Calatagan, Batangas: Historical Data Part VI - Batangas History, Culture and Folklore

Calatagan, Batangas: Historical Data Part VI

Full transcription of the so-called “Historical Data” for the Municipality of Calatagan, Batangas and its barrios, the original scanned documents at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections not having OCR or optical character recognition properties. This transcription has been edited for grammar, spelling and punctuation where possible. The original pagination is provided for citation purposes.

Part VI of the Historical Data for the Municipality of Calatagan, pp. 11-20 of the Barrios section.

[p. 11]

During the Japanese occupation, typhoons frequently occurred. It only destroyed the plants and trees in the barrio.

After World War II, Typhoon Trix destroyed also plants, trees and [a] few houses in the rural areas.

Destruction of Lives, Properties, and Institutions during the War of 1896-1900


a. Some houses were destroyed by the “Casadores.”
b. Natives lost their lives due to illness and starvation.
c. Animals died.

Quilitisan - (Batalang-Bato, Carretonan and Limboc Sur)
a. Animals were left behind and died.
b. Natives died due to starvation.
c. Crops and fowls were destroyed.

a. Animals were killed due to the fight between the natives and the Spanish soldiers.
b. People died of starvation in their hiding places.

a. People died of starvation.
b. Animals and other property were ransacked by the Spanish soldiers.

Lucsuhin (Prenza, Bombon, Convetohan)
a. The church in the sitio of Conventohan was destroyed by the Casadores.
b. People died because they were zoned in the church. Others died of illness and starvation.
c. Animals and other property were killed and destroyed.

a. People died of starvation. Others died because of illness.
b. Food crops were destroyed.
c. Animals were left behind and died.

Real (Carlosa)
a. People lost their lives because of the fight between the natives and the Casadores.
b. Animals were killed by the Casadores.
c. Food crops were destroyed.

Biga (Don Luis, Paang Salwal, Calumpang, Luya, Culubot & Ermetanyo)
a. People lost their lives due to starvation and illness.
b. Animals died because they were left alone.
c. Food crops were destroyed.

Bucal (Torso & Plantacion)
a. People lost their lives due to the fight between the natives and Casadores. Others died of starvation.
b. Houses of the natives were destroyed.
c. Animals died, food crops destroyed.

a. People died of starvation.
b. Animals lost their lives.
c. Food crops were destroyed.

a. People lost their lives due to starvation. The natives fought among themselves.
b. Animals were stolen and killed for food.
c. Houses were destroyed by themselves.

a. People died of starvation. They were sent to the church in Conventohan and were not sent home.
b. Animals were left behind and died, too.
c. Food crops were stolen by the natives, others were destroyed.

[p. 12]

Destruction of Lives, Properties and Institutions during the War of 1941-1945

Balitoc (Layon, Bulihan, Gulod)
a. 18 persons were killed by the Japanese soldiers.
b. Animals such as hogs, cows and fowls were stolen by the soldiers.
c. Food crops were destroyed.

Quilitisan (Batalang-Bato, Carretonan, Limboc Sur)
a. Filipino guerrillas were killed due to the fight between the Japanese and the guerrillas. Most of these Filipinos were from Nasugbu under Commander Gacilao.
b. Animals were killed.
c. Food crops were destroyed.

Talisay (Carretonan Norte)
a. Food crops were destroyed.
b. Animals were stolen by the natives.

a. Food crops were stolen by the natives.
b. Animals were taken by the Japanese soldiers.

Lucsuhin (Prenza, Bombon, Conventohan)
a. Some natives were taken by the Japanese and killed.
b. Food crops were gotten by force by the Japanese soldiers.
c. Other properties were stolen by the natives themselves.

Bancalan (Central)
a. Some people were shot to death by the soldiers.
b. Food crops such as vegetables were stolen by the natives themselves.

a. Food crops were collected by the Japanese soldiers.
b. Houses were destroyed by the Japanese soldiers.
c. Animals were stolen by the Japanese soldiers for their food.

