Documents on the Gold Area Unit's Application for Recognition and Subsequent Rejection - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore

Documents on the Gold Area Unit's Application for Recognition and Subsequent Rejection

[TRANSCRIPTION]

The Gold Area Unit was a guerrilla organization affiliated Free Luzon Intelligence Echelon of the 6th Military District on the island of Panay. This unit was ordered created in Bauan, Batangas by one Mariano A. Tibay, who would also be its commander. In this page are transcriptions1 of several documents related to the application for recognition by the Gold Area Unit subsequent actions by the United States Army.
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HEADQUARTERS
PHILIPPINES-RYUKYUS COMMAND
OFFICE OF THE COMMANDING GENERAL

GSCPU 091 PI APO 707
17 Apr 47.


Mr. Mariano Tibay
102 Sargento Mariano St
Pasay, Rizal
Philippines

Dear Mr. Tibay:

The Commanding General has directed that you be informed that the Gold Area Unit, 6th Military District, purporting to be a guerrilla organization under your nominal control, is not favorably considered for recognition as an element of the Philippine Army.

A set of general requirements for guerrilla recognition, established by General MacArthur during the liberation of the Philippines, has been used as a guide in considering the record of this unit. After careful investigation and full consideration of all substantiating records and testimony of witnesses having pertinent knowledge, recognition of this guerrilla unit is not deemed to be warranted because of the reasons mentioned below:

a. Record of service was not substantiated by sufficient acceptable evidence.

b. The unit was not maintained satisfactorily in the field in opposition to the enemy.

c. Activities of the unit did not contribute materially to the eventual defeat of the enemy.

d. A definite organization was not established.

e. Adequate records were not maintained (names, ranks, dates of enlistment or joining, dates of promotions, and necessary related information).

f. Rank of members considered to be too high for the actual size of the command maintained in the field.

g. Performance of the unit did not indicate adequate control by its leaders.

h. Sphere of operations and unit strength claimed by the unit were not commensurate with the nature of the terrain, limitation of communication


[Over…]

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facilities, and the degree of anti-resistance activities of the Japanese in the area during the period concerned.

i. Unit did not show satisfactory continuity of activity and organization.

j. Members of the unit did not devote their entire effort to military activities in the field to the exclusion of normal civilian occupation and family obligations.

k. Many members apparently lived at home, supporting their families by means of farming or other civilian pursuits, and assisted the guerrilla unit on a part time basis only.

It is considered that the previous recognition of approximately 96 officers and men from the Gold Area Unit, 6th Military District, who were recognized by the Commanding General, Sixth Army, for their aid during the liberation of the Philippines, constitutes just and adequate acknowledgement of military service.

Your attention is invited to Presidential Executive Order No. 68, Commonwealth of the Philippines, copy of which is attached, for any necessary action in connection herewith.

Sincerely,

THOMAS J. BROWN
CWO, USA
Asst Adj Gen


1 Incl:
Executive Order No. 68
dtd 26 Sep 45


Col Gerald F. Lillard:

1. The Gold Area Unit, Free Luzon, 6th Military District, consisting of 1500 members, has not been favorably considered. 96 members have previously been recognized with the 11th Airborne Division.

2. This unit does not fulfill the requirements of the five basic points for recognition. See attached Team Leader’s Report.

3. No useful purpose will be accomplished by further investigation of this unit.

4. All worthy members have been recognized with the exception of those casualties who cannot be identified. No revision of dates for those members previously recognized should be contemplated.


Lt B Bromley Jr

1. Concur: Capt S. C. Buchanan, Chief, Southern Luzon

2. Concur: Major C. H. Wentzell, Actg Chief, Unit Branch


[p. 3]

102 Sargento Mariano Str.,
Pasay, Rizal

10 May 1947.

S

TO
: Request for reconsideration of Gold Area Unit

: The Commanding General Philrycom APO 707
  (Attention Guerrilla Affairs Div.)

Sirs:

Referring to your letter dated 17 April 1947, File GSCPU 091 PI/827, denying recognition to the Gold Area Unit, 6th MD, request reconsideration of your decision for the following reasons:

a. The written documentary evidences submitted to your Hqs. consist of affidavits and statements of recognized and reliable guerrilla leaders in the Philippines who knew of the activities of my unit and these, together with the testimonies of the members of the organization, should be considered as sufficient acceptable evidences, opinion to the contrary notwithstanding. In addition, enclosed is an affidavit of Henry Becker, U.S. Intelligence Officer, testifying to the existence and activities of the Gold Area Unit, together with copies of original attachment papers to certain officers and EM by the 11th Airborne Division who are not yet recognized.

b. The unit was maintained as satisfactorily in the field in opposition to the enemy as it was humanly possible under the trying days of the Jap occupation. Otherwise, we would not have been able to carry on our activities until the arrival of the Americans in 1945.

c. Our record shows that the unit was attached to the 11th Airborne Div. for combat and other purposes. Our unit has, to its credit, many enemy soldiers killed and wounded both during the occupation and the liberation of Luzon. If killing the enemy cannot be considered a material contribution to his eventual defeat, what other things can be considered more harmful to the enemy?

d. The Gold Area Unit was definitely established and fought the enemy. The attachment to the U.S. Army is incontestable proof of its organization and existence. Please refer to attached statement of Mr. Henry Becker, U.S. Intelligence Officer, during the occupation.

e. It was neither practicable nor conducive to safety for both the members and the civilian population to make, keep or carry a lot of records during the guerrilla days and what we have presented are authentic records as the regular army, because the guerrilla is by its very meaning a “hit and run” organization intended to harass the enemy.

f. The ranks in the roster submitted are in accordance with U.S. Army T/O.

g. The fact that we had maintained our organization even during the Jap occupation clearly indicates adequate control of the men by their leaders.

h. The Gold Area Unit is [a] small organization and our zone of operation was likewise small and fully covered by the activities of the men. Communication was by runners, mostly “mouth to ear” to avoid capture.


