Malvar, Batangas: Historical Data - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore Malvar, Batangas: Historical Data - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore

Malvar, Batangas: Historical Data

Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the Municipality of Malvar, Batangas, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.
Historical Data
[Cover page.]




of the People

of Malvar, Batangas


The Local Committee

[Cover page 2.]








In the preparation of this book on the history and cultural life of the municipality of Malvar, Batangas, the local committee is greatly indebted to all teachers in the central and barrios who helped much in the collection of data in their “pooks.”
Gratitude is especially due to the old men and women of the community who willingly gave valuable information about the municipality.

F. M. S.

P. B.

P. R.

[p. 1]


Part One: History

1. Present official name of the town.


2. Former name or names and their meanings or derivation.

The former name of the town of Malvar is Luta, one of the barrios of the former town of Lipa, now Lipa City. Luta came from the word Kuta. Kuta meant a place where a group or organized band of robbers [called] “Tulisanes” placed their headquarters. To be free of the attack of the Spanish casadores, the name was changed to Luta.

General Miguel Malvar, one of the last Filipino generals to surrender to the Americans, was a native of Sto. Tomas. When Malvar town was established, Sto. Tomas had a name already so the prominent men of the former barrio of Luta decided to baptize the newly-born town Malvar in honor of the great Batangueño general.

3. Date of Establishment:

January 1, 1919.

4. Names and social status of the founders:
Names Social Status
Mr. Gregorio Leviste Commandante
Mr. Miguel Aranda Educated and Influential
Mr. Mariano Lat Rich and Philanthropist
Mr. Julio Levistet Merchant
Mr. Gregorio Villapando Overseer
Mr. Pelagio Wagan Merchant
Mr. Julian Lantin Influential
Mr. Andalicio Llanes Influential
Mr. Francisco Mitra Influential
Mr. Rafael Latayan Influential
Mr. Nicasio Gutierrez Educated
Mr. Abundio David Educated
[p. 2]

5. Names of persons who held leading official positions in the community with the dates of their tenure.

In the Spanish Time
Tenienteng Pablo Trinidad Barrio Lieutenant
Tenienteng Isidro Lat Barrio Lieutenant
Tenienteng Pablo Wagan Barrio Lieutenant
Tenienteng Angel Capuli Barrio Lieutenant
Tenienteng Valentin Dimaano Barrio Lieutenant
Tenienteng Estanislao Lat Barrio Lieutenant
In the American Time
Tenienteng Gregorio Villapando Barrio Lieutenant
Tenienteng Puntino Lat Barrio Lieutenant
Tenienteng Pedro Endaya Barrio Lieutenant
Tenienteng Mariano Lat Barrio Lieutenant
Tenienteng Feliciano Dimaano Barrio Lieutenant
Tenienteng Gregorio Villapando Barrio Lieutenant
First Municipal Presidents
Mr. Gregorio Leviste Municipal President
Mr. Miguel Aranda Vice-President
Mr. Nicasio Gutierrez Secretary
Mr. Anastacio Alcantara Treasurer
Mr. Mariano R. Lat Councilor
Mr. Julio Leviste Councilor
Mr. Gregorio Villapando Councilor
Mr. Pelagio Wagan Councilor
Mr. Julian Lantin Councilor
Mr. Andalicio Llanes Councilor
Mr. Francisco Mitra Councilor
Mr. Rafael Latayan Councilor
Succeeding Presidents and Mayors
Mr. Gregorio Leviste 1919-1920 Appointed
Mr. Gregorio Leviste 1920-1922 Elected
Mr. Simeon Esligue 1922-1924 (see below)
(He was the Vice-President who succeeded the deceased President Gregorio Leviste.)
Mr. Julio Leviste 1924-1930 Elected
Mr. Benito Leviste 1930-1939 Elected
Miss Trinidad Leviste 1939-1941 Elected
[p. 3]

Succeeding Presidents and Mayors cont’d
Mr. Angel Leviste 1941-1942 Appointed
Mr. Fidel Leviste 1942-1944 Appointed
Dr. Eustacio Endaya 1944-1945 Appointed
Mr. Benito Leviste 1945-1950 Elected
Mr. Pedro Lat 1951-1955 Elected
Municipal Officials 1951-1955
Mr. Pedro Lat Municipal Mayor
Mr. Isabelo Navarro Vice-Mayor
Mr. Valeriano Amurao Treasurer
Mr. Fidel Leviste Secretary
Mr. Apolonio Viaje Councilor
Mr. Diego Saba Councilor
Mr. Jose Lantin Councilor
Mr. Fausto Laja Councilor
Mr. Dominador Malabanan Councilor
Mr. Gaudencio Trinidad Councilor
Mr. Zoilo Aguilera Chief of Police
Atty. Mariano Esligue Justice of the Peace
6. Data on historical sites, structures, buildings, old ruins, etc.

