cabezas and tenientes known from the earliest time to the present are as follows:
CABEZAS:
 1.  Pedro Perez  6.  Juan Briones 11. Juan Umali
 2.  Fruto Hernandez  7.  Melecio Hernandez 12. Gregorio Briones
 3.  Dionisio Ozaeta  8.  Juan Magundayao 13. Pedro Mendoza
 4.  Doroteo Atienza  9.  Ricardo Atienza 14. Justo Manimtim
 5.  Baltazar Patron 10. Fulgencio Mendoza 15. Julian Ozaeta
TENIENTES:
 1.  Urbano Hernandez  3.  Julian Ozaeta  5.  Braulio Ozaeta
 2.  Pablo Ozaeta  4.  Catalino Rodriguez  6.  Marcos Rodriguez
 7.  Urbano Hernandez - to date
6. Story of old barrios or sitios within the jurisdiction that are now depopulated or extinct.

None

[p. 2]

7. Data on historical sites, structures, buildings, old ruins, etc.
None.

8. Incidents or Events that Took Place:

(a) During the Spanish Occupation –
1. During the time when Fruto Hernandez was cabeza, a sad incident took place.

One day, his son Milineo saw his father’s gun in the corner by the window of their house. In the yard just below the window were some children happily playing. Milineo held the gun, aimed at the children and jokingly said that he would shoot them. By chance, he happened to pull the trigger and a shot went off, hitting one of the children, a pretty girl about 6 years of age. The pretty girl died.

Because the victim was a daughter of a common tao, the case did not reach the court. It was easily settled because the killer was the son of the cabeza.

2. During the incumbency of Cabezang Juan Magundayao, another sad incident took place.

His brother, Pascual Magundayao, had a fiancée named Juliana Rodriguez. The date of the marriage was already fixed. One afternoon, some days before the marriage was to take place, the woman went visiting a relative whose home was on the other side of the ravine. Upon learning this, the man followed her. By that time, the woman was already returning. They met at the ravine. There, the man asked her to accede to his carnal desire of illicit sexual intercourse, but the woman refused. The refusal made the man beastly and tried to force her, but with all her strength and ability, she defended her virginity and honor. He felt ashamed of himself. He became furious and in a fit of anger, he stabbed the woman several times. She died. The man escaped and went hiding where nobody knew. With little trouble, the case was settled and this was because the sinner was the brother of the cabeza.

3. Another sad happening took place during the incumbency of Cabezang Gueroy “ganda” (Gregorio Briones).

During a drinking spree at a little wine stall, two men who were bitter enemies met and exchanged hot words which resulted in a challenge to end it all in a duel. The fight started. For about an hour, each tried to stab the other with his bolo. At last, Francisco, by a chance of carelessness, was hit in the face. He stumbled and did not move. His opponent, Mamerto, believing he had killed Francisco, stopped. He was advised to present himself to the authorities. He did so and was put in prison. The other man, however, did not die.

(b) During the American Occupation to World War II

1. Early in the American occupation, many of the Filipinos were still at war with the Americans. To stop the fighting and to get the insurrectos, the Americans ordered all the people to concentrate at a place. To endure this concentration, all the houses in the barrios and villages

[p. 3]

were burned. This forced all the people to enter the concentration camp. This zoning lasted about a year and it ended only when all the insurrectos were caught or made to lay down arms and surrender.

Soon, the people were ordered to return to their barrios. They lived happily and contentedly. There was peace and order for the Americans were good masters.

The conditions of living prospered. Sickness and death were greatly reduced due to the good administration regarding health and sanitation.

More schools were built so that the children could be at least given the fundamentals of primary education. Even in the barrios, schools were built so the children of even the poorest families were able to gain the benefit of primary education.

Now, the barrio of Lumil has a strong building that costs more than thirty-one thousand pesos. That amount was a share from the pork barrel of Justice Ozaeta who sponsored the construction of the building.

(c) During and after World War II.
1. When World War II broke out in our country on Dec. 8, 1941, the people were instructed to be ready for any eventuality. Schools were closed and turned over to the army for use if necessary. A company of guerrillas was organized under the leadership of one Leonardo Luansing, the purpose of which was to insure peace and order and to detect Japanese spies. The organization proved to be more of a scare to the people than a defense. Major Luansing from Calansayan (another barrio of San Jose) was tyrannical in his dealings with his subordinates so that some of his officers and many members of his organization plotted to murder him.

The following are some of his misdeeds:
1. One of his guerrillas, Pedro Atienza, failed to comply with his order to guard him in his hideout. Though he had a good reason to disobey, the poor man was ordered to be taken to him and without any kind of trial was executed and buried in a grave which he himself was forced to dig.

2. One time, another guerrilla failed to salute him because the man did not see him at once. He was ordered bound, tied to a tree and whipped many times.