Real (Carlosa)
a. One person was killed by the Japanese soldier.
b. Food crops were gotten by the Japanese soldiers.
c. Hogs, chickens and cows were taken by the Japanese.

Biga (Don Luis, Paang Salwal, Luya, Culubot & Ermetanyo)
a. One died in the person of Mr. Elpido Maningat.
b. Food crops were gotten by the Japanese and natives.

Bucal (Tozo, Plantacion & Bucal)
a. Food crops were destroyed and stolen by the Japanese soldiers.
b. Animals were taken by the Japanese soldiers.

a. Food products were ransacked by the Japanese soldiers.
b. Animals were left behind and died. The natives were in their hiding places.

a. Food crops were ransacked by the Japanese soldiers.
b. Animals such as hogs, chickens and cows were stolen by the natives and Japanese soldiers.

a. Boats were destroyed by the Japanese soldiers.
b. Food was taken by the Japanese soldiers.
c. Animals were gotten, too.

Hukay (Bolbok)
a. Several persons were taken and imprisoned in the garrison and killed there.
b. Jewels were stolen by the soldiers.
c. Beddings were destroyed.
d. Animals were taken by the Japanese soldiers.
e. Food crops were destroyed.
f. Several boats were destroyed.

Measures and Accomplishments toward Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Following World War II

After World War II, many communities have greatly improved.

The town of Calatagan, which is extended to the western part of the province of Batangas, is comprised of many barrios and sitios.

[p. 13]

Balitoc is a barrio near the poblacion just a few kilometers away from it, is very rugged and its population is very small. The houses there are very few.

But after the coming of the Americans, it is greatly improved. New houses were built. A P.T.A. schoolhouse was erected. The farms are settled. And artesian wells were established. Stores became many. As a whole, the community was greatly improved.

During the coming of the Americans, a P.T.A., school building was built. Now, the school has two teachers. The community is greatly improved. The farms are settled and the crops are abundant. The people are contented and happy now.

One off the most and greatly improved barrios is Talisay. Formerly, it had only [a] one room school building with one teacher, now it is a complete elementary. The community has improved much. The farms are cultivated religiously, more crops are taken from them.

Near this place is Balibago, which was formerly poor in economic development, but now much improvement has been done. Now, and irrigation system is functioning. More fish ponds were dug out and the community has progressed economically and socially.

Lucsuhin is another barrio which is at its height now. The roads were reconstructed. [The] School population has increased, and now it is a complete elementary. A glorifying achievement of the place is the recent construction of a tennis court which beautifies the place. Now, more big stores can be seen there and many people are prospering out of their sales.

Bancalan is now in good condition. But before World War II, many lands where idle. Now, those farms are cultivated, and they are giving the people good harvests. Those fishponds alone give the people considerable income [and] aside from those ponds, the fields are now irrigated. This increased their production.

Near Bancalan is Sambungan, which was formerly and cultivated but with the coming of the Americans it has greatly improved, the idle farms are now cultivated. The roads were improved, the houses increased in number and the whole community has improved in health, economics and socially.

Real is east of Calatagan. Before the war, [it] was on progressive. It was very behind in public improvements. For many years, it remained backward in educational movements, in economic prosperity and social upliftment. After the war, it has kept itself striving for the better. It has built a school house. It started from a one-room school. Now, it has two teachers. The people have awakened to educate their children as shown by their efforts in taking the initiative of building the school house. This place has improved the roads, now passenger trucks can travel to displace carrying passengers and cargoes. The people have been beautifying their homes. Today, there are flower gardens in front and at the back of many of the homes. The people have increased the crops by tilling the unsettled lands.

A progress barrio in this town is Biga. Before the war, there was no school here. Many lands were idle. No willing hands were industrious enough to till them. Now, it is a different place. A school has been built and occupied by two teachers. Abundant crops are found in the fields. Citrus plantations occupy the fields. Rice mills are always at their full, opened in most hours of the days. Another evidence of improvement shown is the increasing number of houses here.