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i. Continuity of activities of the organization was definite and beyond reasonable doubt. The unit never for any period ceased to function as a cohesive force since its organization.

j. It is true that many members did not devote all their full time to guerrilla activities to the exclusion of normal occupation, but we do not seek recognition for these men. We only ask for recognition for those of us who devoted their entire time to anti-resistance activities to the exclusion of family obligations.

k. Those that lived at home, supporting their families, were excluded from our request for recognition.

l. The men who fought and suffered, the men who stayed in the mountains, for them I make this appeal. It is true some of us who had arms were recognized. But the men who for three years stayed in the fronts with these recognized men, as replacements for camp duty, supply men, runners, reconnaissance men, cooks, etc. who made possible that the men who were recognized got their just reward, are not compensated for their services.

In view, hereof, request reconsideration of your decision.

/s/ MARIANO A. TIBAY
/t/ Mariano A. Tibay
CO, GOLD AREA 6th MD, Guer.


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HEADQUARTERS
PHILIPPINES-RYUKYUS COMMAND
OFFICE OF THE COMMANDING GENERAL

GSCPU 091 PI APO 707
20 May 1947


Mr. Mariano A. Tibay
102 Sargento Mariano Street
Pasay, Rizal

Dear Mr. Tibay:

This will acknowledge receipt of your letter dated 10 May 1947, in which you request reconsideration of the unfavorable decision rendered by this headquarters on 17April 1947 with regard to the recognition of the Gold Area Unit, 6th Military District.

It is the desire of this headquarters to avoid all appearance of arbitrary decisions in the case of claimant guerrilla units. Your request for reconsideration is, therefore, accepted. It must be emphasized, however, that it would be extremely helpful if you were to forward as quickly as possible such additional pertinent documentary evidence as has not been submitted previously and which, you feel, reflects favorably upon your claim. These additional data should be original documents, or photostatic copies of the original documents, or true copies of the original documents, certified to by United States Army officers of field grade on duty with the Guerrilla Affairs Division, G-3 Section, of this headquarters.

Your request for reconsideration will be placed on file in this headquarters to await appropriate action at the earliest practicable time. However, a considerable delay is to be expected before final decision can be rendered on your organization since many claimant guerrilla units remain to be investigated initially and review of rejected units must necessarily follow them.

The additional supporting evidence submitted in your letter of 10 May 1947 will be placed in the unit file to await proper evaluation at such time as the unit is restudied.

Sincerely,

THOMAS J. BROWN
CWO, USA
Ass’t Adj Gen


[Over.]

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Col. Gerald F. Lillard:

Basic, ltr fr Mariano A. Tibay to CG, PHILRYCOM, dtd 10 May 47, requesting reconsideration of the Gold Area Unit, 6th Military District.


Lt George E Kemper

Concur: Lt Col S J Palos, Chief, Unit Branch


[p. 7]

HEADQUARTERS
PHILIPPINES-RYUKYUS COMMAND
OFFICE OF THE COMMANDING GENERAL

GSCPU 091 PI / 2189 APO 707
22 OCT 1947


Mr. Mariano Tibay
102 Sargento Mariano Street
Pasay, Rizal
Philippines

Dear Mr. Tibay:

The Commanding General has requested that you be informed that the Gold Area Unit, 6th Military District, purporting to be a guerrilla organization under your nominal control, previously not favorably considered for recognition, has been reconsidered at your request.

A thorough review of the supporting papers of this organization, and detailed examination of the additional evidence submitted with your request for reconsideration, together with a careful analysis of all other available information of the activities of your unit from its inception, scrutinized in relation to the overall resistance movement, has again failed to reveal sufficient material to satisfy the requirements for recognition of your unit as an element of the Philippine Army in the service of the Armed Forces of the United States. Furthermore, it is considered that the previous recognition of approximately 96 members of your command, recognized by letter Headquarters USAFFE, dated 30 May 1945, constitutes an adequate and just consideration for military services rendered. The Gold Area Unit, 6th Military District is, therefore, not favorably considered for modification of the original decision of non-recognition.

This letter constitutes the final determination of and action upon the claim for recognition of the Gold Area Unit, 6th Military District guerrilla unit.

Sincerely,

THOMAS J BROWN
CWO, USA
ASST ADJ GEN


[Over.]

[p. 8]

Lt Col Wallace M. Hanes:

1. The Gold Area Unit, 6th MD, consisting of 1500 members, under the command of Mariano Tibay, has not been favorably reconsidered for recognition. 96 members have been previously recognized.

2. This unit does not fulfill the requirements of the five (5) basic points for recognition. See attached recommendation report.

3. There are no casualties deemed worthy of recognition. No casualty roster has been submitted.

4. There are no individuals worthy of individual non-casualty recognition.

5. This report constitutes the final action to be taken by this headquarters on the Gold Area Unit, 6th MD.


[Sgd.] 1st Lt Marion C. Allbright

Concur: Capt S C Buchanan, Chief, Reconsideration Sec

Concur: Maj R V Sloan, Chief, Individual Branch

Concur: Capt E R Curtis, Chief, Unit Branch

Notes and references:
1 “Gold Area Unit, Free Luzon Intelligence Echelon, 6th MD,” online at the United States National Archives.

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