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January 4, 2018

Bilogo, Taysan, Batangas: Historical Data

Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the barrio of Bacao in the Municipality of Taysan, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.

[p. 1]

HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF THE BARRIO (of Bilogo)

The present official name of the barrio is BILOGO. The name is not changed since its establishment. It remained popular since the beginning. Such [a] name is derived from the shape. Its site is almost round with no sharp angles in its border. Wrong, which means “bilog” in our local dialect, suffixed to a vowel “o,” summing up the word BILOGO. Three sitios are within its territorial jurisdiction included within the territory are Bunga, Pulo, and Karsada. These sitios were named according to their location and preferably from the common plant which thrives almost everywhere. Bunga, which means “betel nut,” is named after that palm which covers the greater area of the plain. Pulo is far on the eastern part of the barrio. It has some groups of houses built near together forming a pook surrounded with tall trees and from beyond, is a wide vast area suitable for pasture. S1 views it from a distance, the pook leaves no difference from an islet. Karsada is named after a provincial road constructed during the earliest part of the American regime. The barrio has an established population of 650 inhabitants at present. Most of the people live in pook Karsada.

The date of the barrio establishment is unknown due to [the] lack of [an] an informant. No date is secured, but according to some old citizens of the barrio which I interviewed, the results were: long before the arrival of the Spaniards, our place had already its name, have the designated name was

[p. 2]

carried up to the present time. [A] Successive list of cabezas is not officially known. Losing no patience of inquiring, I was able to produce favorable results.

So far as it is known, the original families are arranged from the earliest to the latest. The biggest families are the Marasigan, and then the Peradilla, Zamora, Bisa, Ilag, and Alday. The present Marasigan living belongs to the seventh generation. Wider areas of the cultivation of agricultural lands belonged to the Marasigan and Bisa families. These people lived mostly on the produce of their belongings. They engaged in farming with crude methods of cultivation.

The following is the successive list of the Tenientes del Barrio:

Kabisang Pio Marasigan
Kabisang Manuel Ramos
Kabisang Maximo Ilag
Kabisang Luis Ilag
Kabisang “Sendong” Rosendo Marasigan
Kabisang “Imong” Guillermo Peradilla
Kabisang Crispulo Malaluan
Kabisang Angel Marasigan
Kabisang Agido Malaluan
Kabisang “Kuni” Cornelio Sulit
Barrio Lieutenant Ciriaco Rosaria
Barrio Lieutenant Antonio Bisa
Barrio Lieutenant Macario Mercado
Barrio Lieutenant Igmidio Zamora

[p. 3]

Barrio Lieutenant Felipe Marasigan
Barrio Lieutenant Sergio Maliglig

This barrio had been known long before the Spaniards arrived. The date of establishment is unknown. There are no traces of old ruins. At the latest part of the Spanish rule, the barrio was under the supervision of Kabesang Pedro Panganiban. Nobody from Bilogo would act as barrio authority because it was the period of gangsterism. The banditry lasted for two consecutive years. At that time, a family suspected of having five pesos at hand would be subjected to trouble. It was not very safe to live in a remote place. Large cattle were stolen at the point of their sharp, long, shiny bladed kampilan; owners couldn’t acclaim their real property or else death on your part. Men of barbarous character at that time survived aggravating citizens.

During the Spanish regime, the place was sparsely populated. [The] Greater portion of the land was uncultivated, covered with thick forests. The place was the hideout of the bandits or tulisanes. Being a remote place, very little improvement in the educational line was noted. No school was constructed. Parents eager to have their children educated send their sons or daughters to the convent under the parish priests. Education was not free as enjoyed now. Few could obtain knowledge due to lack of money and fear of the tutors. Bilogo School was constructed during the American administration. It was [the] begin-

[p. 4]

ning of the great influence in the educational, cultural, spiritual and social life of the people of the barrio. Roads then were further improved although the bridges were already passable. It was then the “Lime Mines” in Mapulo Hill which was developed. The lime products were carried chiefly on carts along the improved roads. It was not long before that time when rinderpest attacked the large animals of the entire municipality of Taysan. Large cattle were herded to town for safety. Animals still free if disease were kept and were isolated in the plaza upon the order of the proper town authority. Before World War II, the inhabitants were deeply grudged in politics. They rally behind a man whom they favor. Leaders campaigned, promising the citizens that were helping their candidates that aid would be forwarded to them, in case of their economic needs. Citizens of the barrio kept on the side of the politician who can give and assure them of public interest such as school improvements, and road construction, and reparations and other mass necessities.