Bucal is a barrio near the shore. The people spend their time in the sea catching fish, while others are in their farms. As the people appeared formally, they could hardly make their living. It was difficult for them to make both ends of their lives meet. But through persistent efforts made by the people, they have progressed considerably. Now, they have their artesian well. A school building is under construction, and it will not take long before it can be occupied by the school population. It is doing well economically as shown by the number of fishponds constructed in this place. Now, there are more

[p. 14]

stores than there were before. The warehouse, the rice mills, the artesian well, the enlargement of the school building, the fish ponds, the growing number are all signs that this barrio is improving.

Baha is in the mountain. Now, the place is using the modern method of improving their farms. They are enjoying tractors to increase their production. The people have been taking advantage of educating their children. Now, they have there Grade Five and it will not be long when it will have a complete elementary. Time will come when it will be the most progressive place in Calatagan.

Talibayog is not being left behind in improvements. It is showing lots of progress. Now, one can see big houses, sugarcane plantations are wider than before, the roads are made better today than formerly. Talibayog is on the way for a better place to live in and a community to be compared to the best in this town.

Santiago is a name given to honor the cape. It is progressing. The place is suitable for fishponds. The people have taken advantage of its situation and now more fishes are found here. Coconut plantations occupy the field which are away from the shore. Today, there are new houses here, showing that the people can have a considerable sum from their labor.

Comparing Hukay with the other barrios of Calatagan, it is the youngest, it has come into existence alone only four years ago. It was formerly a part of Bucal. It was separated from Bucal for it thinks that it can stand alone. During its short span of existence, one will be surprised for its achievements as a barrio. It has a school house, now the children do not go far to acquire their education. It has fish ponds whose milk fish, shrimps, crabs and oysters are cultivated. They are sold in Manila and nearby towns. Today, there is [a] salt industry that is going on. This gives considerable income to this barrio. One will witness that the community is clean. The houses are provided with toilets and the streets and houses are clean, too. The homes have their garbage cans.

Traditions (Kinagisnang Ugali)

Mula at sapul, tayong mga nilalang ay may nagisnang ugali na bawa’t pook ay may kanya-kanyang ugali.

Sa pook na hindi kalayuan sa bayan ng Calatagan ay ito ang bukid ng Balitoc.

Ang mga tao kung umaga pagkagising, walang iinumin kundi kape at pupunta agad sa mga hayop.

Kung tag-araw naman, ang mga tao ay walang gawa, lagi na lamang sa tindahan at nag-uusap ng kung ano-anong bagay-bagay.

Kung nagkaroon sila ng karamdaman, sila ay nagpapadasal bilang pagpapasalamat sa pagkagaling.


Ever since, people have their customs and traditions.

Not far from the town of Calatagan is a place or barrio named Balitoc. Very early in the morning after waking up, they drink coffee and then they go to the field to visit their animals.

During summer, the people are doing nothing. The people always gather in a store and then talk of different topics.

When the people of the place become sick, they invite some to pray when they become well.


Ang Quilitisan ay nasa ilayang-kanluran ng Balitoc.

Ang ugali ng nayong ito ay kung umaga, ang mga tao ay nanghihilamos. Sila ay damay-damay at nagkaka-isa.

Tungkol naman sa pag-aani, sila ay sarilinan; kanyang tanim, kanyang ani.


Quilitisan, which is northwest of Balitoc, has the customs

[p. 15]

of washing the face in the morning after getting up. The people are tied, meaning the barrio folks are together for any movement.

But in harvest time, people harvest their own crops and not waiting for someone to help them.


Ang Talisay ay barrio rin [na] ang ugali ng ngayon ay hindi iiba sa Balitoc.

Sa umaga pagkagising ay umiinom ng kape at patungo na agad sa hayop.

Kung tag-araw naman, ang mga tao ay walang gawa, at sila ay naghuhunta na lamang ng kung ano-ano.

Kapag ang isang tao ay nagkasakit ng mabigat ay nagpapadasal bilang pasasalamat sa pagkagaling.