a. Market site – Donated by Mr. Mariano Lat
b. Site for cemetery – Donated by Mr. Mariano Lat
c. Site for the Municipal Building – Donated by Mr. Mariano Lat
d. Site for the Church – Donated by Mr. Sebastian Trinidad

7. Important facts, incidents, or events that took place.

a. During the Spanish Occupation –

(1) Rape of the young ladies in Gabot Brook (Resulting to the naming of the brook “Gabot” which means taken by force.)

(2) Abuses of the Guardia Civil to the people of the community.

(3) Beating of the people who did not kiss the hand of the priest.

[p. 4]

b. During the American Occupation

(1) The people of the community, especially the men, were taken and zonified in Tanauan and Lipa so the Americans could easily catch the revolutionary leaders who would not surrender.

(2) Burning of the houses in the community so that the rebels would have no food and shelter.

(3) Famine

(4) Epidemic (cholera and dysentery)

c. During and after World War II

(1) Construction of the landing field.
(a) Forced labor.

(2) Zonification of the people.

(3) Punishments given by the Japs.

(4) Massacre – 1944

(5) Evacuation of the people to the American occupied area.

8. a. Destruction of lives and properties and institutions during wars, especially in 1896-1900 and 1941-1945.

(1) The destruction of lives from 1896-1900 was very little but the burning of the houses and properties was great.

(2) During the year from 1941-1945, people were killed due to the Japanese massacre and the American bombing. Few houses were left in the community. School buildings and the municipal building were totally destroyed. The church was burned and the poblacion was entirely turned to ashes.

[p. 5]

b. Measures and accomplishments towards rehabilitation and reconstruction following World War II.

(1) Aid of the War Damage Commission in the rehabilitation of the destroyed houses and public buildings.

(2) There is a great improvement in the rural and urban communities in health, economic conditions, cultural, educational, citizenship civic, social and other aspects of life due to the influence of the community school.

(3) There is a great improvement in the lives of the people. Better houses are built; more artesian wells are constructed; planting of citrus is encouraged; and sanitation has considerably improved.

[p. 6]

Part Two – Folkways


A mother on the family way followed and remembered superstitious beliefs and customs to facilitate giving birth and evading death. The following are:

1. Not to sit or stay at the door.
2. Not to go under the house at noon time.
3. Not to face the jar while taking a bath.
4. Not to pass under a string or bamboo while walking.
5. Not to tie anything around the husband’s or wife’s neck.
6. Not to tie wire or rattan or help [hemp?] in building a house.

When giving birth, a mother has to follow the following:

1. Call for a midwife (hilot) and a helper (salag).
2. Fire [a] gun or firecracker.
3. Rub leaves of medicinal plants on the stomach and drink the juices of the medicinal plants.
4. An intelligent person should be requested to handle the first newly-born baby.
5. Use newspapers as pillows.

It is believed that when the child’s cry is loud, the godmother or godfather will be from a faraway place and when soft, the sponsor will just be nearby.

The first child should be delivered in the home of the parents of the woman.

When a child is born, the placenta is placed in a small glass jar with needle and thread with the belief that when the baby grows old, she will be a good dressmaker.

The water used by the mother in bathing after thirty days or less after birth usually contained the following:

[p. 7]

1. Payang-payang – Native herbs for making the mother’s body alert and strong.
2. Palad na Buli – Buri leaves for making the mother’s body always ready and eager.
3. Galamay-Amo – A native medicinal plant usually included in the water for bathing the mother and the baby with the belief that its use will save the mother and the baby from all evils.
4. Buhay na Bato – Alive stone [?] is also placed in the water to be used for bathing the mother and the baby with the belief that both bodies will be free from low temperature.


[A] Child not baptized after birth was considered unsafe and susceptible to the power of [an] evil spirit (tiyanak).

Selecting [the] godfather or godmother was based on character and other special qualifications. The elders always presumed that the child would acquire the personal greatness of the sponsors. The sponsors are always selected by the grandfather or grandmother of the baby.

The midwife who attended the delivery of the child should be the one to take the baby to the church with the belief that this practice would give good health to the newborn baby throughout its life.

After reaching the home after the baptismal ceremony from the church, the visitors, especially children, offered flowers to the godfather or godmother and, in return, they would receive money. Sometimes, coins were thrown or tossed up into the air for the visitors to gather. The belief was that the newly-baptized baby would grow in plenty or would become rich.

