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January 4, 2018

San Mariano, San Pascual, Batangas: Historical Data

Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the barrio of San Mariano in the Municipality of San Pascual, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.

[Note to the reader.]

At the time when this document was created, the barrio of San Mariano was still a part of Bauan rather than San Pascual. The latter did not become a separate municipality until the year 1969, after the passage of Republic Act No. 6166.

[p. 1]

HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF [THE] BARRIO OF SAN MARIANO

PART I – HISTORY

1. The present official name of the barrio is San Mariano. This name was derived from a rich man who was also a native of the barrio named Mariano Aranas. He, being a “capitan” during the Spanish regime, filed a petition for the change of the name of the barrio from “Dagatan” to the present name “San Mariano” in honor of a saint of that name. He objected to the name Dagatan for it had no seas at all and the name had no semblance to the place. It had no sitios even during its earliest time up to the present.

2. The popular name of the barrio is San Mariano while its past name was Dagatan.

3. This barrio was established during the Spanish regime, with the Dimayuga and Comia families as the first inhabitants of the barrio.

4. The original families in the place were Miguel Dimayuga and wife and the Comia family. It was said that these two families quarreled about land. The Dimayuga family claimed for all the lands south of the road while the Comia family claimed for lands north of the road.

5. This barrio has its barrio lieutenants as follows:

A. Spanish regime

1. Florentino Resplandor
2. Anselmo Mangubat
3. Jose Dimayuga
4. Casimero Abando
5. Higino Comia
6. Antonio Aguila – Teniente cabeza
7. Gregorio Manalo – Teniente cabeza

B. American Regime:

By the coming of the Americans to the islands, these teniente cabezas were changed to barrio lieutenants. The following were the barrio lieutenants:

1. Deogracias Cordero
2. Anselmo Mangubat
3. Galo Bauan
4. Paconio Bulanhagui
5. Mateo Castillo
6. Juan Dalwangbayan
7. Eleutario Comia

[p. 2]

6. There are no old barrios or sitios within the jurisdiction that are now depopulated. The barrio has no sitio at all.

7. There are no historical sites in this barrio, no historical interest that has been established or had happened in the barrio.

8. Important facts, incidents, or events that took place.

A. During the Spanish Occupation:

There were no important facts, incidents, or events that took place in this barrio. The people from this place were law-abiding and good followers to the leaders.

B. During the American Occupation:

There were none, too.

C. During and after World War II:

But during World War II, when the Japanese defeated the Philippines, all parts of the islands were controlled by the Japanese government. So, the rulers were the Japanese. The Japanese government even went to the remotest barrio and induced the planting of [the] cotton plant at all tillable soil. So, rice and other food crops were unseasonably harvested due to the fright of the people towards the Japanese soldiers.

In this barrio, all tracts of land were required to be planted with cotton plants. Even rich landowners from the barrio were required by the Japanese patrols to own cotton plantations of no less than a hectare.

Early in the morning, these Japanese went from house to house to urge the people to go to the fields to plant cotton. All were required to plant except children who were still incapable to do the work. The people during these periods were much overtasked due to the fright towards the Japanese. They had to go to the fields early in the morning, returned home at noon, back to work after lunch, and went home very late in the afternoon. This lasted for three years. Cotton balls were weighed and a kilo cost thirteen centavos for the producer to sell.

The people of the barrio could hardly earn their living and what was pitiful was the supply of food in the barrio. The people had nothing to eat as they had no palay and had nothing to buy as they had no money.

[p. 3]

Besides, the head of the family went to town to buy rice from the Naric controlled by the Japanese. He was given a ganta or rice, enough for the family for a day and for other days of the week, they depended upon root crops as gabi, ubi and cassava. The ration was given for every barrio once a week. “Oh! What a pity for the poor people.” Some got sick with malaria, some [with] beriberi, and many became very thin and pale due to lack of food. They had to eat leaves of trees and some sorts of grasses not eaten before. They had to make small amounts of food for each meal while still others had to eat once a day.

But still worst was the third year of the Japanese ruling in the islands. In this barrio, the Japanese soldiers went to the barrio lieutenant asking for palay, corn, pigs, fowls, eggs, and even some leguminous plants. The barrio lieutenant asked the people of the barrio to contribute to raise the amount for some cows, asked some to give pigs, some hens, some eggs, and the landowners to give twenty cavans of palay. The people subjected to the administration of the Japanese, but this was done many times. Later on, the patrolmen in the barrio went from house to another and got everything they saw which they thought of value. So, the people were very much afraid. They tried their best to bury their palay as it was the first personal need of the people. They left their homes and tried to live in the small huts in the farm as they were hiding from the Japanese. Many rumors had been said about the Japanese cruelties and the people were very much afraid. No one lived among houses along the road as the people had evacuated to other places.