Talisay is another barrio owning customs similar to those of Balitoc.

Very early in the morning after getting up, they drink coffee and then they go to the field to visit their animals.

During summer, the people are doing nothing. The people always gather in a store and then talk of different topics. When people become sick, they invite some to pray when [they] become well.


Ang Lucsuhin ay isang bukid na ang mga tao ay napakabait. Sila ay mahihilig sa karanyaan. Sila ay masisipag at matulungin.


Lucsuhin is another barrio whose people are kind, courteous, polite, helpful and social.


Dito sa Balibago, ang ugali ng tao, kung ang mga asawa ay bagong kasal, sila ay nanganganak bilang paggalang sa mga kamag-anakan.

Kapag may baysanan, ang ama ng lalaki ay bahala sa lahat ng gastos.

(English) Here in Balibago, their customs are after the wedding. The young couple visits the houses of relatives to pay their respects.

The boys’ parents provide everything for the wedding.

Other customs are similar to those of Talisay.


Ang Bancalan ay isang pook na may ugali rin ang pook. Sa pook na ito, ang tao ay may mabait na kalooban, masisipag, at magalang.


In Bancalan, the people have their own customs. The people here are kindhearted, industrious and polite.


Ang Real ay isang barrio, may ugali rin. Ang mga tao, kung umaga pagkagising, walang iinumin kundi kape at pupunta kaagad sa mga hayop.

Kung tag-araw naman, ang mga tao ay walang gawa, lagi na lamang sa tindahan at nag-uusap ng kung ano-ano.

Kung magkaroon naman ng karamdaman, sila ay nagpapadasal bilang pasasalamat sa pagkakagaling.


Real is another barrio. Very early in the morning after getting up, they just drink coffee and then go to the field to visit their animals.

During the summer, the people are doing nothing. The people always gather in a store and then talk of different topics.

When the people of the place become sick, they invite some to pray when they become well.

[p. 16]


Biga raw ang pangalan ng barrio na may sariling ugali. Ang mga tao ay masisipag, at masayahin, may pagkakaisa at matutulungin.


Biga [is] the name of the barrio having its own customs. The people are industrious, social, united and helpful.


Ang Bukal ay isang bukid na may kanyang ugali rin at ang mga tao ay masayahin, palakaibigan, at matulungin.


Bucal has the spirit of neighborliness and kindness towards each other. The custom often referred to as “pabayanihan” is to be seen in the whole barrio gladly helping a farmer transfer his home from one field to another or to put together a modest dwelling for a newly-married couple.


Ang mga tao sa Baha ay mahusay makipagkahanggan, mabait, ang ugaling pabayanihan ay umiiral, madamayin. Sila ay masisipag at palakaibigan.


The people of Baha have the spirit of neighborliness and kindness towards each other. The custom, often referred to as “pabayanihan,” is to be seen in a whole barrio gladly helping a farmer transfer his home from one field to another or to put together a modest dwelling for a newly-married couple.

People are industrious, friendly, and helpful.


Ang Talibayog ay may ugaling katulad ng Baha. Ang mga tao ay mahusay makipagkaibigan, mabait, masipag, palakaibigan at ang ugaling pabayanihan ay umiiral sa nayon.


Talibayog has the spirit of neighborliness, kindness, industry, friendliness, and the custom often referred to as “pabayanihan” is to be seen in a whole barrio gladly helping another transfer his home from one field to another.


Ang Santiago ay may ugaling kung umaga ang mga tao ay nangunguha ng mga lamang dagat katulad ng isda at piras.

Kung nagkakaroon ng karamdaman ay sila’y nagpapadasal bilang pasasalamat.


Santiago has its custom that early in the morning after waking up, they go at once to the sea to catch fish and oysters.

When the people of the place become sick, they invite some to pray when they become well.


Ang Hukay ay isang napakabatang lugar. Ang ugali nito kung tag-ani ay sila lamang ang naani ng kanilang halaman lalo na sa palay.