3. Another time, a passerby stopped to rest where Luansing was sitting only a few yards distance from him. The man happened to look at him quite sharply and, because of that look, he was suspected as a spy. Luansing ordered his men to tie the man to a tree and beaten in spite of the poor man’s pleadings and humbleness. At last, he was released after much slapping and whipping. Poor man!

4. Persons suspected as spies were detained and questioned and sometimes beaten. Four men who were believed to be really spies suffered the penalty of death.

5. He had his family with him. For support, he would order his men to collect contributions of either money or food and, sometimes, eggs, chickens and pigs. He said he would pay for the chickens and pigs but he never did.

[p. 4]

Famine was greatly felt for the farmers stopped producing crops. The Japanese got the people’s rice, eggs, chickens, pigs and even the cows, and other necessities. The situation worsened when the Japanese began killing the men. The people sought safety in the forests and ravines and sometimes went hungry for a day or two.

Luansing’s organization could not do anything then. It was disbanded and Luansing left the barrio and went to hide in the mountains of Taysan, another town of Batangas. His family was left to the care of some relatives.

Liberation came and went and Luansing was a wanted man. Information had it that later on he was caught and jailed in Batangas under heavy guard. His trial was to take place some days later. He slightly effected his escape and took to the hills again. He passed word to his wife to join him in his hideout. The woman refused. This angered Luansing and one dark night, he successfully reached the house where his wife was. He asked her to go along with him but she refused again. He got furious, drew his pistol and shot the poor women several times. The shots and the screaming of the dying woman made the relatives come. Free pledged vengeance and later on succeeded in killing him mercilessly. Does indeed the life of a tyrant.



Where the land was found favorable to cotton growing, the owner was forced to plant it. For two years, the Japanese had good harvests of the crop. The last crop, however, what's not turned over to the Japanese for the Americans had already landed in Nasugbu and fast occupying the different towns of Batangas province. The Japanese retreated and sought safety among the hills and mountains. Some months later, Japan surrendered. The Japanese in the Philippines surrendered, too, and thus the war ended.

9. (a) Destruction of lives, properties and institutions during wars, especially in 1896-1900 and 1941-1945:
When the last days of the Spanish regime came and the Americans began occupying the country, the barrio people were troubled because of the rumors that the Americans were very big, frightful men and cruel, especially to woman. Their fears did not last long, however. When the Americans did come, they treated the people kindly and helped them in many ways, so that the people and the foreigners soon became friends. No destruction of lives took place. It was during the zoning period that much property losses took place. Stealing was common and the Americans burned the houses. When the people were ordered to return to their barrios, they found only heaps of ashes and cinders where their houses once stood. They became very poor. Hunger reigned. Many people became sick and, later on, a severe cholera epidemic came which exacted a toll of hundreds of lives.

During World War II, only four lives in the barrio were lost due to Japanese brutalities and there was no destruction of properties.

(b) Measures and accomplishments toward rehabilitation and reconstruction following World War II:

After the liberation, when everything was almost normal, aid from the government in the form of War Damage compensation was given to those who made claims. Homes were reconstructed. Work animals were secured and farms were begun to be cultivated again. Peace and order returned and everybody was happy once more as in the pre-war days.

PART II – FOLKWAYS

10. Traditions, customs and practices in domestic and social life: births, baptism, courtship, marriage, death, burial, visits, etc.

(a) The barrio folks live simple lives. They do not have the pompous and aristocratic ways of those in the towns and cities. They eat simple menus but substantial enough to the body so they grow healthy and strong.
(b) When an expectant mother is giving birth to a child, a midwife is called. As soon as the baby is born, and after the mother is moved from the birth-mat, the midwife or “hilot” attends to the baby. She cuts the cord with a sharp razor or scissors and heats the end of the cord with a heated knife blade to prevent any infections. The hilot massages the body of the mother with fresh coconut oil mixed with ginger. In most cases, the hilot stays with the mother for at least seven days. Every day, she massages the mother.
(c) As soon as the baby is born, a godfather or godmother is agreed upon. The baby is taken to the church and baptized. It is [a] common belief that evil spirits possess the body of the baby that is not baptized.
(d) Relative to courtship in the past, the parents were most concerned. Often, the husband and the wife-to-be were married though they had not talked with each other. Dowries in money, land or pieces of furniture were agreed upon. Usually, there was a wedding in which a cow, a pig and chickens were slaughtered, cooked and served. On reaching the house where the wedding was to take place, some old folks showered raw rice on the couple and audience and the people shouted a wish of good luck to the new pair.
(e) The burial customs of the past were the same as those of the present.
(f) When old people came to visit, the children were not allowed to partake in the conversation. That custom is still observed in most of the homes of the barrio.
(g) In the past, the visit of the Patron Saint was celebrated and the day was spent in feasting and praying. The visit was ended with a procession along the barrio road. There were firecrackers, too. At present, the Flores de Mayo is the most common festival. Every night during the month of May, girls and young ladies offer flowers to the Virgin housed in a barrio chapel. On the last day, a mass is said in the morning and at night, the last offering of flowers is celebrated after which a program is held and a drama is staged.