It was customary that before the baby was taken to the church, there was a temporary baptism in the home of the child. This is called the “buhusan.” The

[p. 8]

sponsor usually raised and blew the head of the child during this time in order that the child might inherit the good traits and habits of the sponsor. This temporary ceremony was being done when the family was preparing a pompous baptismal ceremony. It is believed that during this affair, they should have plenty of drinks, without it the baby’s eyes would always be filled with [a] mucus-like substance.


During the early days, [a] young girl and young man were being married without courting or talking with each other. Parents of both parties were the ones making the arrangement for the marriage of their sons and daughters.

Before approaching the house of the girl, the man usually took off his hat at the sight of the roof of the girl’s house. If ever a man knew and visited the girl, he could not sit near the girl. Signals using fan or handkerchief were used in conveying the woman’s feeling of love and affection. That was done because the parents of the ladies were very strict about the love affairs of their daughters.

Young girls, as matters of tradition, looked forward to the [an] early marriage. Before the marriage, the young man made personal service to the girl’s family as fetching water, gathering fuel and helping repair the house. The man’s family gave customary dowry which consisted of land, house, money, jewels and work animals.

[A] Few days before the marriage, the man or his parents did not give as presents hard things as firewood but, instead, they brought native cakes (bibingka), kind of sticky food. They believed that by so doing, the newly married couple would stick together throughout life.

[p. 9]


The people of the past buried their dead. The dead was dressed in his/her best and placed in a coffin. Much weeping usually took place. The bereaved family and friends mourned by wearing black garments.

When a person died, all members of his family were not allowed to go far away from home because they believed that when they did so, they were endangering themselves to accidents.

A lighted lamp was placed under the house where there was a dead person. They believed that the light would protect the dead from being molested by earthly ghosts and evil spirits.

Near the dead person, a plate or small box was placed. People coming to pay respect and sympathy to the dead used to put in the box or plate any amount they could afford in order to help spend for burial services.

It was also the belief that any person in the house or in the neighborhood who would take a bath when there was a dead person, such living person, if [he] happened to be sick, would be hard to cure. There was no sweeping to be made in a house where there was a corpse. Sweeping usually took place after four days after [the] burial. Pregnant women were not allowed to witness the burying of the dead. Sick persons we're not allowed to go to the house when there was a corpse, believing that after having been there, ailment would become worst.


Burial during the olden days was less expensive than that of the present. In the past, [a] dead person was wrapped in a mat which was closed by bamboo splits, then tied carefully around. That served as the coffin.

[p. 10]

Other people still believe that after the corpse is brought downstairs for burial, all windows of the house should be closed immediately. It is the belief that when someone looks out of the window, the spirit of the dead will return and frighten the people.

At the cemetery, before the burial service, the small children of the dead should stride across the corpse. People believe that the soul of the dead will rest in peace by doing so for the dead will never remember those who were dear to him.

There are families who used to include with the corpse all valuable possessions of the dead such as clothes, jewels, etc. They believe that these things will be used or worn in heaven.


Fiestas become a traditional celebration since the days when the people embraced the Catholic religion. It is celebrated to honor and to pay respect to a certain patron of a barrio or a town who was believed had done something good for the community. Fiestas are considered as [a] sacred promise and holy activity that when they fail to celebrate them, some calamities or misfortunes might befall them.

[A] Fiesta is a day when all people of a certain community wear their best in attending the mass. All homes are decorated with curtains, lanterns and leaves. Aside from these decorations, every home is prepared to receive invited or uninvited guests. When the celebration falls on a fine day, hundreds of people attend the celebration.

Sometimes, a certain individual will be requested by the priest to sponsor a day for a certain patron saint. A mass will be said and the sponsor will pay the cost of the mass. After the mass, the sponsor entertains the visitors in his/her home. In many cases, no one dares to deny the request because if one does so, the denial is taken as a dishonor to the said saint or patron.

[p. 11]


During the days when the laws were not written, the oldest folk in the village was the only person to decide punishment in all crimes committed by people in a village.

There were different kinds of punishments. A thief was punished by cutting his forefinger, a murderer by beheading him. When the crime is adultery, both the man and woman who committed the crime were flogged to death in the presence of their husband and wife. A spy or gossiper was punished by cutting the tip of his tongue. Other kinds of punishments were staying in a place where there were plenty of red ants, kneeling on mongo seeds, beating as much as one cavan or more, torturing, staying under the sun, and a system of garrote by which the hands and feet and neck were inserted in a block of wood or two opposite logs (Pangaw System).