Historical data states that the Philippines was ceded to the United States by Spain. It was on December 19, 1899 which marked the beginning of the American rule of the archipelago. Schools sprang up in many places. Roads were greatly improved. Communication became swifter than before. At the out-

[p. 5]

set, three barrios were built. Bilogo was one of them.

When the war broke out in 1900, great throngs of people from Batangas fled to the barrio. The natives still flew to the nearby mountains for fear of the invaders. Food was in abundance that time.

TRADITION AND DOMESTIC LIFE

The war broke out on December 8, 1941. Batangas fort [port?] was bombed on December 10, 1941. In the early part of January, news spread out of the Japanese landing in Atimonan, Quezon. The people of the barrio were totally scared, especially when the rattling of machine guns were sneezing and cannons were heard from the east.

The road that time was dry. Japanese troops passed by coming from Batangas. In was the first time that Japanese soldiers were seen. Later on, during the same month, a company hiked from Rosario. This was the second time to see the Kempetai. Civilians were amazed to face them, because they didn’t know their language. The Imperial Army began to loot foods, chickens, eggs, fruits, and even Filipino money.

During the Japanese occupation, large cattle, pigs, and palay were confiscated from peaceful-living citizens. Civilians were forced to work in the Lipa Airfield. Each barrio had a quota of laborers to work in the Japanese landing [strip]. Failure to attain the quota would mean punishment.

[p. 6]

In March, 1944, all male citizens were made to assemble in the town by the P.C. under the Japanese order. This was due to a rumor that guerrillas were somewhere in the vicinity of the town, ready to attack the Japanese forces. The civilians of the entire municipality were kept suffering [for] two days and one night under the hot summer sun and misty night.

After those events, each male factor was ordered to carry with them whenever they visited the town, a pointed, two meter-long small bamboo. Squads after squads of Jap soldiers searched every house in the barrio for long sharp bolos. Some were taken to their camps and others were taken to be burned or broken into pieces. Almost all of the houses were searched for firearms. These were all done due to some pro-Japanese who belated [?] their own fellowmen.

Guerrilla movement was then organized. Majority of the male citizens of the barrio joined the movement. It was not long before and the Jap soldiers grew hostile and at last, the town was left in ashes, and bridges connecting the two towns were dynamited. They even shot whom they saw, bayoneted whom they seized. It seemed this was their last chance to inhale the Philippine air nor news of the Gen. MacArthur’s landing in Leyte, then in Lingayen, and later in Nasugbu, filled the air. Every house was closed.

There was an incident there that happened before the coming of the Americans. This is how the story

[p. 7]

goes. The underground movement was in its rapid function, wen unfortunately, Japanese troops came passing by. One of the members of the organization who was conversing with the barrio people was armed with a revolver. After mumbling several words, which could not be understood, one of the Japanese soldiers approached the armed man. The Japanese soldier began searching his body for firearms, but before the Japanese soldier touched his body, the guerrilla made a two-backward step walk, giving actions that he wanted to drink. He hurriedly went to a nearby hut and immediately went to the kitchen and hid his weapon inside the corn husks. The soldier followed him inside the house. Meanwhile, the rest of the barrio folks immediately offered the remaining soldiers several bunches of bananas. Inside the house, the soldier found no firearms and even in the body of the guerrilla, he found nothing. After the departure of the Japanese troops, the man and the barrio folks heaved a sigh of relief.

Civilians fled to [a] nearby thicket, waiting for Uncle Sam’s triumphant parade. USAFFE occupied Batangas. [The] Greater part of the population of Bilogo hiked to Batangas for fear of the snipers roaming the barrio. One of the Bilogo evacuees was seized by snipers and beaten to death. [The] Sudden news flashed [through] the air that Lt. Julian Mercado, [a] native of Bilogo, and [a] USAFFE [soldier], was unluckily hit by straight bullets. He was one of those who suffered Jap atrocities in the concentration camp in Capaz, Tarlac.

[p. 8]

DURING AND AFTER WORLD WAR II

All members of the family seem active, strong, happy and polite on New Year’s [Day]. A member is prohibited to leave the house for non-official purposes or business. Probably, all desirable deeds are done on the said date for the purpose of remaining a useful citizen the year-round.