[p. 6]

11. Myths, legends, beliefs, superstitions, etc.:
The people in the barrio still have many superstitious beliefs as those of the past. [The] Following are the most common:
(a) People believe that every evening at twilight, our Blessed Mother, Virgin Mary, pays a visit to every home. So that at this time, everybody must kneel to prayer to welcome and respect her.
(b) Many believe that when a member of the family dies, sweeping in the house and yard will lead another member to follow.
(c) A young lady who sings in front of the stove while cooking is believed that she will marry a widower.
(d) It is believed that when a cat rubs its face, it will rain or a visitor will come.
(e) Many people adhere to the belief that if one spends on New Year’s Day, very much will spent during the year.
(f) It is believed, too, that there are people who have hot mouths and that at the hottest part of the day, they speak to someone and that one spoken to will be sick at once. The cure, however, is very simple. The hot-mouthed man, by humble request, will be asked to rub any part of the body with saliva and the sick man is cured.
(g) Giving money through an open window is believed to be very bad, too, for the family will lack money during the year.

12. Popular songs, games and amusements:
(a) The “subli” and the “pandanggo” were very popular in the past. At present, modern dances are fast taking the place of the subli and the pandanggo.
(b) The “Juego de Anillo” of the past is still a popular amusement at present, especially during the celebration of the Flores de Mayo.
(c) Cockfighting, as in the past, is one very common amusement of the men. In most homes, the father has several fighting cocks. He takes good care of them. At night, he rubs them for at least ten minutes each. Every morning, he gives each cock a bath. He trains each to fight with somebody’s fighting cock.

13. Puzzles and Riddles:
(a) Dala mo’y dala ka, dala ka pa ng iyong dala.
(You carry it and yet it carries you.)
. . . . . . . . . . Slippers or shoes

(b) Baboy ko sa pulo, ang balahibo’y pako.
(My pig in the country with nails as hair.)
. . . . . . . . . . Jackfruit

[p. 7]

(c) Patay sa kabaong, sinunog ang ulo bago itapon.
(Dead in the coffin; its head burned then thrown away.)
. . . . . . . . . . Matches

(d) Walang laman ang tiyan, malakas kung sumigaw.
(The stomach is empty yet it shouts loudly.)
. . . . . . . . . . Bell

(e) Mataas ang ibinitin kay sa pinagbitinan.
(What is hung is higher than where it is hung.)
. . . . . . . . . . Kite

(f) Sakluban ni Kiko, ang laman ay pilak at ginto.
(Kiko’s case filled with gold and silver.)
. . . . . . . . . . Egg

(g) Baka ko sa Maynila, abot dito ang unga.
(My cow in Manila whose roaring is heard here.)
. . . . . . . . . . Thunder

(h) Walang puno’y walang ugat, hitik ng bulaklak.
(No roots and no trunk, yet it is covered with flowers.)
. . . . . . . . . . Stars

(i) Bahay ni Kiring-kiring, butas-butas ang dingding.
(Kiring-kiring’s house has walls full of holes.)
. . . . . . . . . . Basket

14. Proverbs and Sayings:
(a) Ang batong pagulong-gulong ay di kakapitan ng lumot.
(A rolling stone gathers no moss.)
(b) Kung ano ang kahoy ay siya ang bunga.
(What the tree is, so is the fruit.)
(c) Ang maniwala sa sabi-sabi ay walang bait na sarili.
(He who believes in tales has no mind of his own.)
(d) Aanhin pa ang damo kung patay na ang kabayo.
(Of what use is the fodder if the horse is dead.)
(e) Ang sakit ng kalingkingan at damdam ng buong katawan.
(Pain in the finger is felt by the whole body.)
(f) Kung saan ang hilig ng kahoy ay doon mabubuwal.
(A tree falls where it is bent.)
(g) Ang hipong tulog ay nadadala ng anod.
([A] Sleeping shrimp is carried away by the stream.)
(h) Ang hindi magtanim ay walang aanihin.
(He who will not sow will reap nothing.)
(i) Ang pari ay [missing word] sa kapuwa pari.
(Birds of a feather flock together.)
(j) Kung talagang tubo ay matamis hanggang dulo.
(If it is true sugarcane, it is sweet to the end.)
(k) Sa bibig nahuhuli ang isda.
(Fish is caught in the mouth.)
(l) Kung ang itinanim ay hangin ay bagyo ang aanihin.
(Sow wind and you reap storm.)

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Notes and references:
Transcribed from “The Barrio of Lumil” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.

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