The “PASAKNONG” System

It is a common practice in every community, especially in the rural areas, to help one another. When a family will have a certain project like the construction of a house, his neighbors come to help him. Sometimes, young men from other barrios come to help through the influence of the head of the barrio.

During the harvest season, the “pasaknong” system is very common. Any influential man or woman in a certain community, he may be a quack doctor, a midwife (hilot), an old man of the village, a father of a beautiful maiden or the strangest man may request the owner of a ripening rice field that he/she should be allowed to harvest the rice. As soon as the people of the community hear of the news, nearly everybody volunteers to help. Foods and drinks are prepared for the harvesters. Everyone is very jolly during the rice-cutting bee.

Occasionally, a certain family has something to celebrate. As soon as his neighbors hear of it, they come in groups and help the host. This practice is an excellent custom of the people of this municipality.

[p. 12]


The Legend of Taal Volcano

It was believed that Taal Volcano was the home of the “Encanto.” The belief that the island volcano was inhabited by supernatural beings was widespread not only in the whole province of Batangas but also in the neighboring provinces. It was the conviction of the masses not only of the illiterates but also of the educated inhabitants during the Spanish time that the supernatural beings were endowed with supernatural powers who were responsible for all activities of said volcano. It was a common belief that there were times that a golden cart pulled by a golden cow on the surface of the lake could be seen by the people. Golden cows, sheep, goats and calves pasturing along the slopes of the island, kept by a woman, were visible only to a privileged few. The boatmen plying their trade along the shores of the lake were careful enough to advise their customers or travelers not to point with their fingers or tell their companions whatever they would see or notice anywhere around, about anything unnatural they might see on the way, lest the winds would instantly roar, heavy rains would pour, the day would darken, the boat would capsize and the travelers would be drowned. It was also the belief of the people that there were hidden treasures buried in the said volcano by the “tulisanes” mountain brigands.

The Legend of the Duhat

Long before the Philippine Islands were discovered by the Spaniards, a group of dark people inhabited one of their forests. These people had a ruler, named Datuhat, who was loved for his kindness, strength and intelligence.

Notwithstanding all these good qualities, [a] few of his men disliked him and shot him to death. Before he died, his blood had spilled on a plant that bore many fruits. By a trick of nature, the red fruit turned dark violet. Henceforth, people called this fruit duhat in memory of the ruler, Datuhat.

[p. 13]

The Legend of the Gabi Plant

Long before the coming of the Spaniards in our country, there lived a brave rajah. Because of his bravery and strength, his subjects called him Rajah Matapang. He had an only son named Gabino, which was considered a fancy name during that time. Unlike his father, Gabino was meek and gentle, yet he was strong.

In those days, fighting among the tribes was prevalent. In their desire to get power and to prove their prowess, the rulers of the different tribes often waged war with each other. Rajah Matapang was one of the most powerful during his time. Every time he went to battle, he always returned victorious.

When Gabino grew to be a man, his father was very disappointed in him. He did not join the men when they went to war against other tribes. He was a peace-loving man. Very often, he tried to convince his father that fighting was an unforgiving sin, but his father only laughed. The young men of his tribe scored him and called him a coward.

One day, Rajah Matapang and his men went on an expedition. Only the women, children and a few of the feeble old men were left behind. Gabino did not join them as usual. His excuse was that he would look after those persons left behind.

It so happened that while they were away, an enemy tribe sneaked in the village of Rajah Matapang. They ransacked the houses and carried away women and children. The old men were easily overpowered but Gabino fought valiantly to the last to defend them. He was able to kill many of them before he was mortally wounded.

When Rajah Matapang returned, he found his son among the dead, still clasping his sword and shield. He then realized that, after all, Gabino was not a coward. Even the other warriors felt sorry for his untimely death and they, too, realized that he had done more a heroic act than they.

The rajah ordered his son to be buried in his garden, with his sword and shield with him. Every day, he visited his son’s grave. On his last visit, he was astonished to find a strange plant growing on it. The leaves were broad and resembled a shield. He named it “Gabi” after his son’s nickname.

[p. 14]


1. Songs:

Ang Dalawang Ibon

Doon po sa amin
   bayan ng Sumaria
Pagitan ng ilog
   lupang Pidelina
May tumubo roon
   ibong mag-asawa
Mga pangala'y Pinis
Sa kahoy na mayabong,
   ang sanga'y mataas,
At sa katibayan ng
   ginawang pugad,
Naka-sang taon na'y
   di pa nawawalat.
Umitlog ang dalaga at
   saka lumimlim,
Nang ito'y mapisa,
   hustong dalawang sisiw,
Ang ama at ina
   natuwa't naaliw
Nagsasagimbayan ng pagpapakain.