When passing through a small crowd in a house engaged in chatting and he or she happens to be in the same house, one has to stretch out one of his hands, a sign meaning that he is advancing through. That is one way of showing courtesy.

If you happened to drop in a house for something else, you’ll be received in the most polite way. They will offer you foods, drinks, or fruits before you leave.

A simple inauguration is sponsored by the couple who would transfer to a newly built house. Neighbors and relatives come and join [the] small celebration. [The] Food served is lugaw or linugaw, the common highlights of the occasion.

When a mother is on the family way, she had to refrain from urinating under big trees or in the brook. The folks believed that every expectant mother would give birth when the tide is high or when the moon will just rise.

Another believe is that when the conceiving mother

[p. 9]

happened to like or dislike a kind of food, and if the food had not been tasted, pretty soon the offspring would be affected. At the stage of conceiving, it is bad for the parents to be hating persons of undesirable character. Laughing and hitting somebody when conceiving affect the personality of their offspring.

BAPTISM

An immediate baptismal party would follow the child’s delivery. Oftentimes, neighbors, relatives, and friends attend the party. Good foods are prepared for their visitors. Different brands of liquor would be distributed to male guests drinking to the last drop. [A] Poor family who could not afford to buy foods, christened their child in the house.

As for the godfather or godmother of the child, the parents selected the nearest relative of the child. They selected either the sister or the brother of the mother, or the sister or the brother of the father. After the baptismal ceremony of the child, a “pakimkim” is given by the godfather or the godmother off the child. The “pakimkim” may either be in terms of money, jewelry, a dress or anything of great value to the owner.

If the child is the eldest child, usually, a pig and several heads of chicken are being killed. But even if the child is not the eldest, the celebration is a big feast for the barrio folks.

[p. 10]

It has been a custom office barrio that whenever Christmas comes, it is the duty of the godfather or godmother to give gifts to the child. It is a disgrace on the part of the godparents not to give gifts.

ACQUIRING ACQUAINTANCES

When a certain girl goes to this barrio, the following night, a serenade will be heard. Whether you like it or not, after three or four songs from the serenaders, the owner of the house must invite the serenaders to come up. The serenaders [are] composed [of] the Teniente del Barrio, old men of the barrio, and the young generation. Those who know how to sing from the serenaders will sing and afterwards, they will ask permission from the head of the family that they will request the lady to sing a song for them. The head of the family will give his permission to request the lady.

As a rule, or it has always been a law in this barrio, that when a troop of serenaders serenade a house, whether it be early or late at night or even in the first hour of the morning, the serenaders must be welcomed inside the house. Suppose in one night, three groups of serenaders come consecutively. They will all be invited to come up even in the midst of your sleep.

After getting the permission, the serenaders can request the lady to sing for them with the accompaniment of a guitar. If the girl will sing during the night or

[p. 11]

during the first night of her visit to the barrio, she must sing throughout her stay there, whenever other serenaders will serenade her.

If she will not sing during her first night of stay there, she will have a good reason for not singing throughout her stay. For a female teacher staying and teaching in the barrio, having a big burden of work to do, it will be better or it is a good start for her not to sing during her first night of stay.

Before the serenaders leave the house, each one of them, including the old folks, married or single, will introduce themselves to the ladies, shaking with one another.

If the girl will not submit herself to the introduction of the serenaders, they will have an impression that the girl is of a big hot nature.

If the serenaders will offer the ladies soft drinks, liquors or others drinks of the same nature, the girl must sip even a drop for the sake of the heart’s content of the serenaders.

[p. 12]

COURTSHIP

[A] Gentleman appears before the lady to express his sentiments. [The] Lady receives her visitors in the most polite way. For the old-timer parents, of both sexes, the lovers cannot exchange their love views, because her mother interferes into the love affairs. Sometimes, the old timer mother has to receive the courting gents. She prevents her daughter from mingling with her suitors.

Sometimes, the boy express his love by means of sending letters. He even seek the advice of the old persons. He even goes to [the] extent of asking poets of the barrio to write for him a good letter of love.

Without the knowledge of the girl, the boy asks a troop of serenaders to serenade his loved one, and in terms of songs, he expresses his love. Serenading, therefore, is one of the agencies used in expressing his sentiments to his loved one.