At ang isa pang ugali ay kung Linggo, bata’ matanda ay nauwi ng Balayan upang mamile at magbile.


Hukay is the youngest barrio, it has come into existence alone only four years ago.

The custom of this place is during harvest time, only the owner of [the] crops can harvest.

During Sundays, people are very fond of going to Balayan to transact business.

Mga Pamahiin at Kapalakaran Tungkol sa Pagsisilang ng Sanggol at Binyag sa Bayang Calatagan [at] sa mga Nasasakupang Nayon sa Bayang Ito.

A. Pagsisilang ng Sanggol
Naging isa nang matandang kaugalian sa bayang ito sampu sa [mga] nasasakupang nayon na kapag ang isang bahay ay mayroong nagdadalang-tao, ay ipinagbabawal ang pagtatayo sa mga baytang o hagdanan o sa pintuan sa paniniwlang magdaranas ng katako-takot na hirap sa pagluluwal ng sanggol na dinadala-dala sa sinapupunan ng magsisilang ng sanggol. Ang pagsunod sa hilig ng magiging ina lalo na sa pagkain ay dapat laging pagbibigyan sa paniniwalang makukunan kundi masunod ito. Ang

[p. 17]

bagong magiging ina na magsisilang ng kauna-unahang bunga ng kanilang matamis na pag-ibig ay sa magulang niya magdaraos ng pagsisilang at ang kakaon ng hilot Ay di magpapatigil-tigil sa daan upang maging di mabagal ang pagluluwal ng sanggol.

Kung kung maka pagsilang ng sanggol ay marami pa ring pamahiing dapat sundin.
1. Ang inunan ng bata ay dapat ihukay sa di mauulanan sa dahil lang magiging ginawin at sakitin ang bata.
2. Ang kinunan ay dapat ihukay ng malalim upang di manakaw ng mga hayop. Kung ito’y mananakaw ng hayop ay magiging isang pusakal ding magnanakaw ang bata paglaki.
3. Ang pusod ay dapat itago sa mataas gaya ng palupuhan ng bahay upang di maging gala ang bata paglaki.
4. Maging kapatid ka man ng nagsilang ng sanggol, kung ikaw ay sinasapanahon ay di ka nakakadalaw sapagka’t ang nagsilang ay malalalinan o magkakaiwan.
5. Ang mga ibabalot sa bagong luwal na sanggol ay mga lumang gamit ng magulang upang maging mapagmahal sa kanila.

B. Binyag
Ang may karampatang pumili ng magiging ninang at ninong ay ang mga matatanda o mga ninuno ng bata. Sa Bayang ito ay pinag-uukulan mabuti ng pansin ang pagpapabinyag. Kahit na ang isang maralita lamang ang mag-asawa ay di titigil ng paggawa kundi maidaos ang binyagan ng sanggol. Ang mga ninuno ang siyang magsasabi ng maghahawak ng bata sa pagbibinyag at ang karaniwan na pinipili ay sa kabig ng ina ng sanggol.

Sa oras ng binyag at ang ninong o ninang ay maihan ng bata, ang ibig sabihin noon ay magkakaroon pang muli ang nag-anak ng aanakin. Ang sanggol na bininyagan ay dapat kurutin sa oras ng binyag upang umiyak ng malakas upang maging mahaba ang buhay ng bininyagan. Ang pagdadasal ng may hawak ng bata ay di dapat magpamali-mali upang maging mahina ang ulo ng batang bininyagan sa pag-aaral. Ang padrino, bukod sa hawak na bata, ay dapat din ang isang kamay ay may hawak na kandila. Ang isang nagdadalang tao ay hindi maaaring maghawak sa binyag sa paniniwalang ang may hawak ay mamamatay sa kanyang panganganak. Kung sakaling ang ninang ng sanggol ay malayo o di nga maaaring maghawak dahil sa mayroong dinadalang sanggol sa sinapupunan ay nagdaraos ng isang kaunting pagsasalu-salo na duon ang buhos tubig. Nakuha ng isang matanda at siyang magbubuhos ng tubig.