Nang magsilaki na,
   itong dalawang anak,
Ang ama at anak
   siyang sumapugad.
Itong dalawang anak
   siyang naghahanap
Upang makabayad sa
   sinusong gatas.

Ang Panyong Asul

Kilikilitates, kikikilitasyon
Bendita tu eres, Sabando ng hapon,
Binabati kita, hindi ka nalingon,
Nagmamalaki ka’t may panyo kang asul.
Ang panyo mong asul dinagit ng lawin,
Dinala sa bundok doon pupugarin,
Di na malalaon ako’y bibili rin
Luma na ang iyo, bago pa ang akin.

[p. 15]

Ang Kuwako

May isang kuwako nagtatawid tubig
Nagtawid sa ibayo, nahanap ng siksik.
May nakasalubong guardiyang mabagsik,
“Hintay ka Kuwako, kita’y ibabanggit.”

Sagot ng Kuwako, “Magdalang awa ka,
Sa kaunting lupang luklukan ng baga,
Kaya nabubuhay ang tao sa una,
Dahil sa kuwakong tangay kung umaga.


Doon po sa aming maralitang bayan,
May hayop na niknik na aming napatay,
Ang taba po nito’y nang aming matunaw,
Ang nakuhang langis ay pitong tapayan.

Ang buto pa nito ay nang makayusan,
Ipinagawa kong sika ng simbahan,
At ang natira pang may dalawang dangkal,
Ipinagawa kong salop, pitis at gatang.

Ang balat po nito nang maipakulti,
Ipinagawa kong silya’t taborete,
Ang uupo rito kabang mabubuti,
Tinenteng pasado, kapitang babae.


Matulog ka na bunso,
Ang ina mo’y malayo;
At hindi ka masundo
Daa’y walang magturo.

Tulog na ang matulugin,
Hindi kita gigisingin;
Hindi kita pupuyatin,
Ang bunso’y malalayawin.


Sitsiritsit, alibangbang,
Salaginto’t salagubang,
Ang babae sa lansangan
Kung gumiri’y parang tandang.

[p. 16]


Ako’y ibigin mo’t lalaking matapang,
Ang baril ko’y pito, ang sundang ko’y siyam.
Ang lubusin ko’y gitna ng dinulang,
Isang pinggang kanin ang aking kalaban.

Ako’y ibigin mo’t lalaking maliksi,
Lukso pa na susu ay hindi ko mahuli.
Nang pasimulan ko’y buwan ng Disyembre.
Disyembre na naman ay di pa nang huhuli.

Ako’y ibigin mo’t anak ng mayaman,
Ang ama’t ina ko’y sa tao natahan.
May naiwang utang namatay kong mamay,
Ay baka ibig mong kita’y babahanggan.

Ako’y ibigin mo’t anak ng ginhawa,
Kung sa babasagin ay magsasawa ka.
Ako’y may pinggan hustong isang dusena,
Walang laman buo at puro basag na.

May pinggan pa ako na kalugod-lugod,
Isang dusenang bao panay hinde kayod,
Ang kasama nito mga baling sandok,
Mga sirang dikin at bingot na kawot.

Ako ang binatang makisig maganda,
Pisa ng ilong ko’t bulag pa ang mata.
Ang kamay ko’y pingkol, pilay pa ang paa.
Kapol ng bulutong pati aking taynga.


Buwan…….. Buwan……..
Hulugan mo ako ng sundang,
Aanhin mo ang sundang?
Ipagtataga ng kawayan.
Aanhin moa ng kawayan?
Gagawa ako ng bahay.
Aanhin mo ang bahay?
Paglalagyan ko ng palay.
Aanhin mo ang palay?
Kakainin sa tag-ulan at tag-araw.

[p. 17]


Hala, gaod tayo, pagod ay titiisin,
Ang lahat ng hirap pag-aralang bathin.
Kung malayo man, kung ating ibigin,
Daig ang malapit na ayaw lakbayin.


Si Neneng ng ligaya
   sinamba ng dibdib,
Tuwa't paraluman
   Tila taga-langit.
Nang makasal naman
   siya'y nilalait,
Pinatatamaan sa kulog at lintik.


Kung pilak ay siyang hahanapin
Ay kapuwa pilak ang pupuhunanin.
Kung loob ng tao naman ay gayon din
Ang pinupuhunan loob na magaling.


Tiririt ng maya, tiririt ng ibon,
Huni ng tiyan ko’y tinumis na baboy.
Tiririt ng ibon, tiririt ng maya,
Huni ng tiyan ko’y tinumis na baka.

