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party. When in favor, the man had to work in the house of the girl until the date was set aside for the wedding. If the man was not favored, he would be told to stop working. When asking a girl to attend a party, the boy invited the parents of the girl first. When she attended parties, she was always accompanied by a relative as her chaperone. The boy’s parents asked the girl’s parents for the hand of the daughter. The whole family considered the courtship and possible marriage of the marriageable members. Now, boys do the courting of the girls they love. If the girl’s parents oppose, it usually results into elopement. Now, parents abide by the decisions of their sons and daughters. At times, they ask for dowry, but this practice is very seldom done.
Both the groom and the bride take the most possible precautions to have their lighted candles burn continuously during the ceremony because if the flame dies, the owner of the candle will die soon. They have to go out of the church in a race so as not to be dominated by the other. Eating sugar is done before going up the house. This is practiced with the belief that the couple will have a sweet harmonious relationship with each other. At times, pots are broken during the celebration, so that the couple will have many offspring. The parents must sanction the marriage because couples who marry without parents’ consent are liable to be disinherited. Friends and relatives give gifts to the young couple. The wife holds the purse and gives out the money to the hubby. She is responsible for keeping the home fires burning.
They believe in the existence of heaven and hell and that their souls would pass on to the other world either in hell or in heaven, depending upon how they spent their lives on earth. They believe in the existence of life after death. To them, it is bad to sweep the house of the deceased. The plates must not be put one on top of the other to avoid the immediate death of another member of the family. To them, the spirit of the dead will return to visit his family and relatives on the fourth day. They offer prayers until the ninth day. Friends,
relatives, and acquaintances give money or materials things as a gesture of their sympathy to the bereaved family. Friends and relatives send flowers and keep vigil over the dead. The nearest relatives refrain from dancing or playing. The women and girls wear black dresses, while the men wear bands around their arms or, sometimes, a piece of ribbon is pinned on the pockets of the men’s shirts. The family of the deceased serve refreshments to those to come to mourn.
It is believed by them that tears falling over the dead body will prevent the latter from going to heaven. Throwing a handful of soil to the grave means that the bereaved family will not be visited or remembered by the spirit of the dead. An observer should refrain from mentioning to the mourners the insects like ants or lice which he sees crawling over the dead because it will become plentiful in the wink of an eye.
The barrio folks are very hospitable. The entertain visitors and strangers with the best food in the house. They invite callers to eat. They offer sweets or soft drinks to visitors, especially those near stores. When calling on someone for a visit, they do not enter the house or sit down without being invited to do so.
All members of the family get together during weddings, funerals, and birthdays. Absent members of the family come if they can. On Christmas, godparents give gifts to their godchildren. When they hold feasts like baptisms and others, many people attend. Parents bring even the youngest child though he is a month old only.
When a child commits an offense, he will be punished by whipping with a stick or with a rope when the offense is severe. Usually, mothers say bad words to her child and she sometimes pinches the ears or thighs of the girls.
11. A. Superstitions:
They believe in various superstitions. The cry of the raven or crow at night is associated with ill-fortune. Snakes, cats and monkeys are associated with misfortunes when brought in boats. If a hunter meets a lizard on his way, it is believed he should return home for he will have no catch at all. To dream that a tooth or some teeth are removed means that a near relative will die. Sneezing before leaving a house means misfortune in the future.
B. Origin of the World:
As told by an old, old man, the legend of the world goes this way. Long ago, there existed only the sea and a bird flying through the sky. One day, the bird became tired for there was no place to land. He took water from the sea and threw it down to the sea, boulders of rock and earth. From them sprang the islands, the mountains, valleys and hills.
12. Popular Songs:
Before the Spanish occupation, the settlers had their own songs, the most important songs were the “kundiman,” “kumintang,” and “pase-doble.” The “kundiman” was a love song. Usually, when men serenaded a woman, they brought guitars, as also today. Men sang their own composed songs.
(Sibat ni Adan, hindi mabilang.) – rain (ulan)
(Baboy ko sa pulo, balahibo’y pako.) – jackfruit (nangka)
(Ang ina ay gumagapang, ang anak ay umuupo na.) – squash (kalabasa)
(Sambalilo ni Kiko, puno ng ginto.) - achuete
(9) Hinila ko ang bagin, nagkakara ang matsin. – kampana(10) It is not a person, nor an animal
Hindi tao, hindi hayop
May dila, hindi nagsasalita – sapatos
Kung araw ay bumbong
Kung gabi ay dahon. – banig
Mataas pag nakaupo kaysa pag nakatindig. – aso
Kapag buhay ay nauubos
Kung patay ay nakatulos. – kanila
Death is its penetration. – gun
Puno’y kahoy, katawa’y bakal,
Dulo’y kamatayan. – baril
Baboy ko sa kaingin
Mataba’y walang pagkain.
14. Proverbs and Sayings:
(4) Prudence is the wise man’s weapon.
(5) The tongue is not a knife but when it speaks, it hurts.(6) What is the use of the grass if the horse is dead?
(7) A man is not a man if with his tongue, he cannot win a woman.
(8) He who shall not work, shall not eat.(9) Despair is never yet so deep
Despair is hope who just sleeps,
For better chance of dreaming.
15. A. Methods of Measuring Time:
The people previously had no clocks for referring time so, instead, they referred to the direction of the sun. For example, if it was overhead, it was estimated as twelve o’clock (noon). At times, the cocks suggested time by crowing in the morning.
B. Linear Measurements:
They used the “tinuro,” the length between the tip of the thumb, to the tip of an extended forefinger’ the “dangkal,” the distance between the tip of the thumb to the tip of the middle finger; the “dali,” the width of one finger; and the “dipa,” which is equivalent to the English fathom or six feet.
C. Measuring Capacity:
They used “kaban,” “salop,” “pitis,” and “gatang.” One “kaban” was equivalent to about 65 kg.; 25 “salop” makes one “kaban,” and one ganta was equivalent to one “salop.” One “gatang” was equivalent to one chupa.
16. Other Folktales:
A. Origin of the First Man and Woman:
The bird rested on the seashore. A floating bamboo thrown by the wind hurt its feet. The bird got angry and picked it. It broke into two pieces and from its nodes sprang the first man and woman.
Miss Virginia Enriquez – Wawa Elem. School
Miss Marcelina Villacrusis – Wawa Elem. School
Mrs. Anisia F. Gomez – Wawa Elem. School
Mrs. Primitiva C. Adre – Wawa Elem. School
Miss Nazaria Samaniego – Wawa Elem. School
Mr. Vivencio Sapico – Wawa Elem. School
Miss Soledad Salanguit – Balaytigue School
Miss Genoveva Villacrusis – Natipuan School
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