[p. 13]

MARRIAGE

Parents of both parties talked over the matter. His parent courted for him, especially if he is shy. While he works for his future in-laws. His father would hire an agent who can convince the lady’s parent by bribing [them with] his fish, no matter how much it cost him. Selected lobsters and crabs, roosters of the Texas breed that can be used in cockfighting, together with fruits and desserts of great specialty were given as “regalos.”

If the girl’s parents dislike the man, he finds fault, thus causing the gent’s immediate discharge. Do you know what will happen to the labor and bribes? Possibly nothing. Nowadays, this tradition is very rarely followed. In cases, elopement results to parents of traditional character.

In another way, [a] contract is made by both parties. [The] Bride’s parent demands for each amount to buy [a] wedding dress, as well as a parcel of land, a cow or carabao for the future couple and a big party. In matters of buying the wedding dress, the eldest brothers and sisters of the bride who are still single, will also have a dresses as presents from the bridegroom. All the expenses incurred would be shouldered by the groom’s father. In [the] case of the groom’s parents’ strong desire to have a daughter-in-law, there is no hindrance to marriage. This is one of the outstanding barrio customs. It is even through and towns.

[p. 14]

PUNISHMENT

Parents punished their offspring by pinching, slashing, and discouraging. The offense was great, they whipped them till promises arose.

In the classrooms, during the early times, if a certain child made a mischievous action, the teacher would make the child kneel on a mat full of mongo seeds.

Nowadays, if the father finds that his child is playing truant, he will make the child stay out of school. Then, he will make the child go with him and work, which is not fitted for him. He will be forced to work in the fields which he has not done when you was in school.



[p. 15]

MYTHS, LEGENDS, BELIEFS, INTERPRATIONS, SUPERSTITIONS

It was believed that the world was created by God together with mountains, caves and rivers. When the mountain is covered with thick clouds in the morning, the day will be hot. When the mountain peak is covered with a portion of cloud, and it happens to be rainy days, the following day will be raining. It is a sign of continuous rainfall.

CAVES

Witches and [an] enchanted prince are said to inhabit the cave. It has been believed that caves are made by underground people or the encantos, and dwarves. So, it is not safe to stay in places where there are caves.

SEA

Uneducated citizens of the barrio thought that the sea have no coastal banks accept the one they had seen. It is dangerous to come close to the center of the sea, for there is a deep hole and [it] will inhale [you] to the bottom. Another belief is that there is a kingdom under the water inhabited by a half man and a half fish personality.

[p. 16]

LAKES

Long ago, there was an old woman who owned a tamarind tree. She watched her plant everyday in order that nobody could gather the fruit. She was very stingy that she had but few friends. One day, a very old man passed by. He asked for some tamarind. He pleaded [with] the old woman to give him some. The old woman refused to part with her tamarind tree. Instead of giving the old woman some scolding, the old man minced no word. The woman uttered vulgar words. At a distance, the man vanished suddenly. The tamarind tree began to sink down, down, down together with the old woman. Water appeared on the spot. It was a wide body of water and they called it a lake.

[p. 17]

RIVERS

water that flows in the river originates from a spring owned by encantos. It is said that if the encantos transferred to other places, the river will turn empty. The spring will become dry. It is bad for the human being to sleep in the river. Dwarves will play jokes on you, which will cause you sickness. If you happen to slide and fall on a place near a spring, it is said that you have stepped on an encanto. So, the encanto will be the chief cause of your sickness. These are the common folk beliefs.

PLANTS

When it rains the whole day, the people look at the patola flower. If the flowers are bowing down to the ground it is already six o’clock in the evening. When a banana plant bears flowers, anting-anting can be obtained from it. Mangoes bear plenty of flowers and if they will not develop into fruits, that means the hardest will be bountiful. If other mango trees whose flowers come out later develop into fruits, later planting will be a good one. The planting will surely yield more than the earlier planting.

[p. 18]

ANIMALS

Cows coughing on New Year’s Eve means good news to farmers. The coming harvest is bountiful. Two hens fighting for tell that visitors will come. A cat cleaning her face is also a sign of coming visitors. The hooting of an owl brings another fortune to planters. Rain will soon fall. The howling of dogs means somebody died in the neighborhood. A cock and a hen that grows together means [the] elopement of lovers. When a hen crows alone at midnight, it means somebody in that place is on the family way.