Tiririt ng maya, tiririt ng ibon,
Ibig mag-asawa’y walang ipalamon.
Tiririt ng ibon, tiririt ng maya,
Ibig mag-asawa’y wala namang kuwarta.
2.  Games 3.  Amusements
     a.  supo      a.  serenading
     b.  tangga      b.  playing cards
     c.  pata      c.  Passion Play
     d.  tayakad      d.  lupakan
     e.  sungka      e.  kalamayan
     f.  tubigan      f.  tupadahan
     g.  himbabao      g.  madyong
     h.  huego de prenda
[p. 18]

 1.  Taglong magkakaibigan, magkalayong bayan
      Kung magkakainan, ay nagkakaharapan.
 1.  Ikmo, bunga't apog
 2.  Hugis puso, kulay ginto.
      Mabango kung amuyin, masarap kung kanin.
 2.  Mangga
 3.  Isang bayabas, pito ang butas.  3.  Mukha
 4.  Di naman isda, di naman itik,
      Makahuhuni kung ibig;
      Maging sa kati, maging sa tubig
      Ang huni'y nakakabuwisit.
 4.  Palaka
 5.  Aliwan kung buhay, binuhay nang mmatay,
      Itinapon ng may buhay.
 5.  Sigarilyo
 6.  Ang dalawa'y tatlo na
      Ang maitim ay maputi na,
      Ang bakod ay lagas na.
 6.  Matanda
 7.  Baston ni Adan, hindi mabilang.  7.  Ulan
 8.  Buto't balat lumilipad.  8.  Saranggola
 9.  Nagsaing si Hudas
      Kinuha ang hugas
      Itinapon ang bigas.
 9.  Gata ng niyog
10. Nang wala pang ginto, ay noon nagpalalo
      Nang magkaginto na'y saka nagyuko.
10. Palay
11. Baras ng kapitan, hindi malakdawan. 11. Ahas
12. Kung bayaan mo akong mabuhay
      Yaong kamataya'y dagli kong kakamtan
      Nguni't kung ako'y patayin mong minsan
      Ay lalong lalawig ang ingat kong buhay.
12. Kandila
13. Lamang binalot ng buto
      Butong binalot ng balahibo.
13. Niyog
14. Kahoy na naging tubig,
      Tubig na naging bato
      Batong naging buong piso.
14. Tubo
15. Maitim na parang uwak
      Maputing parang busilak
      Walang paa'y nakakalakad
      At sa hari nakipag-usap.
15. Sulat
[p. 19]
16. Hindi naman hari
      Hindi naman pari
      Nagsusuot ng sarisari.
16. Sampayan
17. Bahay ni Ka Uti
      Haligi bali-bali
      Ang bubong ay kawali.
17. Alimango
18. Bahay ni Kaka
      Hindi matingala.
18. Noo
19. Bahay ni Giring-giring
      Butas-butas ang dingding.
19. Bithay
20. Baboy ko sa pulo
      Balahibo'y pako.
20. Langka
21. Niyog ko sa Maynila
      Abot dito sa palapa.
21. Karsada
22. Baka ko sa Maynila
      Abot dito ang unga.
22. Ugong
23. Dalawang urang
23. Paa
24. Balan kong malalim
      Libot ng patalim.
24. Bibig
25. Pinirot ko't pinatigas
      Saka isinuot sa butas.
25. Karayom at panahi
26. Isang butil na palay
      Sikip sa buong bahay.
26. Ilaw
27. Ito na si Kaka
      May sunong na dampa.
27. Pagong
28. May binti, walang hita,
      May tuktok, walang mukha.
28. Kabuti
29. Malalim kung bawasan
      Mababaw kung dagdagan.
29. Tubig sa tapayan
30. Nang ihulog ko'y buto
      Nang hanguin ko'y trumpo.
30. Singkamas
31. Nang ihulog ko'y ganggabinlid
      Nang hanguin ko'y nangga-ihip.
31. Labanos
[p. 20]
32. Aling itlog ang may buntog. 32. Lisa
33. Ako'y may kaibigan
      Kasama ko saan man
      Mapatubig di nalulunod
      Mapaapoy di nasusunog.
33. Anino
34. Pumutok ay di naririnig
      Tumama ay di nakakasakit.
34. Sinag ng araw
35. Haba mong kinakain
      Lalo kang gugutumin.
35. Purga
36. Kung araw di nakikita
      Nakikita kung gabi na.
36. Buwan
37. Nagsaing si Pusong
      Sa ibabaw ang gatong.
37. Bibingka
38. Nang malihi'y namatay
      Nang manganak ay nabuhay.
38. Sinigwelas
39. Dalawang balong malalim
      Hindi maabot ang tingin.
39. Tayuga
40. Uka na ang tiyan
      Malakas pang sumigaw.
40. Kampana
41. Bumubuka'y walang bibig
      Ngumingiti ng tahimik.
41. Bulaklak
42. Nagbigay na'y
      Sinasakal pa
42. Bote
43. Kung kailan tahimik
      Ay saka nanbubuwisit.
43. Lamok
44. Eto na si bayaw
      Dala-dala'y ilaw.
44. Alitaptap
45. Nagtago si Pero
      Nakalitaw ang ulo.
45. Pako
46. Pagsipot sa maliwanag
      Kulubot na ang balat.
46. Ampalaya
47. Hindi tao, hindi ibon
      Bumabalik kung itapon.
47. Yuyo [yoyo]
48. Magtag-ulan, magtag-araw
      Hanggang tuhod ang salwal.
48. Manok
[p. 21]
49. Nagsaing na si Katungtong
      Bumulak ay walang gatong.
49. Sabon
50. Walang buto, walang tinik
      Parang lintik kung magalit.
50. Guyam
51. Nanganak ang hunghang
      Sa tuktok dumaan.
51. Saging
52. Buhok ng pari, hindi mawahil. 52. Tubig
53. Paruparu kung bata
      Ahas kung tumanda.
53. Kibal
54. Nagdaan ang nigro
     Patay na lahat ng tao.
54. Gbi
55. Bumili ako ng alipin
      Mataas pa sa akin.
55. Sambalilo
56. Puno'y layo-layo
      Dulo'y tagpo-tagpo.
56. Bahay
57. Isang panyong parisukat
      Pagbuka'y nagkaka-usap.
57. Sulat
58. Lahat ako'y minamahal
      Mang-aawit ang aking tatang
      Suot ko naman ay putian
      Ang puso ko ay madilaw.
58. Itlog
59. Tubig sa Ining-ining
      Di mahipan ng hanging.
59. Tubig ng niyog
60. Muntik [munting] bundok
      Hindi madampot.
60. Tae
61. Duwag ako sa isa
      Matapang ako sa dalawa.
61. Tulay na kawayan
62. Alin sa mga ibong ang
      Di makadapo sa kahoy?
62. Pugo
63. Limang prinsipe sa Balete
      Sambalilo tigkakalhati
63. Daliri
64. Gintong binalot ng pilak
      Pilak na binalot ng balat.
[p. 22]