9. A. Destruction in 1896-1900 and 1941-1945

So far, there was no incident that happened during the Spanish regime up to the present time. There was no destruction of lives, neither properties, in this barrio. During the coming of the Americans, all the people were asked to stay in the poblacion. This was about December 1900. Later on, they were asked to return home and the people found out that there was nothing lost in their homes. But the cows left by the people were taken away by some Filipino “bandits.” This was done by the Americans to find out the “Insurrectos.” The people who would not submit to the Americans were considered “Insurrectos” against the Americans and they were shot to death by the Americans.

But since the coming of the Americans, the people returned to their native homes. They began cultivating the soil and planted their crops. They started to own

[p. 4]

their cows, pigs, and fowls for use and for their home consumption. Women engaged in weaving and, later on, embroidering. Education was started as school was opened. Able-bodied men worked in the American war bases to earn their living. Trade and commerce was started. Peace became the ruler of the home for the people lived with ease and comfort. [The] Means of transportation became easier. Religious activities were exercised. Means of communication were restored. Roads were improved. Destroyed bridges were reconstructed. [The] Standard of living was raised.

10. Traditions, customs and practices in domestic and social life.

A. Birth:

1. During birth, [the] husband should not stand on doorways nor on stairways as the wife will have a hard time in giving birth.

2. A sharp blade should be used in cutting the cord so that the child would be talented.

3. All beddings should be washed on swift running water so that the child should be fast and quick in all his doings.

4. All the first clothing of the child should be clean, neat and dainty so that the child would be extravagant when he grow old.

5. The child’s “inunan” should be placed in glass so that he would be bright.

6. It must be burned at the eastern center post where no one can cross over so that he would be respected.

7. A pencil, some news, a pen holder, and thread and needle, must be included in burying the “inunan” so that the child would know how to read, write, and sew when he grows old.

8. A fluent reader must read fluently the news included in the “inunan” so that the child would be a fluent reader.

9. The container of the “inunan” before being buried must be filled to its top so that the child would not be hungry always.

10. All the clothing of the mother when washing should not be inverted so that the child would not raise his clothes when sleeping.

[p. 5]

11. Do not scratch when washing clothes so that the child will not have scabies.

12. [The] Mat used while giving birth should be rolled tightly and kept at corners so that the baby would walk early.

B. Baptism:

1. A child to be taken to the church for baptism must be pressed three times on his rectum before entering the church door so that the child must not move his bowel oftentimes.

2. A child after baptism is hurriedly taken out of the church so that he will be quick in all his doings.

3. A child to be baptized is given money so that money will be easy for the child to find.

4. The only girl or boy baptized on a certain baptismal day is very attractive to the opposite sex.

5. A child is usually given a baptismal dress by his godfather, because when a child dies, his dress in heaven is his dress when he is baptized.

6. Never allow the child’s veil to fall during baptism for the child will die soon.

C. Courtship:

1. Water is the first thing taken to the girl’s parents during courtship so that the girl’s parents must have cool heads during the conference.

2. The next thing is the big bundle of wood, preferably “tigas ng kakawati,” cut in uniform length so that both parties would always be together in their agreement.

3. The next is the dressed pig which they call “pakilala.” This pig is divided into small portions and each aunt, uncle, grandparent, and relative of the girl is given a portion.

4. Then the conference of both parties [is agreed] as to when and what preparation for the celebration of the marriage.

5. There is always a parcel of land given by the male parent to his son during his marriage.

6. The girl is always given a certain amount to be used for purchasing her wedding gown and other things to be used for [the] wedding.

[p. 6]

7. There is always a wedding party where all the members of the family including relatives of both parties assemble.

D. Marriage

1. Marriage must be done when the moon is becoming big so that the couple will have long lives.

2. Marriage must be held at the beginning of the year so that the couple will have a good living.

3. Rice is thrown at the couple so that they will earn money easily.

4. Calamay is offered to the couple as they arrive from church so that they will be sweet to each other.

5. The woman’s veil is put over the shoulder of the man so that the man will always help the woman in shouldering a task.

E. Death:

1. When the dead is soft, somebody in the family will follow.

2. Persons left in the house should not look out of the window when the dead is taken down from the house so that nobody will follow.

3. Do not sweep in the house unless four days passed or else somebody will follow.

4. Do not file the plates together in washing the dishes for the first nine days so that there will be none to follow.

5. Fresh vegetables are not cooked or eaten for the first nine days or else the dead will always be fresh.

6. Dead bodies are watched overnight.

7. Some money is given to the dead.

8. Parents, sons, daughters, relatives and benefactors mourn for at least one year.

9. Preparations for [a] feasts during the 4th, 9th, 40th day, and for the first year are held.

F. Burial:

1. Expectant mothers and fathers should not look into the grave.

[p. 7]

2. Cigars and cigarettes brought during the burial should all be consumed in the cemetery.

3. The feet of the dead should be ahead in going down the stairs or else someone in the family will follow.

4. Tears should not fall onto the dead so that the soul of the dead will not have any hardships.

12. Popular songs, games, amusements -

The popular songs in the barrio are the kundimans.