MOON

If the moon is very near the evening star, it is a date for lovers. Girls easily accept their suitors’ love. At full moon, suitors kneel before their future in-laws. It is also right or the correct season to pick coconuts. The meat of the coconuts are thick and full. Mushroom springs in great quantity during [the] full moon. It is bad to take a bath during the new moon. Never start anything between [the] last quarter and [the] new moon. It is said that marriage, giving birth, building a new house, bathing and planting have a connection with the position of the moon.

[p. 19]

STARS

Stars appearing with a tail have several meanings to barrio astronomers. They foretell a good harvest in the coming year. They also signify that war is imminent and a sign of danger is not far ahead.

ECLIPSES

During eclipses, the moon is said to be floating on the sea as to the knowledge of the barrio folks.

EARTHQUAKES

According of the residence, the earth is held up by someone with a gigantic figure living underneath. If he moves his first finger, the earth will shake. When all fingers move, the earthquake will be very hard. It is desirable to set a hen for hatching. The chicks are sickly and few can survive. Earthquakes bring bad luck to poultry men for the price of the eggs will surely soar doll.

LIGHTNING AND THUNDER

When lightning flashes, and the thunder roars, it is believed that an object is being hit by thunder. Sometimes, thunder resembles a figure of a chicken, a pig, a cow, a carabao, or even any common animal in that place. Their belief is that it runs to any direction and when it strikes an object, it bursts out.

[p. 20]

CLOUDS

When the day is dark and the wind is strong, and black clouds sail southward, [a] storm will occur. White clouds in the morning for tell good weather.

RAIN

In May, a Novena for Sto. Niño and Flores de Mayo is held. The purpose is to ask for rain. They believe in the fact, that it will not rain if the majority of the people in the barrio have committed sins.

WIND

San Lorenzo is the patron saint of the wind. Whenever it rains and the wind blows hard, the old folks called on him to stop the wind. When riding on boats, it is bad to strike the sail for it will cause a strong wind to blow.

CLIMATE

God is responsible in regard to climatic condition, according to the barrio folks. Our Lord has all powers in the creation of everything. This barrio has a temperate climate.

[p. 21]

FIRST MAN AND WOMAN

God created the living things and nonliving things in the world. Included here was the creation of our first parents, Adam and Eve. First of all, God created Adam, our first father. God realized that Adam could not live happily alone in the world. So, out of his breast, God got one of his ribs and Eve was created. They lived happily in Paradise. A devil approached them and there they were tempted to eat the forbidden fruit. God was very angry and they were sent out of the garden.

Outside Paradise, they went to work for their living. Adam and Eve here bore many children. They became the grandparents of their children’s children. Our Lord became very sad when he found out that every person committed sins. He thought of a plan to punish the people. There was a deluge as punishment to those who sinned. Nobody survived except Noah and his family. God told him to build an ark for protection. As soon as an ark was finished, he collected all his necessities. He took with him all his pets; a dog, a pig, and other birds. The water began to rise and his boat floated safely until the flood was over. He found himself on the top of a mountain and all around was covered with water. He found out that all human beings perished. His family was the only one saved. Since then, he started a new life.

[p. 22]

BIRTH OF TWINS

According to old folks, mothers delivering twins are always eating twin bananas. Others claim it is inheritance.

SICKNESS

One’s sickness is caused by small anitos believed to be staying under sacred places like springs. They are the ones causing illness to persons who happen to play with, or to persons who made those anitos angry. They believe also in [the] mangkukulam, dwende and the tikbalangs.

POPULAR SONGS, GAMES, AMUSEMENTS

Young men engaged in serenading a lady in the late evening. [The] Songs sung are the common tunes aired by radios, often heard from actors of the movies, and songs of their late ancestors.

The old folks [who are] lovers of music also love very much the pandanggos, or Sinilangan. [The] Common games played are softball, patintero, flying the kite or juego de anillo. In the earliest time, the people engaged in cockfighting, card playing and jueteng. Professional gamblers spent most of their time in gambling dens. This is still enjoyed at the present time. The traditional habit seems hard to eradicate. The popular game played by the young generation is the bulaklakan, especially when there is someone dead in the neighborhood.