Ang ninang o ninong ng bata ay nagpapakimkim nagbibigay ng isang alaala sa inaanak. Sa oras na makabinyag, inilalagay o kaya ay bago pumasok ng simbahan upang maging mapag-alaala ang bata. Maaaring hiyas, salapi, o ibang gamitan ng bata ang ibinibigay.

A. In Giving Birth
It has been an old tradition in this town and in all its barrios that whenever there is a conceiving woman or a pregnant woman in a certain house, staying on the stairs or door is tabooed, with the belief that when somebody does so, the mother would find it difficult to give birth.

It is also the belief of the people that a conceiving women should be given all that she desires, especially when it comes to anything to be eaten [so] as not doing so would abort her.

That the first child of a woman should be born in the home of her mother and that the person requested to fetch the midwife should never stop nor attempt to talk with somebody on the way so that the mother could easily give birth.

After giving birth, there are also so many beliefs to be followed, such as:

1. The placenta of the newly born child should be buried in a place where it cannot be reached by rainwater so that the child will not be sickly when he or she grows old.
2. The placenta should be buried deep enough so that it can’t be dragged by animals. Because if this will be dragged by them, the child will be a notorious robber when he grows old.

[p. 18]

3. The navel should be well kept and tied to the rafter of the house so that the child will not be fond of roaming around or going from the home when he grows old.
4. A woman with menstruation is prohibited to visit a mother who has newly given birth for fear that the mother will suffer some stomach trouble.
5. That all the clothes or diapers to be used by a newly born child should be worn clothes of the mother or the grandmother so that when he or she grows, he will be fond of them. They will be his favorite.

B. Baptism
Another tradition and practice in this town and in all the barrios is that the grandmother or grandfather has the sole responsibility of selecting the godmother or godfather. The cold attach the greatest importance to baptism. A couple will not hesitate to live outside of wedlock but will be plagued with worry from the time their baby is born until it is baptized. The grandmother or grandfather is the one who goes to the house of the selected godmother or godfather.

In time of the baptismal ceremony, [if] the child urinates [on the sponsor], it is a sign that he will again be sponsor in the near future. The sponsor pinches the baby during the ceremony to make him cry. It is believed that a baby which cries during the rite will lead in long, prosperous life.

Another belief is that the sponsor must be careful in saying his prayers during the rite to make the child intelligent. Besides holding the baby in one arm, the sprinting sponsor must carry a lighted candle in the other hand.

The pregnant women cannot stand as a sponsor in a baptism, or else she will die at childbirth.

In case that the sponsor is a pregnant woman and the child shows signs of dying before the real baptism can take place in a church, a child of the sponsor or the husband can take her place. He pours water on the head of the baby. A party is held afterwards. This ceremony called buhos tubig is followed by the church ceremony if [the] infant survives. The idea is not to have the child died without any rite at all. Usually, an old man is asked to perform the pouring of water.

Another practice is that the sponsor is given by the parents a lechon (roasted pig) before the baptism. This practice is known as “sabit.” But this roasted pig will be divided equally. One half of the sabit will be for the sponsor, and the other share is for the parents of the child.

After the baptismal ceremony, there is a race to the church door. As soon as the church bells peal to announce the end of the ceremony, each sponsor carrying his godchild stages a race down the aisle. It is believed that the child who sponsor reaches the door force will be healthy, prosperous, and will live and enjoy a long life.

The sponsor will give a gift, either in cash or in goods to her godchild.

Here are some duties of the sponsor.

1. The sponsor becomes the second father or mother of his godchild.
2. He or she spends for the godchild’s schooling.
3. He can check the character of the child if the godchild takes the wrong spot of light.
4. [A] Godparent is obliged to pay for the funeral expenses of his godchild, no matter how rich the real parents are.
5. In marriage, he has the power also to participate in the ceremony being the second sponsor of the godchild.