a. Huling Awit
b. Ibong Sawi
c. Bayan Kong Pilipinas
d. Dalagang Filipina
e. Anak ng Dalita
f. Pasing
g. Magbalik ka Giliw
h. Arigading-gading
i. Karinosa
j. Lulay



The popular games are:

a. Sipa
b. Baseball
c. Tubigan

The popular amusements are:

a. Pandango
b. Serenading
c. Dama
d. Horse riding
e. Huego

13. Puzzles, Riddles

a. Puno’y kalbang
Sanga’y anos
Bunga’y gatang
Lama’y lisay. (papaya)

b. Pitak-pitak
Silid-silid
Habang-habang
Parang kamalig. (kawayan)

c. Hinalo ko ang linugao
Nagtakbo ang inihaw. (bangka)

d. Bahay ni kaka
Hindi matingala. (noo)

[p. 8]

e. Munting bakur-baruran
Sari-sari ang nadaan. (bibig)

f. Munting panyo
Hindi matuyo. (dila)

g. Aso kong puti
Sinugo ko’y di na umuwi. (lura)

h. Hinigit ko ang bagin
Nag-utotan ang matsin. (bilangan)

i. Duag ako sa nag-iisa
Matapang ako sa dalawa. (tulay)

j. Isang itlog
Tatlo kung mapisa
Pulos itim
Puti ang tuka. (tuba)

k. Isang bias na kawayan
Puno ng kamatayan. (baril)

l. Bahay ng prinsesa
Libot ng espada. (piña)

m. Nagsaing si Katong-tong
Bumulak ay walang gatong. (gugo)

n. Naito-ito na ang negro
Nagkamatay ang tao. (gabi)

o. Isang bias na kawayan
Nakabubuhay ng patay. (hihip)

p. Dalawang dahong pinda-pinda
Sing lapad silang dalawa. (lupa at langit)

q. Alin dito sa ating katawan
Ang likod ay tiyan? (binti)

r. Ang ibabao ay ararohan
Ang ilalim ay batohan. (kakao)

s. Bahay ni Kiko
Puno ng ginto. (itlog)

t. Buhok ng pare
Hindi mawahi. (tubig)

u. Buhok ni Adan
Hindi mabilang. (ulan)

v. Saging ko sa Maynila
Abot dito ang palapa. (kalle)

[p. 9]

w. Baboy ko sa pulo
Balahibo ay pako. (nangka)

x. Kabiac na dayap
Sa kalooban ko hinanap. (batia)

y. Alin dito sa lupa
Tatatlo ang palapa. (pungapong)

z. Tintang puti
Plumang bakli
Papel na verde
Nasulat ay babae. (ekmo)

14. Proverbs and Sayings:

a. Pag matubig
Ay mabubo.

b. Walang matimtimang virgin
Sa matiagang manalangin.

c. Pay may sinuksok
Ay may titingalain.

d. Ang mahaba’y nagdudugtong
Ang maigsi ay nagpuputol.

e. Ang di nalingon sa pinanggalingan
Di makararating sa paroroonan.

f. Ang nalakad ng matulin
Matinik ay malalim.

g. Huag kang sisiguro
Kuarisma man ay nabagyo.

h. Ang mabait sa bata
Ay pinagpapala.

i. Ang maniniwala sa sabi-sabi
Walang bait sa sarili.

j. Sa lahat ng gubat
Ay may ahas.

k. Magkapula-pula ang saga
Maitim ang kabila.

l. Pag may tinanim
Ay may aanihin.

m. Pag may tuwa
Ay may hapis.

n. Huag dumais sa patayan
Kung di ibig maduguan.

[p. 10]

o. Magpakahaba-haba ang procession
Sa simbahan din uurong.

p. Ang makirot
Nakayayapao ng ipot.

q. Ang bayaning masugatan
Nag-iibayo ang tapang.

r. Ang may utang
Ay nagbabayad.

s. Di lahat ng araw ay iyo.

t. Ang sisi ay sa bandang huli.

u. Di lahat ng nabibilanggo
Ay may kasalanan.

v. Tinatakal na ang mantika
Ay buhay pa ang baboy.

w. Di nasibol ang kabuti
Ng walang katugon.

x. Ang maagap
Ay napapahalogap.

y. Ang isda
Ay sa bibig nahuhuli.

z. Ang matipid
Ay nakatitipon.

15. Methods of measuring time:

The methods of measuring time in this barrio are:

1. Use of the sun.
2. Songs of birds as doves, pigeons and crows of roosters.

16. Other folktales.

There were no folktales in this barrio.

PART III OTHER INFORMATION

17. There are no books and documents treating of the Philippines in the barrio.

18. There are no authors in the community.

Data submitted by:

(MRS.) MAXIMA D. MACATNAGAY

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Notes and references:
Transcribed from “History and Cultural Life of [the] Barrio of San Mariano,” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.

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