[p. 23]

BULAKLAKAN

“Bulaklakan” is one of the popular games used by men and women to forget the pains acquired in the field. The game is played in this way:

The group will choose their king. The king should know the rules in playing the game. Each one in the group will choose his name, any flower. Then, the king will say: “the butterfly of the king flew and alighted on…” He selects any flower. Then, the flower chosen will answer: “No, it is not here.” The king will reply: “Where is it?” The flower will say, “It flew to…” The flower will mention another flower, and so on and on. If the flower mentioned will not be able to answer at once, the king will count 1, 2, 3 and the flower is caught. A certain punishment will be given.

The game will go on, and if there are a number of flowers caught, the king will begin to give punishments. No one must disobey the punishment of the king because there is a saying: “Ang utos ng hari ay hindi nababali.”

[p. 24]

RIDDLES AND PUZZLES

1. Nagsaing si katongtong, bumulak ay walang gatong. (bula ng sabon)

2. Nagsaing si kapirit, kinain pati anglit. (bayabas)

3. Baboy ko sa kaingin, tumataba ay walang pakain. (camote)

4. Baboy ko sa pulo, balahibo’y pako. (nangka)

5. Maliit pa si Tsikito, marunong nang manusko.

6. Nanganak ang birhen, itinapon ang lampin. (puso ng saging)

7. Nanganak ang tigbalang, sa tuktok nagdaan.

8. Hayan na si Kaka, bibika-bikaka. (gunting)

9. Manok ko sa parang, maunti’y matapang.

10. Nagligo si Pedro, labas din ang ulo. (gabi)

11. Buhok ni Adan, hindi mabilang. (ulan)

12. Dalawang bumbong, palusong.

13. Isang bayabas, pito ang butas. (mukha)

14. Talo ako ng isa, panalo ako sa dalawa.

15. Dalawang magkumpare, mauna’t mahuli. (paa)

16. Bahay ni Kiring-kiring, butas-butas ang dingding. (bithay)

17. Baka ko sa Maynila, abot dito ang unga. (kulog)

18. Eto, eto na, wala pa. (hangin)

19. Ha-pula, ha-puti, eskuwelang munti. (itlog)

[p. 25]

PROVERBS AND SAYINGS

1. Pag may isinuksok ay may madurukot.

2. Pag may ibinitin ay may titingalain.

3. Daig ng maagap ang masipag.

4. Ang hipong tulog ay nadadala ng agos.

5. Ang lumura ng patingala, sa mukha rin ang tama.

6. Ang lumakad ng marahan, matinik man ay mababaw.

7. Ang lumakad ng matulin, matinik man ay malalim.

8. Pagkahaba-haba man ng prusisyon, sa simbahan din ang urong.

9. Ang sakit ng kalingkingan ay ramdam ng buong katawan.

10. Kung ikaw ay liligo sa tubig ay aagap,
Nang huwag kang abutin ng tabsing ng dagat.

11. Ang maniwala sa sabi-sabi ay walang bait sa sarili.

12. Ang hindi lumingon sa pinanggalingan ay hindi makararating sa paruruunan.

13. Bago mo sabihin, makapito mong isipin.

14. Kapag humipo ng palyok ay mauulingan.

15. Bahay mo ma’y palasyo at nakatira ay kuwago
Mahanga’y kubo na lang na laman ay tao.

16. Walang matimtimang birhen sa matiyagang manalangin.

17. Ang kita sa bula-bula ay sa bula-bula rin mawawala.

[p. 26]

METHODS OF MEASURING TIME AND SPECIAL CALENDAR

The present generation has clocks and watches in telling the time. They use meters, yards and kilometers in measuring the distance. They use the calendars to tell the days and months. Some tell the time by looking at the stars, moon and sun. This is but the traditional talent of the people. They can tell also the season by means of plants and animals and insects that appear.

There were no books and documents published in this barrio.

No author was born here.




PREPARED BY:

[Sgd.] (Miss) Eugenia Araja

[Sgd.] (Miss) Pelagia Santa

[Sgd.] (Mrs.) Fausta Chavez

[Sgd.] (Miss) Germana Mercado

[Sgd.] (Mr.) Quirino Panganiban

[Sgd.] (Mr.) Mamerto Chavez (Head Teacher)

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Notes and references:
Transcribed from “Historical and Cultural Life of the Barrio (of Bilogo),” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.

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