Memo: List of Anti-Japansese Organization in S Luzon, December 1944 - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore Memo: List of Anti-Japansese Organization in S Luzon, December 1944 - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore

Memo: List of Anti-Japansese Organization in S Luzon, December 1944

The Hunters/ROTC was a guerrilla group formed in 1942. Initially operating in Rizal Province, the group would also have a sizable presence in Batangas and would be instrumental in providing intelligence to the United States forces leading to the assault landing at Nasugbu on 31 January 1945.

More information about the group is available in this article → “Operations of the Hunters/ROTC Guerillas in Batangas Prior to the 1945 Nasugbu Landing in WWII.”

Guerrilla Files

In this December 1944 document1, Hunters-ROTC Guerrillas Commander Eleuterio Adevoso provides the Commander of the SWPA2 with information about all the guerrilla groups operating in Southern Luzon, including Batangas. The document is edited her and there for grammar and spelling.

[p. 1]


1 December 1944
: List of Anti-Japanese Organizations in Southern Luzon Area
: The Commander-in-Chief, United States Army, SWPA2
(Through Channels)
1. The following is a list of the most known Anti-Japanese Organizations in the Southern Luzon Area: other than ROTC.

a – Marking’s Guerrillas: Led by Marcos V. Agustin since about April 1942. It is strongest in the towns of TERESA, MORONG, BINANGONAN, BARAS, and TANAY, RIZAL PROVINCE. It also has HOME GUARD Organizations in MANILA CITY.

b – East Central Luzon Guerrilla Area: Led by Major Edwin Ramsey since about March 1942 after the capture of Captain Joseph Barker, Cavalry. It is estimated to be strongest in SAN MATEO, NOVALICHES, CALOOCAN, SAN FRANCISCO DEL MONTE, RIZAL PROVINCE and in POLO, MAYCAWAYAN, and other towns of BULACAN PROVINCE. It has units also in MANILA CITY.

c – Kalayaan Command, formerly known as USAFFE-Luzon GUERRILLA FORCES, led by Major Bernard Anderson. It has some units in MAUBAN and INFANTA, TAYABAS PROVINCE, but the main organization is in NUEVA ECIJA and BULACAN PROVINCES.

d – President Quezon’s Own Guerrillas (later rumored to have been changed to Philippine Independent Guerrillas), led by Vicente Umali, former Municipal Mayor of TIAONG, TAYABAS. It is strongest in TIAONG, CANDELARIA, SAN PABLO, and some other towns around the BANAHAO MOUNTAINS, TAYABAS PROVINCE, and ROSARIO, BATANGAS, and ALAMINOS, LAGUNA.

e – Hukbalahap or Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon, which means ARMY OF THE PEOPLE AGAINS THE JAPANESE, led since 1942 by Pedro Villegas, now known as HASHIM. This organization has some Communist tendencies but milder than the Hukbalahaps of Northern Luzon. It is mainly based in the mountains and barrios between LONGOS, LAGUNA and MAUBAN, TAYABAS.

f – Philippine Chinese Guerrillas, led by a Chinese by the name of GO or Major GO. It is composed of about 70 well-armed men mostly in Jap uniform. They are supported by the affluent Chinese

[p. 2]

citizens of MANILA CITY. They operate side by side with the Hukbalahaps. It is believed that this unit is not Communist, though.

g – Fil American Guerrillas, now led by Col. DAVID and COL SAN PEDRO. After the capture of Colonel Straughn, the Fil Americans were divided among themselves. Some joined the Hunters while others joined the Marking’s Guerrillas. Most remained as independent Fil Americans. They now operate in PANGASINAN, MAGDALENA, LILIO, NAGCARLAN, and SAN PABLO.
2. The following are Anti-Japanese bands in Cavite who are at the same time generally considered as outlaws, they preying on the people sometimes:

a – PATROCINIO ERNE or TISIO’s Unit. This organization is well-armed, but composed of untrained, hardly principled men. This unit is feared by all non-members of that organization. This unit controls TANZA, CAVITE and the highlands between TANZA and AMADEO.

b – LORENZO SAULOG’s Unit. This unit is less armed than TISIO, and similarly untrained. Way back April 1944, this unit agreed to take orders from The Hunters and be subjected to its disciplines, rules and regulations. However, when this Headquarters moved to [the] INFANTA AREA, this unit refused to submit to the orders of the designated Provincial Commander for CAVITE of the Hunters. Their actions, too, when unobserved, tend to disgrace and stain the name of this organization. When Saulog decided to remain independent again, this Headquarters did not take any action and just let them go. This unit has its main organization in DASMARIƑAS and IMUS, CAVITE, side by side with the units that decided to stick with the Hunters.

c – ESTEBAN TAPARAN’s Unit. This unit is claimed to be second to TISIO in number of arms. It is under the influence of the Municipal Mayor of NAIC, Mr. Arenas and the Provincial Board Member Mr. Unas. They defend NAIC TOWN from TISIO’s incursions and at the same time prey on people from other towns.

d – MAGNO IRUGUIN’s Unit, which has also a shaded reputation but much less notorious than TISIO and TAPARAN. It operates in GENERAL TRIAS TOWN, CAVITE.

e – LIBERATORS under Lt. Bert Fuller, which was organized on right principles and high ideals with numerous educated citizens in its membership list. This unit operates in MARAGONDON. Esteban Taparan is a member of this organization on paper, although not actually. Lately, this organization joined forces with the Hunters and is now working side by side with the old Hunters units hearby.

[p. 3]

3. All the aforementioned units are being contacted by this Headquarters for the purpose of rescue work of those airmen that are forced to bail out or crash-land to return to their bases.
s/Terry Magtangol3
Colonel, Guerrilla Infantry


Notes and references:
1 Box 246, Entry 1087, Philippine Archive Collection, Record Group 407, (US) National Archives. Online at the Philippine Veterans Association Office.
2 SWPA refers to the “South West Pacific Area (command),” Wikipedia.
3 Eleuterio “Terry Adevoso” was also known by his nom de guerre or military name Magtangol/Magtanggol. Wikipedia.
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