Customs and Practices in Domestic and Social Life

I. Courtship
In the remote past, courtship was unheard of, as the parents of the boy and the girl arranged the union all by themselves. Usually, a girl of marriageable age would learn of her betrothal only after the parents of the boy would have been accepted by the girl’s parents. The two young persons would be tied irrevocably despite the fact that they

[p. 19]

did not love each other.

Still prevalent in this town, is the crude way of winning a girl for a wife. A young man renders service to the parents of the girl. He chops firewood, fetches water, pastures the work animals, helps in the farm, and helps in the other chores which ordinarily are done by servants. The period of servitude is indefinite, depending on the wishes of the girl’s parents. He is under [a] test. He may be dismissed anytime [if] found to be unreliable. If he passes the test, the last part of his service may be the repair of the girl’s house, a grand and compass marriage or any amount that the girl’s parents may wish.

Slight changes have been taking place since this past courtship practice. Our young boys and girls have realized that love is the cause which binds a young man and young woman in matrimony. And except in a few cases, the parents do not interfere with their daughter’s choice of a mate.

II. Marriage
In weddings performed in churches, the ceremony is pretty much the same as that seen in other churches. Soon as the couple has said their “I do’s,” they immediately attempt to step on each other’s feet. It is supposed to bring luck to the newly wedded pair and at the same time it determines who shall be the boss in the new household.

During the church rites, the groom and the bride take care of each other’s candle. It is commonly believed that the candle which light goes out first, will give [an] early death to the owner. After the church rights, either tries to leave the church ahead of the other. This is to indicate that the first to be out will dominate the other.

Before going up the girl’s house, the couple will be given something sweet to eat or drink, supposedly to give them a sweet disposition. Then, [the] husband and wife approached the girl’s parents, kneel before them to receive their blessings. The same thing happens in the groom’s house when the bride is chaperoned there. But the man is left in the girl’s house to sleep there overnight, and follow his bride the following day to start a new leaf in life.

Heading the party in the “lipatan” is a person carrying a flag to signify sweet surrender. The other members of the party left behind break pots for multiple children. All that is left of the things [such as] food, cooked and uncooked, will be divided equally as shares of both parties.

Pamahiin at Kaugalian Tungkol sa Pangliligaw at Pag-aasawa na Umiiral sa Bayan ng Calatagan Sampu ng Nasasakupang Nayon

I. Pagliligawan
Ang mga kabataan noong unang panahon ay di lubos na nakababatid ng pagliligawan, sapagka't ang kani-kanilang mga magulang ang nagsasaayos ng lahat ng bagay sa pag aasawa. Kadalasa'y pagsapit ng isang babae sa gulang ng pag-aasawa ay ipababatid na lamang ng mga magulang ng babae na siya ay kakasalin na. Ang dalawang bata ay magpapakasal na lamang at sukat kahit hindi nagkakaibigan.

Karaniwan pang pag-uugali sa bayang ito ang kakatwang pamamaraan ng pagharap ng lalaki sa babae kakasamahin niya habang buhay. Ito ay ang pagsisilbi ng lalaki sa mga magulang ng babae. Ang naninilbihan ay nagsisibak ng kahoy, umiigib, nagpapastol ng mga hayop, tumutulong sa gawain sa bukid, at sa iba’t-iba pang gawain sa bahay na karaniwang ginagampanan ng mga utusan. Ang pagsisilbi ay isang pagsubok. Ang pagsisilbi ay walang takdang panahon, ito’y nababatay sa kagustuhan ng mga magulang ng babae. Ang naninilbihan ay maaaring matagtag sa sandaling masubukang hindi siya karapat-dapat. Ang isa pang pagsubok sa lalaki ay ang hingan ito ng maringal na kasalan, pagsasaayos o pagkukumpuni ng bahay, o paghingi ng alapi na naisin ng mga magulang ng babae.