1. Sa paghahangad ng kagitna,
Isang salop ang nawala.

2. Kung ano ang binara, siyang idiripa.

3. Walang utang na hindi pinagbabayaran.

4. Utos na sa pusa, utos pa sa daga.

5. Pag wala ang pusa, naglalaro ang mga daga.

6. May taynga ang lupa, may pakpak ang balita.

7. Munti ma’t matindi, daig ang malaki.

8. Ang taong malikot nakahihipo ng ikot.

9. Kung sinong matiyaga, siyang nagtatamong palad.

10. Sakit ng kalingkingan, damdam ng buong katawan.

11. Hindi tutubo ang kabuti ng walang katabi.

12. Ibang pare, ibang ugali.

13. Kung saan ang hilig ng kahoy ay doon nabubuwal.

14. Ang kapalaran ko’y di ko man hanapin, dudulog, lalapit kung talagang sa akin.

15. Ang pagkakataon ay daig ang pinagtiyap.

16. Kung ano ang tugtog ay siyang sayaw.

17. Ang masama sa iyo ay huwag mong gagawain sa iba.

18. Kung anong hinala ay siyang gawa.

19. Kapag maaga ang lusong ay maaga ang ahon.

20. Ang umilag sa panganib ay di karuwagang tikis.

21. Ang taong nagigipit, sa patalim ma’y nakapit.

22. Tuso man ang matsin, napaglalangan din.

[p. 23]