Ang pag-unlad ng karanasan, karunungan at pamumuhay ng mga mamamayan, ay nagdulot sa mga kabataan ng kaunting pagmamatuwid sa matandang kaugaliang ito. Na pagkuro ng mga kabataan na ang pag-aasawa ay kakambal ng paghanga at pag-ibig at ito naman ay binibigyang kalayaan ng karamihan sa mga magulang na umuunawa sa kani-kanilang mga anak na babae.

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II. Pag-aasawa
Ang pag-iisang dibdib sa mga simbahan sa bayang ito ay katulad rin ng karaniwang pangyayari sa mga simbahan sa lungsod. Pagkatapos ng pag-iisa sa dalawang alagad ni Kupido ay karakarakang sila ay nag-uunahan sa paglabas ng simbahan. Ang mauna ay siyang unang mababalo. Ang makayapak namang una ay siyang makapangyarihan sa kanilang pamumuhay.

Ang pag-iingat ng bawa’t isa sa ikinakasal sa kani-kanilang kandila ay isang pamahiin; na ang kanilang unang mamatay ay magdudulot ng kamatayan sa may-ari-mauna sa kabiyak ng dibdib.

Bago umakyat ang bagong kasal sa tahanan ng babae, sila’y binibigyan ng matamis na makakain o maiinom upang maging mabuti ang pagsasamahan. Sila ay luluhod at tatanggap ng bendisyon ng mga magulang at anak ng babae. Paglipat ng nobya sa bahay ng lalaki ay ganito ang mangyayari – pagtanggap ng bendisyon sa daratnang matatanda. Ang nobyo ay maiiwan at sa bahay ng nobya ang tulog. Kinabukasan pa ang sunod sa babae upang magsimula sa buhay may-asawa.

Isang tao ang may dala ng bandera ng tagumpay ang nangunguna sa lipatan. Ang maiiwan na sa bahay ng nobya ay paghahatian ang lahat ng kalabisan at maiiwan sa magulang ng nobya.

Death and Burial
No phase of man’s existence on earth is more wrapped in superstitions than death. Even the veneer of civilization has not covered the mystery and the fear surrounding man’s departure from life. Because in death, he fights an unseen and unknown power, man does not know what to make of it. He, therefore, finds a refuge from the mystery and the fear in an elaborate body of customs and superstitions, which he hopes will protect him from the wrath of his gods.

Superstitions about death are the hardest to eradicate from the face of the earth. Many persons are willing to abandon customs connected with birth or baptism or planting, adopting modern scientific methods without much of [a] struggle. But when death comes, man is once more a primitive cowering in his care [fear], anxious to be on the safe side, tripping over himself in doing those things which his forefathers had done long before him.

To many of us, the passing of a dear one is a tragic event that produces overpowering sorrow and a sense of loss. Thus, we cry, beat [our] breasts, refuse to eat or sleep. We believe in the soul, it is true, and the majority of us believe that the soul or the spirit does not die with the body but goes somewhere.

Announcement for the death by means of the church bell tolls is another custom. As soon as a person dies, the church bells are rung to announce that there is a person who died at that time. As soon as the bell stops ringing, the townspeople, especially the relatives, make a beeline for the house of the dead and give the widow or the surviving spouse a sum of money to express their condolences. But this custom of church bell tolls is not a custom to the different barrios far from the poblacion, especially in the remotest part because there is no church there where in the bells could be rung.

In the nearby barrios, including the different sitios of Calatagan, different customs are observed by the people. If a person dies, the clothes are normally changed to a new one, believing that the dead will not be acceptable in heaven if he is dirty.

Before the lapse of twenty-four hours, the dead is ready to be buried. As soon as the coffin is lifted, a piece of the bamboo flooring is removed and placed inside the coffin to be buried together with the deceased. Another is by throwing a dipper full of water in front of the stairway. This is done believing, another member of the family may follow.

Saving the Children

One of the most horrible ideas associated with death in the poblacion and the nearby barrios is that if the deceased is a mother and has left behind her several small children, she will either try to take them with her to the other world or haunt [the] until

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Notes and references:
Transcribed from “History and Cultural Life of the Municipality of Calatagan,” 1953, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.

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