23. Walang masamang kanya, walang mabuting sa iba.

24. Nasa Diyos ang awa, nasa tao ang gawa.

25. Pag napipita ang darak ay mahal pa kay sa bigas.

26. Malakas ang loob, mahina ang tuhod.

27. Lumalao’y bumubuti na sama pa sa rati.

28. Ako ang nagsaing, iba ang kumain.

29. Maganda sa tingin, nakahihiring kung kanin.

30. Biru-biro kung sanglan, totoo kung tamaan.

31. Ang pili nang pili ay nakatagpo ng bungi.

32. Ang katapat ng langit ay pusali.

33. Walang matimtimang birgen sa matiyagang manalangin.

34. Walang mailap na pugo sa matiyagang magsilo.

35. Walang aayaw na dalaga sa patong-patong na dilata [de lata?].

36. Lumalakad ang kalabasa, naiiwan ang bunga.

37. Taong walang kibo, nasa loob ang kulo.

38. Ang maglakad ng matulin kung matinik ay malalim.

39. Walang mataas na bakod sa taong natatakot.

40. Ang matibay na kalooban ang lahat ay nagagampanan.

41. Kung pukulin ka ng bato, ang iganti mo’y puto.

42. Kung ano ang ginawa mo, siyang gagawain sa iyo.

43. Kung anong bukang bibig, siyang laman ng dibdib.

44. Kapag ang tubig ay malalim, ang ilog ay matining.

45. Kapag ang agos ay maingay, ang ilog ay mababaw.

46. Sa lahat ng gubat ay may ahas.

[p. 24]

47. Kapag talagang palad ay sasampa sa balikat.

48. Lumilipas ang kagandahan nguni’t hindi ang kabaitan.

49. Ang mahirap kunin ay masarap kanin.

50. Magbiro ka na sa lasing, huwag lamang sa bagong gising.

51. Ang hindi lumingon sa pinanggalingan ay hindi makararating sa paroroonan.

52. Taong hindi nakasusugat, matipid kung mangusap.

53. Sa langit lumura, sa mukha tumama.

54. Kung ano ang itinanim ay siyang aanihin.

55. Ang walang pagod magtipon, walang hinayang magtapon.

56. Ang taong nagigipit, sa patalim ma’y nakapit.

57. Malakas ang bulong sa sigaw.

58. Ang malinis na kwenta ay mahabang pagsasama.

59. Kung sino ang palasumpain ay siyang sinungaling.

60. Pag ang sakit ay malaki, ang pangako’y marami.
Kung gumaling at umigi, Diyos ma’y di masabi.

61. Walang sunog na tutong sa taong nagugutom.

62. Ang kasipagan ay kapatid ng kayamanan.

63. Pagkaraan ng ulap, lilitaw ang liwanag.

64. Sa maliit na dampa nagmumula ang dakila.

65. Kapag tinawag na utang, sapilitang babayaran.

66. Ang di marunong magbata, walang hihinting ginhawa.

67. Nakikita ang butas ng karayom nguni’t hindi nakikita ang butas ng palakol.

[p. 25]


1. Desire not what is not attainable.

2. A man without money is like a bird without feathers.

3. Bad trees produce no fruit.

4. Don’t fling up a stone, it may fall on your head.

5. Wake not those who are sleeping.

6. Lift up your eyes, and you will see the stars.

7. He carries his heart in his hands. (The pretender)

8. The poor have no nurse.

9. Let the governors govern.

10. A long tongue ought to be clipped.

11. Let him make a song or sing on (to the pretender).

12. The cries of the wretched will reach Heaven.

13. Tell a lie to find the truth.

14. The monkey, however richly dressed, is but a monkey.

15. An insult is a thorn that pierces the heart of an honorable man.

16. Sow not among the stones.

17. He who speaks with a full mouth will not be understood.

18. A house with sugar will attract ants.

19. The fruit is the deed; the flower the word.

20. If you scold me, why with so much noise?

21. Weak men, by helping aid
Of the mighty, strong are made.

[p. 26]


The people of this community during the past has some ways of measuring time which they still believe true today, although they are not as accurate as what we have at present. They are the following:

1. The first crowing of the cock in the early part of the night tells it is nine o’clock; the second crowing is midnight; the third crowing is four o’clock in the morning; and when the crowing is in rapid succession, it is already dawn.

2. When the leaves of the acacia drop down, it is two o’clock in the afternoon; when the leaves close, it is six o’clock in the afternoon.

3. When the sun is rising, it is six o’clock in the morning; when it is over our heads, it is twelve o’clock noon; and when it is setting, it is six o’clock in the afternoon.

4. The different positions of the shadows tell the different times of the day.

5. The position of the particular star at night.

6. When the flowers of the patola bloom in the morning, it is ten o’clock, and when in the afternoon, it is two o’clock in the afternoon.

7. When the owl hoots, it is five o’clock in the morning.

8. Special Calendars –
Hot Season January to March
Rainy Season May to August
Harvest Season September to October
All Saints Day November
Christmas Season December
Lent February to April
[p. 27]


N o n e

Part Three: Other Information


N o n e


N o n e




Notes and references:
Transcribed from “History and Cultural Life of the People of Malvar, Batangas,” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.
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